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Meta-Analysis of Caregiver-Directed Psychosocial Interventions for Schizophrenia

With the recent movement toward a personal-recovery paradigm to treat schizophrenia, the locus of mental health care delivery has shifted toward community-based care. Family caregivers comprise a substantial component of that community, and are often providing care for longer periods, but often have no formal training or support. Caregiver-directed psychosocial interventions (CDPI) have been developed to train and assist caregivers in their efforts to maximize the odds of treatment success for those in their care. This meta-analysis compared CDPI versus treatment as usual (TAU) on outcomes such as hospitalization, relapse, non-compliance, and “other outcomes” (emergency services utilization, suicide attempt, and death). A systematic literature search (2005–2015) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of outpatient administered CDPI versus TAU to treat adult patients recovering from schizophrenia. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals derived via random effects meta-analysis were calculated to compare CDPI versus TAU on the aforementioned outcomes. Eighteen of the 693 citations were retained for analysis. Overall RR for CDPI versus TAU suggested improved outcomes associated with CDPI: hospitalization [0.62 (0.46, 0.84) p < 0.00001], relapse [0.58 (0.47, 0.73) p < 0.00001] and other outcomes [0.70 (0.19, 2.57) p = 0.59]. CDPI was associated with significantly better compliance with medication and clinical activities combined [0.38 (0.19, 0.74) p = 0.005]. Medication compliance alone favored CDPI but was non-significant. Compliance with clinical activities alone favored CDPI significantly [0.22 (0.11, 0.47) p < 0.00001]. CDPI is associated with reductions in hospitalization, relapse, and treatment non-compliance.

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Key Information

Type of Reference
Jour
Type of Work
Review
Publisher
Springer Nature BV
ISBN/ISSN
00103853
Publication Year
2018
Issue Number
7
Journal Titles
Community Mental Health Journal
Volume Number
54
Start Page
983
End Page
991