Aims and Objectives: To describe the family caregivers' caregiving experience for stroke survivors and to identify the determinants of caregiving burden over 6 months.; Background: Sociocultural factors influence the caregiving experience in China. However, little is known about the dynamic changes occurring in Chinese caregivers' burden and its determinants.; Design: This is a prospective longitudinal study.; Methods: A total of 328 participants (164 stroke survivors and 164 family caregivers) from the neurological units of three hospitals in Shiyan were examined during a 6-month period at 1-2 days before discharge (T1) and 3 weeks (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) postdischarge using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Caregiver Strain Index and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression.; Results: Of the 209 dyads recruited, 164 completed all data collection phases, with 69% of the female caregivers aged 56.04 (SD = 4.0; range = 22-80) years. Caregivers reported higher mean burden at T1 (7.35 ± 2.9) but slightly decreased over time at T4 (6.34 ± 3.4), had borderline mean depressive symptoms only in T1 (9.71 ± 3.2) and T2 (9.02 ± 3.8) and had moderate mean social support throughout the 6-month period. Determinants of caregiving burden were stroke survivors' physical dependence, caregivers' age, caring hours per day, depressive symptoms and social support, which explained 46.8%-55.0% of the total variance (p < .05).; Conclusion: Caregivers' burden remains a serious problem in the first 6 months. It is an increasing hazard, especially for those at an advanced age who have depressive symptoms and care for severely dependent stroke survivors requiring more caring hours.; Relevance To Clinical Practice: Nurses need to be aware of and understand caregivers' cultural values and beliefs about family obligations when considering an intervention to support them in their role at home.; © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.