Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (IWID) need intensive long-term care. Consequently, caregivers experience not only economic burdens but also tension, depression, insecurity, etc. Aim: This study aimed to provide basic data and materials for preparing policy alternatives to improve caregiver quality of life of by examining relationships between IWID caregiving burden and depression. Methods: This study involved secondary analysis of data from the 2011 Survey on the Actual Conditions of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities, conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea. Effects of caregivers’ characteristics, caregiving time and cost, and perceptions of time and cost, on depression were analyzed. Results: All components of caregiving burden and depression were significantly higher in the 1st grade, designating the most severe disabilities. Overall, caregiving burden tended to be higher in female caregivers, the unemployed, parents, co-residents, and people with health problems. Caregivers’ characteristics such as spouse relationship, having health problems, and perception of caregiving time and cost were associated with depression. Conclusion: Caregiving burden and depression vary depending on the characteristics of IWID and their caregivers. Services for decreasing caregiving burden may be optimized by focusing on these characteristics.