Objectives Previous literature has suggested that negative and positive aspects of spousal caregiving co-exist. However, positive and negative experiences were often examined independently. This study aimed to empirically test a parallel process model of spousal caregiving. Methods This cross-sectional survey of family caregiving involved 269 frail older adults living in Shanghai, China, in 2016. Quota sampling was conducted to find community-dwelling frail older adults with a primary caregiver.