Constructs from positive psychology were employed to create an explicit model of caregiver resilience. Predictive and mediating relationships among resilience and related variables (personality, coping, self-efficacy, hope, social support) were then tested for their association with burden and psychological adjustment among family members caring for relatives with severe TBI. Family participants ( n = 131) from six rehabilitation units from New South Wales and Queensland completed assessments which elicited explanatory (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire), mediating (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Herth Hope Scale, Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey), and caregiver outcome (Caregiver Burden Scale, Mental Health sub-Scale-SF36, General Health Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Affect Scale) variables. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that resilience had a direct effect on positive affect in caregivers. Resilience also played a protective role in relation to two variables associated with caregiver vulnerability: an indirect association with caregiver burden mediated through social support; a direct effect on hope, which, in turn, was associated with positive mental health. Positive mental health then played a buffering role in relation to psychological distress and negative affect. Resilience, in combination with other psychological attributes, was associated with reduced morbidity among family caregivers after severe TBI.