Informal caregiving is linked to psychological stress. However, recent studies have suggested a protective association between informal caregiving and mortality among caregivers. We sought to test the association between caregiving and survival in the Komo-Ise study, a prospective cohort of community-dwelling residents aged 44–77 years living in two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. Caregiving status was assessed in 2000, and 8084 individuals were followed for ten years. All-cause mortality was ascertained from official registers.