The Scottish Executive commissioned this literature review. The overall aim was to provide a comprehensive summary of existing knowledge of how young carers are identified and how their needs are assessed and met. Therefore the review largely concentrated on the interaction between young carers and their families on the one hand and service agencies on the other. Understanding the needs of young carers was an important context for the review, but was not the primary focus. The specific objectives were to: • examine the ways in which young carers come to the attention of voluntary and statutory agencies, and factors inhibiting identification • identify the ways in which young carers’ needs are assessed • examine approaches to service provision by both statutory and voluntary agencies • identify approaches that are successful in meeting the social, educational and health needs of young carers • assess the results of any evaluations of the ways in which services are delivered.