Objectives: With over one-fifth of the world's older population, shrinking family size and increasing number of women in the workforce, elder care is a growing challenge for families in mainland China. This study explored the moderating effect of working status and gender on caregiving time and depressive symptoms among adult children caregivers in mainland China. Method: Participants were 660 adult children caregivers from a nationally representative sample of individuals aged 45 + (N = 13,204) who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) Wave 2 (2013). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the direct effect of caregiving time and the moderating effects of working status and gender on symptoms of depression among caregivers. Results: Significant main effect between caregiving time and depressive symptoms was found controlling for demographic covariates. The three-way interaction between working status, gender and caregiving time was also significant. Working status and gender moderate the effect of caregiving time on depressive symptoms: among employed men and women caregivers, spending more hours providing care predicted fewer depression symptoms. Unemployed men caregivers who spent more hours providing care showed highest level of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The relationship between caregiving time and depressive symptoms was moderated by working status and gender. Future research is needed to explore factors that influence changes in caregivers' health and well-being over time.