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Training and carers

The following resources examine training for carers, and involvement of carers in training of care providers and others.

Click on the title of any resource to find out more about the source of the information such as the type of reference, ISBN/ISSN, publication year, keywords. A number of these fields can be used to find further resources i.e. with the same keywords, or by the same author using the links on the right-hand side and within the Key Information box.

You can also click on an author's name in the list below to find further resources by that author, and use the DOI and other links to access the original source material (note: some source materials require subscription or permission to access).
 

Family caregivers' experiences of interaction with people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia in China: A qualitative study

Aim: This study aimed to explore the experiences of family caregivers interacting with people with dementia. Background: A majority of people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia live at home with family caregivers. This interaction creates positive experiences and challenges for these caregivers. Design: Descriptive phenomenological qualitative inquiry guided this study. Methods: This qualitative study involved semi‐structured interviews with the caregivers of people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia (n = 10). Data were collected from June to September 2018, and then data were thematically analysed. Results: Six categories of themes were identified from the interviews: (1) unexpected things often happen; (2) positive coping strategies; (3) sense of accomplishment because people with dementia actively participate in activities; (4) sense of frustration because of the reluctance of people with dementia to participate in activities; (5) hope for the happiness of people with dementia; and (6) want to have their own life. Conclusions: This study reveals that caregivers could positively interact with people with dementia through creating opportunities and arranging meaningful activities. Future research should focus on family management and training on how to help caregivers interact effectively with people with dementia. 

 

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Family Caregiver Support of Patient Self-Management During Chronic, Life-Limiting Illness: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

Background: Family caregivers play an integral role in supporting patient self-management, yet how they perform this role is unclear. We conducted a qualitative metasynthesis of family caregivers' processes to support patient self-management of chronic, life-limiting illness and factors affecting their support. Methods: Methods included a systematic literature search, quality appraisal of articles, data abstraction, and data synthesis to produce novel themes. Results: Thirty articles met inclusion criteria, representing 935 international family caregivers aged 18 to 89 years caring for patients with various health conditions. Three themes characterized family caregivers' processes to support patient self-management: "Focusing on the Patient's Illness Needs," "Activating Resources to Support Oneself as the Family Caregiver," and "Supporting a Patient Living with a Chronic, Life-Limiting Illness." Factors affecting family caregivers' support included Personal Characteristics, Health Status, Resources, Environmental Characteristics, and the Health Care System. Conclusions: The family caregiver role in supporting patient self-management is multidimensional, encompassing three processes of care and influenced by multiple factors.

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Family Caregiver Needs and Preferences for Virtual Training to Manage Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Interview Study

Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are associated with increased stress, burden, and depression among family caregivers of people with dementia. STAR-Caregivers Virtual Training and Follow-up (STAR-VTF) is adapted from an evidence-based, in-person program that trains family caregivers to manage BPSD. We used a human-centered design approach to obtain feedback from family caregivers about STAR-VTF. The program will be evaluated using a pragmatic randomized trial. Objective: The objective of the study was to understand the needs of family caregivers for improving BPSD management and the extent to which caregivers perceived that STAR-VTF could address those needs. Methods: Between July and September 2019, we conducted 15 semistructured interviews with family caregivers of people with dementia who receive care at Kaiser Permanente Washington in the Seattle metropolitan area. We identified participants from electronic health records, primarily based on a prescription for antipsychotic medication for the person with dementia (a proxy for caregivers dealing with BPSD). We showed caregivers low-fidelity prototypes of STAR-VTF online self-directed materials and verbally described potential design elements. We obtained caregiver feedback on these elements, focusing on their needs and preferences and perceived barriers to using STAR-VTF. We used a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and aggregated codes to develop themes. Results: The idea of a virtual training program for learning to manage BPSD appealed to caregivers. They said health care providers did not provide adequate education in the early disease stages about the personality and behavior symptoms that can affect people with dementia. Caregivers found it unexpected and frustrating when the person with dementia began experiencing BPSD, symptoms they felt unprepared to manage. Accordingly, caregivers expressed a strong desire for the health care organization to offer programs such as STAR-VTF much sooner. Caregivers had already put considerable effort into problem solving challenging behaviors. They anticipated deriving less value from STAR-VTF at that point. Nonetheless, many were interested in the virtual aspect of the training due to the convenience of receiving help from home and the perception that help from a virtual program would be timelier than traditional service modalities (eg, face to face). Given caregivers’ limited time, they suggested dividing the STAR-VTF content into chunks to review as time permitted. Caregivers were interested in having a STAR-VTF provider for additional support in managing challenging behaviors. Caregivers reported a preference for having the same coach for the program duration. Conclusions: Caregivers we interviewed would likely accept a virtual training program such as STAR-VTF to obtain information about BPSD and receive help managing it. Family caregivers anticipated deriving more value if STAR-VTF was offered earlier in the disease course.

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A family care model for older persons with hip-fracture and cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial

Background: Dementia and hip fracture are both associated with substantial disability and mortality. However, few studies have explored the effects of intervention programs on post-operative recovery of older persons with hip fracture and cognitive impairment. To examine the effects of a family-centered care model for older persons with hip fracture and cognitive impairment and their family caregivers. Methods: Single-blinded clinical trial. A 3000-bed medical center in Taiwan. Older persons hip fracture and cognitive impairment (N = 152); 76 in the intervention group, and 76 in the usual-care control group. A family-centered care model consisting of geriatric assessment, discharge planning, in-home rehabilitation, and family caregiver-training for dementia care. Outcomes were assessed 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months following hospital discharge for older persons with hip fracture and cognitive impairment. Assessed outcomes were self-care ability (performance of activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living), nutritional status, self-rated health, health-related quality of life and self-efficacy, and competence of the family caregivers. Results: Relative to patients who received usual care, those who received the family-centered care intervention had a greater rate of improvement in self-rated health (β = 1.68, p <.05) and nutritional status (β = 0.23, p <.05), especially during the first 6 months following hospital discharge. Relative to family caregivers who received usual care, those who received family-centered care had a higher level of competence (β = 7.97, p <.01), a greater rate of improvement in competence (β = 0.57, p <.01), and a greater rate of improvement in self-efficacy (β = 0.74, p <.05) 3 months following hospital discharge. Conclusions: A family-centered care model enhanced family caregivers' self-efficacy and competence but did not improve the physical recovery of the participants with hip fracture and dementia. We suggest adding an educational component to include geriatric assessment, discharge planning, in-home rehabilitation, and family caregiver-training for dementia care and assessing family caregiver outcomes in interventions for older persons with hip fracture and cognitive impairment. Trial registration: Registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03894709) 

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Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Background: The increase in the elderly population, chronic and degenerative diseases, as well as accidents at work and on the road in Malaysia would result in an increased demand for informal care. This paper aimed to determine the associated factors of informal caregiving and its effects on health, work and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia. Methods: The data from the 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage stratified random sampling design, was used in this research. The study included respondents who were 18 years and older (n = 11,674). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results: 5.7% of the adult population were informal caregivers. Provision of informal care were significantly associated with the female sex (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.21, 1.92]), those aged 36–59 years (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.15, 2.25]), and those who reported illness in the past 2 weeks (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.33]). The risk of having their health affected were associated with female caregivers (OR = 3.63, 95% CI [1.73, 7.61]), those who received training (OR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.10, 4.00]) and those who provided care for 2 years or more (OR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.08, 3.37]). The factors associated with the effects on work were ethnicity, received training and had no assistance to provide the care. In terms of effect on social activities, female caregivers (OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.04, 3.69]) and caregivers who received training were more likely (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.22, 3.93]) to have their social activities affected. Conclusion: Our study revealed that sex, age, and self-reported illness were factors associated with being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. Informal caregivers faced effects on their health, work, and social activities which may be detrimental to their well-being. This understanding is crucial for planning support for caregivers.

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Factors associated with caring behaviors of family caregivers for patients receiving home mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy: A cross-sectional study

Background: The number of patients on home mechanical ventilation (HMV) worldwide has been steadily rising as medical technological advanced. To ensure the safety and quality care of the patients receiving HMV with tracheostomy, caring behavior of family caregivers is critical. However, studies on caring behavior of family caregivers and its associated factors were remained unexplored. This study aimed to describe the caring behaviors of family caregivers for patients receiving home mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy and to identify factors associated with their caring behaviors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study for 95 family caregivers for patients with invasive home mechanical ventilation in South Korea. Caring behaviors were assessed by the Caring Behavior Scale with 74 items with 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results: Caring behaviors score of caregivers was 304.68±31.05 out of 370. They were significantly associated with knowledge on emergency care (β = 0.22, p = .011), number of required instruments for care (β = 0.21, p = .010), frequency of home visit care (β = 0.19, p = .017), experience of emergency situation for the last six months (β = 0.19, p = .009) and activities of daily living of patient (β = 0.27, p = .002). Conclusion: Development of standardized multidisciplinary discharge education for improving the caring capacity of caregivers is required for successful and healthy application of home mechanical ventilation.

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Exploring the experiences of family caregivers with people with drug-resistant tuberculosis

Background: The South African health system faces major challenges: crumbling infrastructure, shortage of beds and health professionals, and a high burden of diseases such as Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. The emergence of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis has made matters worse, as some of the burden of care for patients was transferred from nurses at hospitals to families in communities after patient discharge. Objective: This study explores and describes experiences of family caregivers caring for family members with Drug Resistant Tuberculosis living at home. Methods: The data from purposively selected family caregivers, caring for family members living with Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, were collected through in-depth interviews using a pretested interview guide. Saturation was reached at the 11th interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, analysed using Tech’s Eight Steps for Data Analysis, and emerging themes reported. Findings: Three themes that emerged were: issues in relation to provision of care, caregiver’s attitudes towards caregiving, and community attitudes and practices towards family caregivers. The study showed that respondents experienced challenges such as buying and preparing of nutritious food, attending to hygiene needs and management of treatment of side effects. Poverty, finance and time were barriers to caregiving roles. Participants experienced physical and psychological exhaustion, social exclusion, and stigmatisation. Conclusions: There is a need to increase coverage of the Ward-Based Outreach Teams and Community Healthcare Workers, and intensification of TB and HIV/AIDS health education in communities. Training and education on infection control, palliative treatment, and home-based medical care should be provided to families before a patient is discharged. Stakeholder relations need to be improved and collaboration fostered. 

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Evaluation of AID-COM, a communication-focused program for family carers of people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease: A pilot study (innovative practice)

Background: Families providing care to relatives with Alzheimer's disease are quickly destabilized by changes that disrupt communication. Methods: This pilot mixed-design study aimed to provide a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a communication-based training program for carers of people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Five participants received three training sessions. The use of communication strategies by participants and their effectiveness were evaluated before and after the training, and a focus group was conducted to gather participants' impressions about the impacts of the training on communication with the person they cared for. Conclusions: The AID-COM (AID for COMmunication) program appears to have met expectations.

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Evaluating the effectiveness of the Family Connections program for caregivers of youth with mental health challenges, part II: A qualitative analysis

Background: The Family Connections™ (FC) program is a 12‐week support and skill‐training program for caregivers of youth with mental health challenges. The intervention was originally developed with a focus on borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is important to understand the experiences of caregivers in such interventions, as well as its applicability beyond BPD, for the purposes of evaluation and ongoing program improvement. Objective: To explore and analyse the experiences of caregivers of youth with diverse mental health challenges and who participated in FC. Design: Semi‐structured interviews with thirteen FC‐participating caregivers of youth with mental health challenges. Results: Thematic analysis uncovered three major themes regarding caregivers' experience with FC: (a) FC increased the caregivers' ability to manage their youth's mental health challenges; (b) participating in FC impacted their intra‐ and interpersonal spheres; and (c) improvements to the program were proposed. Following participation in FC, caregivers felt they learned a new approach to understanding themselves, their youth and mental health, and were better able to manage their youth's mental health challenges. Discussion and conclusion: FC is a promising intervention for caregivers of youth with mental health challenges, beyond the traditional BPD focus. The intervention has the potential to provide broad‐based benefits for caregivers and should be considered for implementation and scale‐up across youth‐ and caregiver‐serving organizations. Potential areas of intervention flexibility and improvement are discussed. Patient/public contribution: Caregivers were involved in the program development and facilitation of FC. A person with lived experience was involved with the analysis.

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Evaluating the effectiveness of the Family Connections program for caregivers of youth with mental health challenges, part I: A quantitative analysis

Introduction: Caregivers of youth with mental health (MH) challenges are often faced with complex problems in relation to caring for their youth. Family Connections™ (FC) is a 12‐week skills training program for families of individuals with MH challenges, developed originally for Borderline Personality Disorder. Research is needed to examine the effectiveness of FC for caregivers of youth with diverse MH challenges. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of FC for caregivers of youth with MH challenges. Methods: A total of 94 caregivers of youth with MH challenges participated in FC, across three sites in Ontario, Canada. Assessments occurred at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and follow‐up. Primary outcomes include the Burden Assessment Scale and The Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Secondary outcomes included the caregiver's report of child behaviour, affect, mastery, coping and grief. Linear mixed model analyses were conducted, where time and the time × site interaction were defined as the fixed effects. Results: Statistically significant improvements over time were observed across outcome measures, including caregiver burden, grief, coping, and other measures. The time × site interaction was only significant for burden (P = .005). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of FC for caregivers of youth with MH challenges. Future research should focus on differences across geographical sites and facilitation models. Patient or public contribution: Caregivers were involved in the facilitation of FC. A person with lived experience was involved in analysing the data, reporting the results, and drafting the manuscript.

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Evaluating service user & carer experience of videoconferencing software during COVID-19 pandemic

Aims: To evaluate service user and carer experience of use of videoconferencing software (Microsoft Teams) during MDT meetings. To identify specific areas for improvement. To make changes based on these recommendations. Method: 2 surveys were distributed to inpatients and their carers on a functional Older Adults inpatient ward (n = 21), including quantitative and qualitiative questions. The results from these were compiled, and on review, mutliple recommendations for improvement were made. Result: 90% of service users find it helpful to have family present over video conferencing software during their MDT meetings, and 91% of carers feel involved and able to contribute when they do join in this way. 81% of carers have the technology available at home to use such software, but only 55% of them feel confident using it. 73% need more information on its use. 60% of carers referenced poor staff skills with software as a barrier to its use, and 60% referenced poor organisation of meetings. 2 service users raised issue with the size of a small laptop screen not allowing them to see who was actually present over MS Teams, although none were concerned with issues around confidentiality and the use of such softwareSeveral service users, carers and members of community teams identified poor sound quality as an issue, both when joining over the software, and when present in the room. Conclusion: Widespread use of videoconferencing software such as MS Teams is likely to continue beyond the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through discussion with the ward team, the IT department, the training department, and the local council, multiple changes were made to the service, as below. These form a recommended list of areas for improvement in other services. Availability of videoconferencing equipment (in addition to laptop), dedicated videoconferencing microphone/speaker to improve sound quality, display screen, webcam, organisation of meetings, designating a chairperson to admit and introduce all participants, designating a meeting organiser to invite all necessary participants, staff skills, local audit of staff familiarity with software, introduction of mandatory training for staff on use of software, carer skills & access to equipment, information and support available from well-trained staf, liaison with other organisations including council and third sector about availablity of equipment loans and training for carers

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Empowering Families to Take on a Primary Caregiver Role for Patients with Cancer in India: Promising Strategies, Persistent Challenges, and Tradeoffs (SCI928)

Objectives: 1. Identify the challenges and trade-offs for family members assuming a primary caregiving role to patients with cancer nearing the end of life in India. 2. Consider strategies for supporting family members assuming a primary palliative caregiving role in India. Background As the population on the Indian subcontinent is aging, so too is the incidence of cancer and the need for access to palliative care. Research Objectives Identify provider perspectives on empowering patient family members to assume a palliative caregiving role. Methods: This is a secondary analysis from the PC-PAICE (Palliative Care- Promoting Access & International Cancer Experience) study where we captured the perspectives of 44 interdisciplinary providers from 7 geographically diverse palliative care sites throughout India using a semi-structured interview guide. We identified emergent themes using qualitative content analysis methods with team consensus. Results: Theme 1: Challenge: Cultural beliefs exist that handing off or sharing any primary caregiving is a "sin" and "if they don't take care of the patient then they have done some mistake." Theme 2: Trade-off: Caregivers are overwhelmed with navigating the expectation to take on the caregiver role, when they feasibly cannot, given financial and time constraints. Theme 3: Strategies: Facilitate caregiver buy-in to the idea of palliative care includes linking caregivers to financial resources (e.g. NGO sponsored income-earning opportunities "conduct rehabilitation camps where they teach the patient or the family to make some products"), connecting caregivers to mental health support, and working with caregivers in accommodating other constraints. Conclusion: In India, family members are already primed with the expectation to assume the role of palliative caregiver; this expectation in the face of financial constraints creates a challenging situation for caregivers. Implications for Research, Policy, or Practice: Striking the right balance of what family caregivers in India take on requires acknowledging the trade-offs they might make in other parts of their lives, empowering them through training and linkage to resources, and facilitating a cultural shift to accept palliative care or help from others. Future work should explore these provider themes in interviews with caregivers and patients themselves.

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Effects of family participatory dignity therapy on the psychological well-being and family function of patients with haematologic malignancies and their family caregivers: A randomised controlled trial

Background: Strong family ties appear to buffer patient's and family members' difficult experiences during life and health crises. The family participatory dignity therapy programme, a patient-family-centred psychological intervention, was developed based on dignity therapy and performed by one therapist in the form of interview according to a specific question prompt. This study aimed to confirm the efficacy of the family participatory dignity therapy programme in improving the psychological well-being and family cohesion and adaptability of patients with haematologic malignancies and their family caregivers. Method: A single-blinded, two-arm parallel group, randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participants: Participants were patient-family caregiver dyads recruited from Fujian Medical University Union Hospital from March to September 2019. A total of 68 eligible dyads agreed to participate and were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 33) or control group receiving usual care (n = 35). Each pair of patient-family dyads in the intervention group received two or three interviews (each interview approximately lasting 45 to 60 min) performed by one therapist according to a specific question prompt containing 10 questions for patients and 10 corresponding questions for their family caregivers. To evaluate the effects of the intervention, we assessed patients' hope, spiritual well-being, and family cohesion and adaptability, as well as their family caregivers' depression, anxiety, and family cohesion and adaptability at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), 4 weeks (T2), and 8 weeks post-intervention (T3) and compared the scores between the groups. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the effects of time, group, and their interaction. Results: For patients, there was a significant difference in hope (p = 0.001), spiritual well-being (p = 0.002), and family cohesion (p <0.001) and adaptability (p <0.001) between the intervention and control groups. The difference over time was also significant in family cohesion (p = 0.018) and adaptability (p = 0.003). The interaction effects were significant for hope (p = 0.034), spiritual well-being (p <0.001), and family cohesion (p <0.001) and adaptability (p <0.001). For family caregivers, there was a significant difference in anxiety (p = 0.037), depression (p = 0.001), and family adaptability (p = 0.036) between the intervention and control groups. Within groups, a significant difference in family adaptability (p = 0.012) was found. Moreover, the interaction effects were significant on anxiety (p = 0.001) and family cohesion (p = 0.038). Conclusions: The family participatory dignity therapy programme showed a positive effect on promoting patients' hope, spiritual well-being, and family cohesion and adaptability; amongst family caregivers, it decreased anxiety and depression, and enhanced family cohesion and adaptability. 

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Effects of an educational peer-group intervention on knowledge about dementia among family caregivers with a Turkish or Moroccan immigrant background: A cluster randomised controlled trial

Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of an educational peer-group intervention on knowledge about dementia, perceived ability to talk about it, received support and self-perceived pressure from informal care among family caregivers with a Turkish or Moroccan immigrant background who cared for a person with dementia. Methods: This paper is based on a cluster randomised controlled trial with three measures, including participants who knew or cared for a person with dementia. For the purpose of this study, a selection was made of participants who cared for a person with dementia. Knowledge about dementia, perceived ability to talk about dementia, support received and self-perceived pressure from informal care were assessed inthe intervention and the control condition. Multi-level analyses were conducted to examine the effects. Results: Data for 386 participants was analysed. Improvement in knowledge about dementia over time was significantly greater in the intervention condition than in the control condition. In the intervention condition, there was also a significant increase over time in the support received from home-care staff, which was not found in the control condition. No effects were found on other types of support received, the ability to talk about dementia or the self-perceived pressure from informal care. Conclusion: Offering a culturally sensitive educational peer-group education intervention enhances knowledge about dementia and has a small but positive effect on the support received from home-care staff in these groups. Practice Implications: Offering peer-group-based education about dementia to family caregivers with Turkish or Moroccan immigrant backgrounds is important for multicultural dementia care. 

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The effects of a psychosocial support program on perceived stress of family caregivers of patients with mental disorders

Background: Taking caring of patients with mental disorders is stressful and people who take care of these patients need to receive enough support and training to overcome this challenging situation. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a psychosocial support program on perceived stress of family caregivers of patients with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 64 family caregivers of patients with mental disorders referred to Noor and Hazrat-e-Ali Asghar hospital in Isfahan, Iran, in 2018-19. The participants were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups using a random number table. In the intervention group, the training program was held in 6 sessions of 90-minute training classes twice a week. Data were collected using a demographic characteristics form and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data in SPSS software. Results: The result of the study showed that the total mean score of perceived stress in the intervention group was significantly less than the control group immediately after (F2=66.29, p<0.001) and 1 month after the intervention (F2=66.29, p<0.001). Conclusions: Delivering a training program on the different dimensions of support family caregivers need will reduce the perceived stress of family caregivers of patients with mental disorders. Therefore, the implementation of this intervention is recommended in this group of caregivers. 

 

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The effects of a multidisciplinary supportive program on caregiver burden among the family caregivers of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled field trial

Background & Objective: The family caregivers of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience heavy caregiver burden (CB). This study investigated the effects of a multidisciplinary supportive program on CB in the family caregivers of patients with advanced COPD. Materials & Methods: This randomized field trial was conducted in the pulmonary subspecialty clinic of Birjand University of Medical Sciences, in 2019. In the present study, 92 eligible family caregivers of COPD patients were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. The study intervention included eight sessions. Three educational sessions on COPD were held by a pulmonary disease specialist and an experienced nurse in COPD care, two educational sessions were held on coping strategies by a psychiatric nurse and three peer support sessions. CB was assessed before, immediately after and two months after the study intervention. SPSS (v. 21.0) was used for data analysis. Results: CB significantly decreased in the intervention group (P=0.01). It did not change significantly in the control group (P=0.63). Between-group differences, with respect to the mean score of CB at the baseline (P=0.66) and the first posttest (P=0.72) were not significant. The mean score of CB in the second posttest was significantly lower in the intervention group, compared to the control group (P=0.007). Conclusion: Multidisciplinary supportive program is effective in reducing CB among the family caregivers of patients with advanced COPD. © 2021, This is an original open-access.

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The effectiveness of ROM (Range of Motion) mobilization education on informal caregivers of stroke patients in the inpatient room

Introduction: Stroke is a neurologically deficit acute disease attributable to a focal vascular cause and is one of the leading causes of disability and death. Disability caused by stroke has a major impact on the family members as their formal caregivers, who in turn have to provide the treatment and care with sufficient knowledge. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education on ROM (Range of Motion) mobilization techniques to the informal caregivers on stroke patients in the care room of RUSD Dr. Soekardjo, Tasikmalaya. Methods: This is a quantitative study and analysis was carried out using non parametric Wilcoxon tTest. The total sample for this study was 27 respondents and were selected by convenience technique. Result: The result revealed a significant difference in the mean value on the study of ROM mobilization education on caregivers before and after the intervention (p-value<0.05). Conclusion: Family caregivers should seek more information on managing stroke using mainly non-pharmacological components on stroke patients in order to minimize stroke reoccurrence and also to prevent further complications. 

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Effectiveness of dyadic psychoeducational intervention for stroke survivors and family caregivers on functional and psychosocial health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objectives: Stroke is the third leading cause of disability worldwide, influencing the whole family's health and well-being. Dyadic (i.e., stroke survivor and family caregiver) psychoeducational intervention is a potential alternative to disease management and support, targeting at the dyads of stroke survivors and their caregivers as active participants in partnership. This review aimed to evaluate the current evidence on supporting the dyadic psychoeducational intervention for the functional and psychosocial health of stroke survivors' and their family caregivers. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis Data sources: Nine English databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, PubMed, Web of Science and Digital Dissertation Consortium) and two Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang) were searched to identify eligible studies published from their inception to April 2020. Additional relevant studies were identified from the reference lists and bibliographies of the identified articles and a manual search of relevant journals. Review methods: Studies were searched using keywords based on the 'PICOS' framework. The eligibility of individual full-text articles was independently assessed by two reviewers in accordance with the selection criteria. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using Cochrane RoB 2.0. The main outcomes were subjected to meta-analysis whenever possible; otherwise, narrative syntheses were conducted. Results: Eleven studies with 1769 stroke survivors and 1578 family caregivers were identified. The meta-analysis of pooled data suggested that the dyadic psychoeducational intervention had a significant immediate (<1 month) effect on family caregivers' burden (SMD = −0.25, 95% CI: −0.50 to −0.01, p = 0.04) and a long-term (≥6 months) effect on survivors' quality of life (SMD = −0.30, 95% CI: −0.53 to −0.07, p = 0.01). Subgroup pooled analyses indicated that the interventions initiated in hospitals could significantly improve the survivors' functional independence immediately after intervention (SMD = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.72, p = 0.01). Conversely, the interventions initiated at home did not significantly affect this functional outcome. Conclusions: This review supports the notion that the dyadic psychoeducational intervention can be effective in improving the stroke survivors' functional independence and their family caregivers' burden for a short period and the survivors' quality of life in the long run. However, its effectiveness is not conclusive because other psychosocial health outcomes for the stroke survivors and their family caregivers have not yet been found to significantly improve after intervention. Therefore, further large-scale randomised controlled trials with a high-quality design are warranted to evaluate their effectiveness in diverse functional and psychosocial health outcomes for stroke survivors and their family caregivers.

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Effectiveness of an integrated multidisciplinary geriatric rehabilitation programme for older persons with stroke: a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Background: Almost half of the stroke patients admitted to geriatric rehabilitation has persisting problems after discharge. Currently, there is no evidence based geriatric rehabilitation programme available for older stroke patients, combining inpatient rehabilitation with adequate ambulatory aftercare in the community. Therefore, we developed an integrated multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme that includes aftercare for older persons with stroke. We evaluated the effectiveness of this newly developed rehabilitation programme in comparison to usual care. Methods: A multicentre randomised controlled trial was conducted in eight geriatric rehabilitation stroke units and their collaborating partners in primary care. The study population involved stroke patients and their informal caregivers who were aged 65 or over, living in the community before admission to geriatric rehabilitation, and expected to be able to return home after discharge. The programme consisted of three modules: inpatient neurorehabilitation, home-based self-management training, and stroke education. For patients, daily activity (FAI) was assessed as primary outcome and functional dependence (Katz-15), perceived quality of life (SSQoL) and social participation (IPA) as secondary outcomes. Additionally, among informal caregivers perceived care burden (self-rated burden VAS), objective care burden (Erasmus iBMG), and quality of life (CarerQol), were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results: In total 190 patients and 172 informal caregivers were included. Mean age of the patients in the intervention group was 78.9 years (SD = 7.0) and in the usual care group 79.0 years (SD = 6.5). Significant favourable effects for the programme were observed for the subscale autonomy outdoors of the IPA (− 2.15, P = .047, and for the informal caregivers perceived care burden (1.23, P = .048. For the primary outcome daily activity and the other secondary outcomes, no significant effects were observed. Conclusion: The integrated multidisciplinary programme had no effect on daily activity of older stroke patients. However, patients participating in the programme had a higher level of perceived autonomy of outdoor activities and their informal caregivers perceived a lower care burden. The programme might be promising in providing adequate (after) care, although adaptation of the programme is recommended to increase its feasibility and improve its effects. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62286281. Registered 19-3-2010.

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The effect of the virtual social network-based psycho-education on the hope of family caregivers of clients with severe mental disorders

Background: Psycho-education may have a positive effect on family caregivers of clients with mental disorders, and promote positive psychological states such as hope. The present study aims to investigate the effect of virtual social network-based psycho-education on the hope of family caregivers of clients with severe mental disorders. Method: This study is a quasi-experimental research with a control and experimental groups. The participants of the study were 72 family caregivers of clients with severe mental disorders (36 in each group). Data were collected using demographic questionnaire and Adult Hope Scale before the study, immediately after the end of the training (first post-test), and 4 weeks afterwards (second post-test). The experimental group received psycho-education through Telegram App for four weeks. Results: The results of the demographic questionnaire showed that both groups were homogeneous. The results of the Adult Hope Scale indicated that the mean score of both control and experimental groups were statistically significant and increased in the experimental group (P < 0.001). In addition, the changes of hope score in the experimental group were statistically significant in the first post-test than the pre-test, and in the second post-test than the first post-test and pre-test (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggested that virtual social network-based psycho-education promotes the hopes of the family caregivers of clients with severe mental disorders. Due to the low cost and fast access of people to virtual networks, the content of this educational program can be widely used for family caregivers. 

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Effect of Exercise Training on the Mental and Physical Well-Being of Caregivers for Persons Living With Chronic Illnesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Increased demands associated with caregiving may lead to deleterious physical and mental health outcomes. Caregiving has proven to have consequences that affect both physical and psychological well-being. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of exercise training on the mental and physical health of caregivers for persons living with chronic illnesses. Methods: A systematic review following the Prisma methodology was performed searching eight databases. Thirteen out of 1,632 screened studies were included for analysis. Results: The standardized mean difference was used as the effect size (ES) and was calculated such that a positive ES indicated efficacy of exercise training for improving health. Overall, the meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant and small-to-medium ES (overall ES = 0.30; 95% confidence interval = [0.08, 0.52]; p =.007). Conclusions: Our analysis supports exercise training to improve the mental and physical health of family caregivers of persons living with chronic illnesses.

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Effect of an Educational Support Programme on Caregiver Burden Among the Family Members of Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

Objectives: The family caregivers of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery experience considerable physical and emotional distress. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an educational support programme on caregiver burden among the family caregivers of patients undergoing CABG surgery in Iran. Methods: This non-randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted from January to April 2017 at a cardiovascular centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 80 family caregivers of patients undergoing CABG surgery were sequentially selected and non-randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received routine care, whereas the intervention group received additional education sessions at baseline, prior to surgery, the day after surgery and before discharge. Caregiver burden was compared at baseline and six weeks post-discharge using the Persian-language versions of the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Results: A significant difference was observed between family caregivers in the control and intervention groups with regards to pre-post differences in mean CBI scores (+1.67 ± 19.23 versus +17.45 ± 9.83; P <0.001), with an effect size of −1.14. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean post-discharge IADL scores among CABG patients in the intervention group compared to the control group (4.42 ± 1.05 versus 3.07 ± 1.09; P <0.001). Conclusion: An educational support programme significantly reduced caregiver burden among the family members of patients undergoing CABG surgery in Iran. As such, in addition to routine care, healthcare providers should provide educational support to this population to help mitigate caregiver burden. 

 

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Effect of an Educational Intervention for Family Caregivers of Individuals with Cancer in Surgery

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on family caregivers of adults with cancer who are in the postoperative period of oncological surgery, to strengthen the competence of home care and reduce overload. Method: This was a quasi-experimental quantitative approach with intervention group and control group; 290 family caregivers of patients undergoing surgery were included, educational intervention was applied from admission to six weeks after discharge, measurement was made before and after competence for home care and care overload. Results: In the group intervened, a positive and statistically significant impact was obtained in the competence for home care and decreased overload. Conclusions: The educational intervention is a strategy that increases skills for care at home, and reduces the burden on caregivers of people with cancer undergoing surgery.

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The effect of a multimodal comprehensive care methodology for family caregivers of people with dementia

Background: Caregivers experience social, physical and psychological burdens in caring for people with dementia. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme for the family caregivers of people with dementia. Methods: This research was an intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design. A total of 148 family caregivers of people with dementia participated in a multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme for 6 hours (three times for 2 hours) in 3 months, which was followed by weekly delivery of information via postcard. The care burden of the caregivers was evaluated by the Japanese short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (J-ZBI) before the training, 1 month post-training and 3 months post-training (primary outcome). Each caregiver assessed the symptoms of the people with dementia for whom they provided care with the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease (Behave-AD) (secondary outcome). Results: A total of 117 family caregivers (79%) were assessed 3 months after training. Over the course of the programme, the care burden significantly decreased from pre-training to 3 months post-training (P < 0.001). The mean care burden scores before, 1 month after, and 3 months after the intervention were 13.3, 10.9 and 10.6, respectively. The mean Behave-AD score of 101 people with dementia (68%) 3 months post-training was lower than that at pre-training, but the difference was not statistically significant (from 13.6 to 11.8, P = 0.005). Conclusions: The multimodal comprehensive care methodology training was associated with a reduction in the care burden of family caregivers. These findings suggest that randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), UMIN000043245. 

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The Educational Needs of Family of Patients Discharged from the Intensive Care Units: The Viewpoints of Nurses and the Patients' Families

Background: Thousands of patients are admitted to the intensive care units annually, which are stressful for patients and their families. The discharged patients and their families face different challenges in the caring process of the patients. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the educational needs of the families of patients discharged directly home from the postintensive care units and to compare the views of families and nurses about these needs. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred forty nurses and 140 family members of the patients discharged from intensive care units participated in the survey by convenience sampling method. A questionnaire of sociodemographic information and a researcher-made questionnaire on the educational needs of the family of patients discharged from the postintensive care units were used for data collection. Results: The mean total score of the educational needs of the patients’ families was 31.81 and 35.33 from views of families and nurses, respectively. Nurses significantly estimated the educational needs of families more than what they did (). The families and nurses reported the educational needs of self-care as well as nutrition and medicine at the highest level, respectively. Both groups reported the educational needs of defecation at the lowest level. Nurses estimated higher educational needs in all dimensions, except for the patient’s mental health and family self-care than families ().  Conclusion: According to the present study, the educational needs were high from the views of nurses and families. Family need assessment is essential in designing and applying instructional interventions. Given the high level of family needs, implementing educational and practical interventions is necessary to enhance their skills.

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Dravet Syndrome—The Polish Family’s Perspective Study

Aim: The aim of the paper is to study the prevalence of Dravet Syndrome (DS) in the Polish population and indicate different factors other than seizures reducing the quality of life in such patients. Method: A survey was conducted among caregivers of patients with DS by the members of the Polish support group of the Association for People with Severe Refractory Epilepsy DRAVET.PL. It included their experience of the diagnosis, seizures, and treatment-related adverse effects. The caregivers also completed the PedsQL survey, which showed the most important problems. The survey received 55 responses from caregivers of patients with DS (aged 2–25 years). Results: Prior to the diagnosis of DS, 85% of patients presented with status epilepticus lasting more than 30 min, and the frequency of seizures (mostly tonic-clonic or hemiconvulsions) ranged from 2 per week to hundreds per day. After the diagnosis of DS, patients remained on polytherapy (drugs recommended in DS). Before diagnosis, some of them had been on sodium channel blockers. Most patients experienced many adverse effects, including aggression and loss of appetite. The frequency of adverse effects was related to the number of drugs used in this therapy, which had an impact on the results of the PedsQL form, particularly in terms of the physical and social spheres. Intensive care unit stays due to severe status epilepticus also had an influence on the results of the PedsQL form. Conclusions: Families must be counseled on non-pharmacologic strategies to reduce seizure risk, including avoidance of triggers that commonly induce seizures (including hyperthermia, flashing lights and patterns, sleep abnormalities). In addition to addressing seizures, holistic care for a patient with Dravet syndrome must involve a multidisciplinary team that includes specialists in physical, occupational and speech therapy, neuropsychology, social work.

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Development and psychometric testing of the Spanish version of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale

Aim: To psychometrically test the Spanish version of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale (CPS) and document the preparedness level of caregivers. Design: A descriptive and validation study.MethodPurposive sampling method was used to select 171 family caregivers Spain. The scale was cross‐culturally adapted through a process that included translation, comparison with versions in other languages and back‐translation, review, pre‐testing and validity, and reliability tests. Results: The Spanish family caregivers are mainly female (79%) and married (75%). The Spanish version of the CPS presents changes with respect to the original. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the single‐factor model. Analysis of internal consistency yielded a Cronbach's α of 0.89. Significant correlations (p < .01) with other scales supported convergent validity. A descriptive analysis of the validated scale showed average levels of preparation (2.16 out of 4). Caregivers felt better prepared to attend to the patient's physical needs than emotional or spiritual needs.

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Delirium-Related Knowledge, Caregiving Performance, Stress Levels, and Mental Health of Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients with Delirium in a Hospice Care Unit

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, caregiving performance, stress levels, and mental health of family caregivers of terminal cancer patients with delirium, insofar as these characteristics are relevant for delirium. Methods: Between May 1, 2019, and June 1, 2020, 96 family caregivers of terminal cancer patients with delirium completed a structured survey, the results of which were analyzed. Results: The average correct answer rate for delirium-related knowledge was 53.2% across all subcategories, which included knowledge of causes (41.5%), symptoms (65.4%), and caregiving (51.7%). The average score for family caregivers' performance of caregiving for delirium was 2.60 ±0.5, with subcategories including caregiving for patients without delirium (2.16±0.95), caregiving for patients with delirium (2.84±1.01), and stress related to caregiving for delirium (39.88±16.55), as well as categories such as patient-related caregiving (44.32±28.98), duty-related caregiving (44.21±30.15), and interpersonal relationship-related caregiving (22.35±25.03). For mental health, the average score among family caregivers was 1.96± 0.70, with the highest score being for the category of additional items (2.28±0.84). Family caregivers of patients with hyperactive delirium as the delirium subtype had higher scores for caregiving performance than caregivers of patients with mixed delirium. Conclusion: Scores for the delirium-related knowledge and caregiving performance of family caregivers were low, while their caregiving stress levels were high due to their lack of knowledge and experience. This indicates the importance of delirium-related education for family members of patients with delirium and the necessity of developing nursing intervention programs to help manage stress and promote mental health among family caregivers.

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The Decision-Making Experiences of Caregivers Regarding Feeding Tube Placement in Community-Dwelling Adults: A Descriptive Phenomenological Study

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube placement is multifactorial and considered a lifesaving mechanism, which leads to a host of thoughts and feelings that affect the decision-making experience. As people live longer and the population ages, these decisions often involve the caregivers who have their own experience and therefore can result in caregiver burden and anxiety. Methods: A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted to describe and understand the caregiver's decision-making experience regarding percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube placement in community-dwelling adults. Edmund Husserl's philosophical underpinnings were utilized in conjunction with Colaizzi's (1978) method of data analysis to maintain the rigor of the study. Sixteen adult caregivers of patients from six rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was conducted. Findings: The study results yield four main themes: "Survival... that was the determining factor"; "The doctor decided"; "More education... just make sure they understand"; and "It makes me very scared." Implications for practice, policy, and future research are thoroughly discussed.

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Dealing With the Unthinkable: Bladder and Colorectal Cancer Patients’ and Informal Caregivers’ Unmet Needs and Challenges in Life After Ostomies

Objectives: We examined patient and informal caregiver unmet needs to identify areas for targeted supportive care interventions and programs to enhance both patient and informal caregiver experience. Data Sources: A total of 30 patients who underwent ostomy surgeries for bladder or colorectal cancers and 13 informal caregivers participated in the study. Patients were enrolled at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai between 2017 and 2018. Qualitative data were collected by individual interviews, audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcribed data were iteratively analyzed using Atlas.ti to explore patient and caregiver unmet needs. Results: Patients and informal caregivers reported having insufficient psychological preparation for ostomy surgeries, and very limited hands-on training on stoma care and utility of stomal appliances. Unmet psychological needs related to depression, anxiety, and distress caused by changes in body image and sexual, urinary, and bowel function were reported. Patients and caregivers also reported significant patient medical needs in the acute postoperative period including pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, inflammation, and complications resulting in hospital readmissions. Colorectal cancer patients specifically experienced significant challenges with changes in diet and nutrition that contributed to ostomy care burden. Both patients and caregivers recommended seeking psychological and social support to enhance both patient and caregiver emotional adjustment to life after ostomies. Conclusion: Meeting patient and informal caregiver unmet informational and supportive care needs is imperative to improve their quality of life and adjustment. Implications for Nursing Practice: An effective supportive care plan should be designed and utilized in clinical care to improve ostomy patients’ and caregivers’ outcomes. 

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Covid-19 vaccine literacy of family carers for their older parents in Japan

Background: In super-ageing Japan, COVID-19 vaccinations were starting to reach older people as of June 2021, which raises the issue of vaccine literacy. This study focuses on family members who work and also care for their older parents, as they are at risk of COVID-19 and also risk transmitting COVID-19 to the parents they care for and potentially influencing their parents’ vaccine uptake. Such family carers are central to the approach in Japan to achieving a sustainable and resilient society in response to ageing. Contrasting family carers’ COVID-19 vaccine literacy with their overall health literacy provides insights into their preparedness for COVID-19 vaccinations. The purpose of this study is to understand how vaccine literacy, compared to health literacy, varies across family carers and the sources of information they use. Methods: Through a cross-sectional online survey, family carers’ vaccine literacy, health literacy and their sources of information, including mass media, social media, health and care professionals, family, colleagues, friends, and others, were assessed. The participants’ (n = 292) mean age was 53, with 44% women, and an average of 8.3 h per week caring for their parents. Results: Notwithstanding the increased risks from COVID-19 with age, COVID-19 vaccine literacy relative to health literacy for older family carers is lower on average, higher with increased provision of care, and more variable, resulting in a substantial proportion of older family carers with relatively low vaccine literacy. Conclusions: At this stage of vaccine rollout in Japan, family carers’ sources of information to inform COVID-19 vaccine literacy is distinct, including more national and local mass media versus less health and care professionals and informal networks, which indicates the importance of tailored health communication strategies to enhance vaccine literacy. 

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COVID-19 and Long-Term Care: the Essential Role of Family Caregivers

Background: Those most at risk from severe COVID-19 infection are older adults; therefore, long-term care (LTC) facilities closed their doors to visitors and family caregivers (FCGs) during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The most common chronic health condition among LTC residents is dementia, and persons living with dementia (PLWD) rely on FCGs to maintain their care provision. This study aims to evaluate the impact of visitor restrictions and resulting loss of FCGs providing in-person care to PLWD in LTC during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: An online survey and follow-up focus groups were conducted June to September 2020 (n=70). Mixed quantitative (descriptive statistics) and qualitative (thematic analysis) methods were used to evaluate study data. Results: FCGs were unable to provide in-person care and while alternative communication methods were offered, they were not always effective. FCGs experienced negative outcomes including social isolation (66%), strain (63%), and reduced quality of life (57%). PLWD showed an increase in responsive behaviours (51%) and dementia progression. Consequently, 85% of FCGs indicated they are willing to undergo specialized training to maintain access to their PLWD. Conclusion: FCGs need continuous access to PLWD they care for in LTC to continue providing essential care.

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The course of readmission in frail older cardiac patients

Aim: The aim of this study is to explore patients’ and (in)formal caregivers’ perspectives on their role(s) and contributing factors in the course of unplanned hospital readmission of older cardiac patients in the Cardiac Care Bridge (CCB) program.DesignThis study is a qualitative multiple case study alongside the CCB randomized trial, based on grounded theory principles. Methods: Five cases within the intervention group, with an unplanned hospital readmission within six months after randomization, were selected. In each case, semi‐structured interviews were held with patients (n = 4), informal caregivers (n = 5), physical therapists (n = 4), and community nurses (n = 5) between April and June 2019. Patients’ medical records were collected to reconstruct care processes before the readmission. Thematic analysis and the six‐step analysis of Strauss & Corbin have been used. Results: Three main themes emerged. Patients experienced acute episodes of physical deterioration before unplanned hospital readmission. The involvement of (in)formal caregivers in adequate observation of patients’ health status is vital to prevent rehospitalization (theme 1). Patients and (in)formal caregivers’ perception of care needs did not always match, which resulted in hampering care support (theme 2). CCB caregivers experienced difficulties in providing care in some cases, resulting in limited care provision in addition to the existing care services (theme 3). Conclusion: Early detection of deteriorating health status that leads to readmission was often lacking, due to the acuteness of the deterioration. Empowerment of patients and their informal caregivers in the recognition of early signs of deterioration and adequate collaboration between caregivers could support early detection. Patients’ care needs and expectations should be prioritized to stimulate participation.Impact(In)formal caregivers may be able to prevent unplanned hospital readmission of older cardiac patients by ensuring: (1) early detection of health deterioration, (2) empowerment of patient and informal caregivers, and (3) clear understanding of patients’ care needs and expectations.

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Construction and validation of self-care educational technology for caregivers

OBJECTIVES: to build and validate educational self-care technology for informal caregivers. METHODS: methodological study, anchored in the Delphi technique, carried out in a municipality in the state of Paraná, Brazil, between September 2018 and November 2019. It was developed in three stages: situational diagnosis; elaboration of educational technology; content and appearance validation by expert judges and informal caregivers, using the content validity index and coefficient of variation. RESULTS: after the steps of the methodological process, an educational technology called "Taking Care of Those Who Care" was produced, as an information tool that deals with the self-care of informal caregivers, receiving a content validity index above 0.86 and a variation coefficient. below 20% on all items. CONCLUSIONS: the educational technology was built and evaluated with satisfactory rates by the specialists and target audience, showing a high correlation of agreement, characterizing it as adequate and informative to informal caregivers.

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Congruence of cancer pain experience between patients and family caregivers and associated factors: a multicenter cross-sectional study in China

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were differences in the cancer pain experience between patients and family caregivers (FCGs) and to explore the associated factors that influence cancer pain experience congruence. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 410 patient-family caregiver dyads completed face-to-face surveys, including information about basic characteristics, the Patient Pain Questionnaire (PPQ), and the Family Pain Questionnaire (FPQ). The difference in cancer pain experience between patients and family caregivers was analyzed using a paired t test. Indicators for the congruence of cancer pain experience were analyzed using the chi-square test and two independent-sample t tests for bivariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the patients, 57.1% were men, and 60.7% perceived moderate performance status. The majority of the family caregivers was female (54.9%). The mean (SD) score on the pain experience subscale was 4.82 (1.66) for 410 patients and 5.02 (1.66) for 410 family caregivers. The difference was significant (P < 0.01). Additionally, 87 (21.2%) dyads were in the congruent group, and 323 (78.8%) dyads were in the incongruent group. Patients' self-perceived moderate performance status (OR = 2.983, P < 0.01) and family caregivers' pain knowledge (OR = 1.171, P < 0.05) were the main factors influencing the congruence of cancer pain experience. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that family caregivers reported significantly worse cancer pain experiences than patients. Family caregivers' pain knowledge was a primary influencing factor. It is suggested that educational interventions aimed at teaching family caregivers and patients how to communicate their pain experience and improving the knowledge of family members regarding pain and its management may help in aligning their perceptions and thereby contribute to better quality of life and pain management outcomes. 

 

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The comprehensive factors affecting the sleep quality in family caregivers of patients with dementia in the community of South Korea

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide the comprehensive factors affecting the sleep quality in family caregivers of patients with dementia in South Korea, including patient and caregiver-related factors. Methods: The participant were a total of 156 family caregivers who live with patients with dementia in South Korea. Patient and caregiver-related factors were measured using tools with high reliability. Data collection was performed from May to August 2019, and data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression with the SPSS/21.0 program. Results: The significant factors affecting family caregivers’ sleep quality were their depression (β=.52, p<.001) and their education (β=.23, p=.019). Conclusion: There is a need to monitor caregivers’ depression and sleep quality. Future studies, biomarker to monitor caregivers’ sleep quality to achieve objective evidence. There is a need to provide additional education programs to improve the understanding around caregivers' sleep quality especially for caregivers with low level of education. 

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Comparison of Traditional Videos With Telenovelas for Hospice Family Caregivers Education

Background: While research has shown that hospice family caregivers (HFCG) seek additional information related to patient care, pain and symptom management, and self-care, it is unknown how the use of telenovela videos for education in hospice would be received by HFCG. Objective: To explore HFCG perceived benefits and challenges with the use of telenovelas as compared to traditional educational videos during online support group. Methods: A mixed methods study with a concurrent triangulated design that analyzed qualitative interviews and YouTube analytics report to identify how viewers responded (number of views and their feedback) to telenovela videos as compared to traditional educational videos. Results: Among 39 (n = 39) HFCGs, most participants were female (80%) of White/Caucasian race, with more than high school education (85%) and they were adult children of hospice cancer patient (49%). Comparing HFCG that viewed traditional videos with HFCG that viewed telenovela videos, the telenovela video was watched more (12% longer viewing duration) and caregivers reported better content recall with informative benefits, more follow up actions and reflection about their own hospice experience. Conclusion: Caregiver feedback indicated that watching the telenovela was engaging, acceptable and produced more conversations about patient care, than watching a non-telenovela format video. Further research is needed to test telenovela efficacy in enhancing HFCG outcomes.

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Co-design and development of online video resources about immunotherapy with patients and their family

Background: Patients receiving novel treatments like immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICI or immunotherapy) to treat their cancer require comprehensive information so they know what to expect and to encourage the identification and reporting of possible side-effects. Videos using patient stories can be reassuring and an effective method for conveying health information. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a co-design process to develop video resources about immunotherapy to identify a) the key informational and supportive care needs of patients and family carers and b) topics clinicians recommended be addressed during pre-treatment nurse-led education. Patient involvement: Experience Based Co-design (EBCD) provided the framework for video development, to facilitate patient and carer involvement in every stage of research design and implementation, and video design and development. Methods: Data were collected and used in four stages: 1) qualitative interviews, 2) co-design workshop, 3) filming plan and 4) feedback and editing. Results: Thirty-five individuals contributed to the development of a suite of five videos called “Immunotherapy: What to Expect”. Videos covered general treatment information, preparation for infusion, potential side-effects, balancing lifestyle with treatment and seeking support. Video run time ranges from 6 to 15 min. Discussion: The EBCD process ensured that videos were developed to meet patient and carer identified needs associated with commencing and managing ICI therapy. The structure of EBCD in facilitating patient and carer involvement throughout the research and video development process ensured transparency throughout the project, and continuity of message, scope and outcomes. Practical Value: EBCD is a useful framework for developing patient-centred health resources. The videos developed are now available for patients and carers via YouTube, and provide education and support tailored to this groups’ needs regarding ICI therapy for cancer.

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Coaching While Waiting for Autism Spectrum Disorder Assessment: Protocol of a Pilot Feasibility Study for a Randomized Controlled Trial on Occupational Performance Coaching and Service Navigation Support

Background: In Australia, the average time between a first concern of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and diagnosis is over 2 years. After referral for assessment, families often wait 6-12 months before their appointment. This can be a time of uncertainty and stress for families. For some families, other forms of assistance are not accessible and thus timely intervention opportunities are missed. There is little evidence about how to provide the best support for children or caregivers while on assessment waiting lists. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether use of a coaching intervention called Occupational Performance Coaching (OPC) combined with service navigation support is feasible for families waiting for ASD assessment, as a crucial first step in planning a randomized controlled trial. Methods: A pilot and feasibility study will be conducted using recommended constructs and associated measures, which will be reported using CONSORT (Consolidated Standards or Reporting Trials) guidance. Participants will be child and caregiver dyads or triads, recruited within 4 months of their child (aged 1-7 years) being referred to one of two services for an ASD assessment in Victoria, Australia. A blinded randomization procedure will be used to allocate participants to one of three trial arms: (1) coaching and support intervention delivered face to face, (2) coaching and support intervention via videoconference, and (3) usual care. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the sample characteristics of parents and children, inclusive of service access at baseline and follow up. Recruitment rates will be reported, and retention rates will be evaluated against a predicted rate of 70%-80% in each intervention arm. Goal attainment, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, will indicate preliminary evidence for efficacy within the intervention arms, with an increase of 2 or more points on a 10-point performance and satisfaction scale considered clinically significant. Results: The study was approved by The Royal Children’s Hospital Research Ethics and Governance Department in September 2018. As of October 2020, 16 families have been recruited to the study. Data analysis is ongoing and results are expected to be published in 2021. Conclusions: Study findings will support planning for a future randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of OPC and service navigation support for caregivers of children awaiting ASD assessment. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620000164998; International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20011

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A cluster randomized controlled trial comparing Virtual Learning Collaborative and Technical Assistance strategies to implement an early palliative care program for patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers: a study protocol

Background: Virtual Learning Collaboratives (VLC), learning communities focused on a common purpose, are used frequently in healthcare settings to implement best practices. Yet, there is limited research testing the effectiveness of this approach compared to other implementation strategies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a VLC compared to Technical Assistance (TA) among community oncology practices implementing ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends), an evidence-based, early palliative care telehealth, psycho-educational intervention for patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer and their caregivers. Methods: Using Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) and Proctor’s Implementation Outcomes Frameworks, this two-arm hybrid type-III cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) will compare two implementation strategies, VLC versus TA, among the 48 National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) practice clusters that have not historically provided palliative care to all patients with advanced cancer. Three cohorts of practice clusters will be randomized to the study arms. Each practice cluster will recruit 15–27 patients and a family caregiver to participate in ENABLE. The primary study outcome is ENABLE uptake (patient level), i.e., the proportion of eligible patients who complete the ENABLE program (receive a palliative care assessment and complete the six ENABLE sessions over 12 weeks). The secondary outcome is overall program implementation (practice cluster level), as measured by the General Organizational Index at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Exploratory aims assess patient and caregiver mood and quality of life outcomes at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks. Practice cluster randomization will seek to keep the proportion of rural practices, practice sizes, and minority patients seen within each practice balanced across the two study arms. Discussion: This study will advance the field of implementation science by evaluating VLC effectiveness, a commonly used but understudied, implementation strategy. The study will advance the field of palliative care by building the capacity and infrastructure to implement an early palliative care program in community oncology practices. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT04062552; Pre-results. Registered: August 20, 2019. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04062552?term=NCT04062552&draw=2&rank=1

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Clarifying the information and support needs of family caregivers of nursing home residents with advancing dementia

Background: Research has identified inadequacies in the quality and quantity of dementia-related information, particularly end-of-life information provided to those living with dementia and their family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to identify what types of information family caregivers of persons living with dementia in nursing homes would deem useful in preparing them for their relative's end-of-life and assist them to make decisions about care along the dementia trajectory. Methods: The qualitative methodology of interpretive description was used to guide the study in which semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing home staff in clinical roles (e.g., nurses, health care aides, social workers, speech language pathologists; N = 26), palliative care clinicians (N = 7), and bereaved family caregivers of persons with dementia (N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings: Eight substantive categories essential to meeting family members' needs for information and preparing them for the future were identified including: (i) dementia in general, (ii) dementia toward the end-of-life, (iii) care of persons dying with dementia, (iv) the role of family caregiver as decision maker, (v) sustaining connection, (vi) emotional impact of dementia on caregivers, (vii) relationships with staff, and (viii) general questions about life in a NH. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that family caregivers of nursing home residents with dementia have unique information and support needs, some disease specific, others more related to life in a nursing home in general. Health care providers need to support and encourage dementia literacy for family caregivers. A key strategy is to proactively broach these topic areas, as too often family caregivers may not recognize or value their need for information.

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Chatbots to Support People With Dementia and Their Caregivers: Systematic Review of Functions and Quality

Background: Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the use of information technologies to educate and support people with dementia and their family caregivers. At the same time, chatbot technologies have become increasingly popular for use by the public and have been identified as having benefits for health care delivery. However, little is known about how chatbot technologies may benefit people with dementia and their caregivers. Objective: This study aims to identify the types of current commercially available chatbots that are designed for use by people with dementia and their caregivers and to assess their quality in terms of features and content. Methods: Chatbots were identified through a systematic search on Google Play Store, Apple App Store, Alexa Skills, and the internet. An evidence-based assessment tool was used to evaluate the features and content of the identified apps. The assessment was conducted through interrater agreement among 4 separate reviewers. Results: Of the 505 initial chatbots identified, 6 were included in the review. The chatbots assessed varied significantly in terms of content and scope. Although the chatbots were generally found to be easy to use, some limitations were noted regarding their performance and programmed content for dialog. Conclusions: Although chatbot technologies are well established and commonly used by the public, their development for people with dementia and their caregivers is in its infancy. Given the successful use of chatbots in other health care settings and for other applications, there are opportunities to integrate this technology into dementia care. However, more evidence-based chatbots that have undergone end user evaluation are needed to evaluate their potential to adequately educate and support these populations.

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Characterizing Dementia Caregivers’ Information Exchange on Social Media: Exploring an Expert-Machine Co-development Process

Background: Social media platforms have introduced new opportunities for supporting family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Existing methods for exploring online information seeking and sharing (i.e., information exchange) involve examining online posts via manual analysis by human experts or fully automated data-driven exploration through text classification. Both methods have limitations. Design: In this paper, we propose an innovative expert–machine co-development (EMC) process that enables rich interactions and co-learning between human experts and automatic algorithms. Results: By applying the EMC in analyzing ADRD caregivers’ online behaviors, we illustrate steps required by the EMC, and demonstrate its effectiveness in enhancing human experts’ representations of ADRD caregivers’ online information exchange and developing more accurate automatic classification models for ADRD caregivers’ information exchange.

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Challenges implementing a carer support intervention within a national stroke organisation: findings from the process evaluation of the OSCARSS trial

Objectives: To examine the implementation of an intervention to support informal caregivers and to help understand findings from the Organising Support for Carers of Stroke Survivors (OSCARSS) cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT). Design: Longitudinal process evaluation using mixed methods. Normalisation process theory informed data collection and provided a sensitising framework for analysis. Setting: Specialist stroke support services delivered primarily in the homes of informal carers of stroke survivors.ParticipantsOSCARSS cRCT participants including carers, staff, managers and senior leaders. Intervention: The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool for Stroke (CSNAT-Stroke) intervention is a staff-facilitated, carer-led approach to help identify, prioritise and address support needs. Results: We conducted qualitative interviews with: OSCARSS cRCT carer participants (11 intervention, 10 control), staff (12 intervention, 8 control) and managers and senior leaders (11); and obtained 140 responses to an online staff survey over three separate time points. Both individual (carer/staff) and organisational factors impacted implementation of the CSNAT-Stroke intervention and how it was received by carers. We identified four themes: staff understanding, carer participation, implementation, and learning and support. Staff valued the idea of a structured approach to supporting carers, but key elements of the intervention were not routinely delivered. Carers did not necessarily identify as ‘carers’, which made it difficult for staff to engage them in the intervention. Despite organisational enthusiasm for OSCARSS, staff in the intervention arm perceived support and training for implementation of CSNAT-Stroke as delivered primarily by the research team, with few opportunities for shared learning across the organisation. Conclusions: We identified challenges across carer, staff and organisation levels that help explain the OSCARSS cRCT outcome. Ensuring training is translated into practice and ongoing organisational support would be required for full implementation of this type of intervention, with emphasis on the carer-led aspects, including supporting carer self-identification.Trial registration number: ISRCTN58414120.

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Central Vascular Access Device Complications in Pediatric Home Care Patients Managed by Family Caregivers or Nurses

Background: There is a paucity of data regarding complications and outcomes of central vascular access devices (CVADs) in pediatric home care patients. Unlike hospital and clinic settings, home care patients commonly receive catheter care and accesses by family caregivers rather than nurses. Design: This 2-year prospective study compared complications and outcomes of 222 CVADs managed by nurses or family caregivers. CVADs were followed for skin complications at insertion site, catheter complications, central line-associated bloodstream infection occurrences, and the outcome of dysfunctional catheters treated with alteplase. Results: Results showed no differences in any CVAD complications, whether access and care were primarily performed by trained family caregivers or nurses.

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Caregivers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Type 1 Diabetic Children Aged 3–14 Years in Uganda

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the association between caregiver’s level of type 1 diabetes (T1D) nutrition knowledge with children’s dietary diversity score (DDS), mean intake of macronutrients, nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Research Design and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. The study was conducted at 6 diabetes clinics in Uganda among 59 caregivers and 61 children. T1D nutrition knowledge survey (NKS) was used to assess the caregiver’s nutrition knowledge, and the 24-hour dietary recall and dietary diversity score (DDS) questionnaires were used to collect data on the child’s dietary intake. Results: Majority (93.2%) of the caregivers had low T1D nutrition knowledge. Carbohydrate counting was the least performed nutrition knowledge domain. The children’s mean DDS, calorie intake and MAR were 5.7 ± 1.6, 666.7 ± 639.8 kcal and 0.7 ± 0.3, respectively. The mean NARs of carbohydrate, protein, and fat were 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.5, respectively. There was a significant association between DDS with NARs of carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins A, B2, B3, B5, B12, folic acid, zinc and MAR. No formal education was significantly associated with a lower mean NKS score among caregivers (p = 0.039). Caregivers’ T1D nutrition knowledge, age and family size explained 14% of variation in the child’s dietary diversity (p = 0.041). Conclusion: Despite poor nutrition knowledge among caregivers especially on carbohydrate counting, dietary diversity among children with T1D remained favorable. Excess carbohydrate intake was observed with inadequate intake of proteins, fats and micronutrients (vitamin A, B vitamins and calcium). Caregivers with low education were more likely to register poor nutrition knowledge; therefore, there is need to develop and tailor nutrition education programmes to enhance comprehensive learning among caregivers for improved outcomes.

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Caregiver-guided pain coping skills training for patients with advanced cancer: Results from a randomized clinical trial

Background: Pain is a major concern among patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers. Evidence suggests that pain coping skills training interventions can improve outcomes, however they have rarely been tested in this population. Aim: To test the efficacy of a caregiver-guided pain coping skills training intervention. The primary outcome was caregiver self-efficacy for helping the patient manage pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial compared the intervention to an enhanced treatment-as-usual control. Dyads in both conditions received pain education, and those in the intervention received three sessions of pain coping skills training. Caregiver outcomes (self-efficacy; caregiver strain, caregiving satisfaction, psychological distress) and patient outcomes (self-efficacy, pain intensity and interference, psychological distress) were collected at baseline and post-intervention. Setting/participants: Two hundred two patients with stage III–IV cancer and pain and their family caregivers were enrolled from four outpatient oncology clinics and a free-standing hospice/palliative care organization. Results: Compared to those in the control arm, caregivers in the intervention reported significant increases in caregiving satisfaction (p < 0.01) and decreased anxiety (p = 0.04). In both conditions, caregivers reported improvements in self-efficacy, and patients reported improvements in self-efficacy, pain severity and interference, and psychological distress. Conclusions: This is the first study to test a pain coping skills intervention targeted to patients and caregivers facing advanced cancer. Findings suggest that pain education provides benefits for patients and caregivers, and coping skills training may be beneficial for caregivers. Further research is needed to optimize the benefits of education and pain coping skills training for improving cancer pain outcomes. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02430467, Caregiver-Guided Pain Management Training in Palliative Care

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Caregiver willingness to provide care in the ICU: A concept analysis

Aim: The purpose of this paper is to conceptually define "caregiver willingness" for application to a family member providing care to a critically ill loved one during an intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Background: Delivering care to a family member may have psychological benefits for both the caregiver and the critically ill loved one; however, the willingness of family members to provide care is an elusive concept. Examination of the "caregiver willingness" concept will help to advance nursing science. Design: Walker and Avant's eight step strategy guided identification of the defining attributes, empirical referents, antecedents, and consequences of "caregiver willingness." Data Source: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, APA PsycInfo, and Psychology and Behavioral Health Collections were used to search for literature published between 2000 and 2020. Review Methods: A literature search was conducted using keywords, such as "caregiver," "willingness," "willing to care," "family or families or relatives or siblings or caregiver," and "critically ill or intensive care or ICU or critical care." Results: A definition of caregiver willingness was constructed and defined as "a family member or significant other's affirmation or acknowledgment of openness to engage in the physical and/or emotional supportive care of a loved one who is critically ill and cannot perform self‐care." Conclusion: The definition provides a foundation for instrument development to measure caregiver willingness and possible theory expansion for family engagement and caregiving in the ICU.

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Caregiver Response to an Online Dementia and Caregiver Wellness Education Platform

Background: Web-based educational interventions are emerging as a potential solution to improve caregiver dementia knowledge and overall well-being. Objective: To assess the feasibility of delivering a web-based intervention for dementia caregivers by examining: 1) engagement with the online platform, 2) skill implementation, and 3) changes on outcome metrics over the 30-day study period. Methods: Enrolled participants were onboarded by a trained research coordinator and provided 24/7 access to the platform over 30 days. At study onset and completion, caregivers completed assessments of care recipient dementia severity and neuropsychiatric symptoms along with instruments which measured dementia knowledge, caregiver burden, and carer experience. Results: Of 84 referrals, 60 caregivers met study inclusion criteria and 55 completed pre and post study measures. Caregivers completed an average of 8 hours of learning over the 30-day web-based intervention, with 84.4%of participants reporting using at least one skill they learned from the online platform. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported high satisfaction with the web-based educational intervention. There were small effect sizes for decreases in NPIQ neuropsychiatric symptom severity and caregiver distress scores from pre- to post-intervention. Small effect sizes were observed for changes in caregiver burden from pre- to post-intervention among caregivers who perceived their care recipient as having high global deterioration. Conclusion: Findings show online educational programs are feasible for informal family caregivers of dementia and have perceived value. Future studies should address caregiver response to online education in less severe versus more severe care recipients, and explore the value of caregiver online platforms in diverse caregiver samples. 

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Caregiver Education and Training: Learning Preferences of Informal Caregivers of Adult Care Recipients.

Background: Oncology nurses play a key role in supporting caregivers through education and training in both inpatient and outpatient settings. This article describes the learning preferences of informal caregivers of adult care recipients. Caregiver respondents preferred multiple training methods, with most endorsing in-person instruction, online video instruction, and reading materials. AT A GLANCE: Caregivers are often underprepared for the care they provide. Oncology nurses have been known as trusted sources of information and education for patients and caregivers. Efforts should be undertaken to extend learning beyond clinical encounters and consider caregiver preferences in learning

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Burdens and Educational Needs of Informal Caregivers of Older Adults With Urinary Incontinence: An Internet-Based Study

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the burden and educational needs of informal caregivers of care-dependent older adults with urinary incontinence (UI). Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive survey of informal caregivers recruited through Google Ads was performed. Methods: An online survey, including the Overactive Bladder-Family Impact Measure, was used to assess five areas of the experience of the informal caregiver that may be affected by caring for a person with UI and their educational needs. Findings: Respondents (n = 77) reported a substantial impact of their care recipients' UI on their lives, with concern, travel, and social subscales most affected. However, 42% never sought treatment on behalf of their care recipient. Educational needs included UI treatment strategies and guidance to select appropriate supplies. Conclusions: Caregivers underreported their care recipient's UI and need substantially more support from healthcare providers to manage the condition. Clinical Relevance: Nurses should assess for UI among care-dependent older adults and, if present, provide information and strategies to lessen the impact on caregiver lives.

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Building family caregiver skills using a simulation-based intervention for care of patients with cancer: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background: Family caregivers of patients with cancer undergoing radiation therapy experience significant distress and challenges related to high symptom burden and complex care demands. This is particularly true for caregivers of patients with head and neck, esophageal, anal, rectal, and lung cancers, who are often receiving combined-modality treatment and may have tracheostomy tubes, gastrostomy tubes, or colostomies/ileostomies. This study aims to evaluate a simulation-based nursing intervention to provide information, support, and training to caregivers during radiation therapy. Methods: This randomized controlled trial will include a sample of 180 patients and their family caregivers. Caregivers assigned to the control group will receive usual care and an informational booklet from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Those in the intervention group will receive usual care, the NCI booklet, and three meetings with a nurse interventionist during radiation treatment followed by a booster call two weeks posttreatment. Intervention sessions focus on themes consistent with the trajectory of radiation therapy: the patient experience/needs, the caregiver experience and dyad communication, and transition to survivorship. Outcomes are measured at baseline, end of treatment (T2), and 4 (T3) and 20 (T4) weeks posttreatment, with the primary outcome being caregiver anxiety at T4. Discussion: This trial is innovative in its use of simulation in a psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers. The intervention is administered at point-of-care and aimed at feasibility for integration into clinical practice. Patient quality of life and healthcare utilization measures will assess how providing support and training to the caregiver may impact patient outcomes. Trial registration: The trial was registered on 08/14/2019 at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT04055948).

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Balneotherapy with a psychoeducation program for the promotion of a balanced care in family caregivers of older adults

Background: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of an intervention program for informal caregivers of elderly dependent that combined balneotherapy with group psychoeducation (BT-PE) based on the balanced care model. Method: The BT-PE intervention (N = 124) was compared with a comparison group only exposed to balneotherapy (BT) (N = 76). The two modalities included both primary and secondary informal caregivers. A three-way mixed ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of two between-subjects´ factors (intervention group and caregiver type) and one within-subjects´ factor (time) on burden, depression, anxiety, maladjustment and care satisfaction. Results: Results showed less burden and more care satisfaction in both primary and secondary caregivers participating in the BT-PE program after the interventions. Primary caregivers also showed lower levels of maladjustment in the experimental group at post-intervention. Although depressive symptoms and anxiety decreased significantly in both intervention groups, BT-PE did not show lower scores compared with the application of sole BT. Conclusion: The relevance of caregivers´ psychoeducation on the balanced care model and its combination with balneotherapy is highlighted. 

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Autism-specific parenting self-efficacy: An examination of the role of parent-reported intervention involvement, satisfaction with intervention-related training, and caregiver burden

Background: Parenting self-efficacy, described as the beliefs parents hold about their ability to successfully parent their children, has been shown to support parent and child well-being. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder face disproportionately high levels of demand both as caregivers, and as partners in multiple, complex, intervention programs. This study examines the relationship between parents' experiences with their child's interventions—specifically their sense of involvement in treatment and satisfaction with intervention-related training—and their confidence in parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder, defined as autism-specific parenting self-efficacy. Methods: Participants (N = 438, 93% mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2–17 years) completed our novel autism-specific parenting self-efficacy scale and rated their experience of involvement in their child's interventions and satisfaction with intervention-related training across a range of common autism spectrum disorder–related treatments. Respondents also completed a caregiver burden scale. Results: Findings indicate that parents who report greater involvement in their child's interventions, and note greater satisfaction with intervention-related training, also report greater autism-specific parenting self-efficacy. Parents who report greater financial and social burden report lower autism-specific parenting self-efficacy. Conclusions: We propose that these results are important in creating intervention experiences that foster parental self-efficacy through involvement, productive training experiences, and addressing parental burden.  

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Associations Between Hospice Care and Scary Family Caregiver Experiences

Context: Hospice deaths in the U.S. are increasing. Dying hospice patients may have rapidly emerging needs the hospice team cannot immediately meet, exposing family caregivers to fright-inducing (i.e., scary) situations. Objectives: To examine relationships between hospice care and family caregiver exposures and psychological responses to witnessing common and distressing patient symptoms near the end of life. Methods: Secondary analysis of prospective cohort study of 169 patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers was analyzed. Multivariable regression analyses modeled associations between hospice use and caregiver exposures and psychological responses (fear and helplessness) to witnessing distressing symptoms common near death, adjusting for potential confounding influences (e.g., home death, patient characteristics, and suffering). Caregiver self-reported exposures and responses to observing patient symptoms during the last month of life were assessed using the validated Stressful Caregiving Response to Experiences of Dying (SCARED) scale. Results: Hospice care was significantly positively associated with more exposures and negative psychological responses to distressing patient symptoms, adjusting for home death, patient characteristics, and physical and mental suffering. On average, hospice patients' caregivers scored 1.6 points higher on the SCARED exposure scale and 6.2 points higher on the SCARED psychological response scale than caregivers of patients without hospice (exposure: 10.53 vs. 8.96; psychological responses: 29.85 vs. 23.67). Patient pain/discomfort, delirium, and difficulty swallowing/choking were reported by three-fourths of caregivers and associated with the most fear and helplessness among caregivers. Conclusion: Hospice care is associated with more exposures to and caregiver fear and helplessness in response to scary patient experiences. Research is needed to understand how better to support family caregivers of hospice patients to enable them to cope with common distressing symptoms of dying cancer patients. Hospice clinicians providing additional education and training about these symptoms might enable caregivers to better care for dying loved ones and reduce the stresses of end-of-life caregiving.

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Assistive technologies for children with cognitive and/or motor disabilities: interviews as a means to diagnose the training needs of informal caregivers

Purpose: The present study seeks to survey information and training needs of informal caregivers related to the use of assistive technologies at home, so as to, in the near future, try to meet them. Therefore, the full aim of this study is to contribute to reducing technology abandonment and to enhancing its use in the family setting by children with cognitive and/or motor limitations. Materials and methods: Content analysis of a set of ten interviews with informal caregivers of children and youngsters with cognitive and/or motor disabilities. Results: Assistive technologies open a wide range of opportunities, mostly to students whose learning skills diverge from standard development. They promote communication, independence as well as inclusion of children with cognitive and/or motor disabilities. Despite the human and material resources available, the implementation of assistive technologies in many family settings is still a struggling task. The results reveal a perspective on (i) the interaction between those caregivers and their children, (ii) children’s skills in using assistive technology, (iii) caregivers’ digital literacy and (iv) their training needs. Conclusions: The present paper highlights the fact that carrying out interviews with informal caregivers leads to obtaining significant data for a diagnosis of the use of assistive technologies in the family setting and to assess the needs of informal caregivers. From this study, the need to provide caregivers with further training on assistive technologies emerges as preponderant, and to improve caregivers’ skills in the search for and access to practical information.Implication for Rehabilitation Cognitive and/or motor disabilities impact on communication, independence and also on the full inclusion of children, especially when efforts developed at school do not have any follow up at home. Endowing informal caregivers with the knowledge and skills to use assistive devices with their children is a step forward to their full development. Interviews conducted with informal caregivers are a means to gaining insights into understanding the reasons behind assistive technology abandonment at home. 

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Assessment of alternative methods for informal caregivers to perform patient repositioning tasks

Background: Manual patient handling tasks put formal and informal caregivers at risk of musculoskeletal injury. Intervention research to reduce risks to informal caregivers is limited. Design: This study examined effects of slide sheet use when individual informal caregivers performed patient boosting and turning tasks. Three methods of slide sheet use and a baseline method (no slide sheet) were compared, to reposition a 70 kg individual. Results: Muscle activity, ground reaction force, posture, and rating of perceived exertion were significantly affected by task method. Erector Spinae activity was reduced in boosting and turning away tasks with the slide sheet. Shoulder elevation, torso angle, and normalized vertical ground reaction force were also reduced with the slide sheet during boosting. The turn towards task was generally not improved with the slide sheet. Conclusion: Overall, using a slide sheet provided biomechanical benefits to individual caregivers performing two common patient handling tasks: boosting and turning patient away from caregiver. 

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Application of the hospital‐family holistic care model in caregivers of patients with permanent enterostomy: A randomized controlled trial

Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the hospital‐family holistic care model based on the theory of 'Timing It Right' in caregivers of patients with permanent enterostomy. Design: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: One hundred and twenty‐five caregivers of patients with permanent enterostomy were recruited from 1 May 2017–31 August 2019. They were randomized into either intervention group (N = 62) or control group (N = 63). The control group received routine care and follow‐up, while the intervention group received routine care, follow‐up, and hospital‐family holistic care intervention based on 'Timing It Right'. The care ability, psychological distress, and life quality of the caregivers were evaluated between the groups before the intervention, at discharge, and 3 and 6 months after discharge. Results: One hundred and eleven caregivers completed the study (88.8%). At 3 and 6 months after discharge, the care ability and life quality in the intervention group were significantly better than those in the control group (t = 8.506/9.783, t = 22.652/26.179, p < 0.05) based on the t tests, and the psychological distress was lower than that in the control group. The ostomy adaptability of the control group was significantly lower than that in the intervention group (p < 0.001) based on the t tests, and the χ2 test showed that ostomy complication was more than that in the intervention group (23.81% vs. 12.90% and 34.92% vs. 19.35%; p < 0.05) at 3 and 6 months after discharge. The interaction between time and group showed that the effect of time factor varied with the group and the four evaluation indexes in the intervention group gradually improved with the extension of the observation time and were better than those in the control group based on generalized estimating equation model. Conclusion: The hospital‐family holistic care model based on 'Timing It Right' can effectively improve the care ability of caregivers of patients with permanent enterostomy, reduce psychological distress, and improve the quality of life. Impact: The caregivers of patients with permanent enterostomy showed dynamic changes in their care experience and needs at different stages of the disease. The hospital‐family holistic care intervention strategy based on 'Timing It Right' can effectively improve the caregiver's care ability, alleviate psychological distress, and improve the quality of life. Additionally, improving the patients' stoma adaptability and reducing the incidence of complications related to ostomy.
 

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Advance Care Planning for African American Caregivers of Relatives With Dementias: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Background and Objectives: African-American family caregivers may have insufficient knowledge to make informed end-of-life (EOL) decisions for relatives with dementias. Advance Care Treatment Plan (ACT-Plan) is a community-based education intervention to enhance knowledge of dementia and associated EOL medical treatments, self-efficacy, intentions, and behavior (written EOL care plan). This study evaluated efficacy of the intervention compared to attention control. Research Design and Methods: In a theoretically based, 2-group, cluster randomized controlled trial, 4 similar Midwestern urban megachurches were randomized to experimental or control conditions. Each church recruited African-American caregivers, enrolling concurrent waves of 5 to 9 participants in 4 weekly 1-hour sessions (358 total: ACT-Plan n = 173, control n = 185). Dementia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mechanical ventilation (MV), and tube feeding (TF) treatments were discussed in ACT-Plan classes. Participants completed assessments before the initial class, after the final class (week 4), and at week 20. Repeated measures models were used to test the intervention effect on changes in outcomes across time, adjusting for covariates as needed. Results: Knowledge of CPR, MV, TF, and self-efficacy to make EOL treatment decisions increased significantly more in the ACT-Plan group at weeks 4 and 20. Knowledge of dementia also increased more in the ACT-Plan group at both points, reaching statistical significance only at week 20. Intentions to make EOL treatment decisions and actually an advance care plan were similar between treatment arms. Discussion and Implications: Findings demonstrate promise for ACT-Plan to increase informed EOL treatment decisions for African American caregivers of individuals with dementias.

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Adapting the telephone assessment and skill‐building kit to the telehealth technology preferences of stroke family caregivers

Background: Family caregivers exhibit a wide variety of needs and concerns while providing care to stroke survivors after discharge to the home setting. Methods: We report the results of two related studies utilizing a multimethod design in which stroke family caregivers (N = 12; N = 10) were interviewed using open‐ended questions, followed by written caregiver ratings regarding the types of telehealth technologies they preferred for the telephone assessment and skill‐building kit (TASK III). Findings: Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis procedures with a provisional "start list" of codes in a matrix template based on the types of telehealth technologies in the rating forms. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze ratings with response scales ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Average ratings for the telehealth technologies for the TASK III resource guide were obtained for the mailed hard copy binder (M = 3.58–4.13; SD = 0.35–1.00), an interactive website (https://www.task3web.com/; M = 3.86–4.17; SD =.72–1.07), an eBook (M = 3.17–3.67; SD = 0.84–1.17), and a USB drive (M = 3.75–4.00; SD =.82–.96). Average ratings for the telehealth technologies for the TASK III calls with the nurse were obtained for the use of a telephone (M = 4.36–5.00; SD = 0.00–0.89), FaceTime on an iOS device (e.g., iPhone or iPad; M = 3.73–4.40; SD = 0.79–0.98), or online videoconferencing (M = 3.17–3.50; SD = 0.82–1.47). Qualitative data revealed a wide variety of preferences for each type of telehealth technology, with advantages and disadvantages of each. Conclusion: The findings underscored the importance of offering multiple telehealth technology options to stroke family caregivers. Future studies are recommended that employ randomized control trial methodology to test theoretically‐based interventions that are based on stroke family caregiver preferences for telehealth technologies.

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Postdischarge Intervention for Stroke Caregivers: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Background: The majority of stroke survivors return to their homes and need assistance from family caregivers to perform activities of daily living. These increased demands coupled with the lack of preparedness for their new roles lead to a high risk for caregivers developing depressive symptoms and other negative outcomes. Follow-up home support and problem-solving interventions with caregivers are crucial for maintaining stroke survivors in their homes. Problem-solving interventions are effective but are underused in practice because they require large amounts of staff time to implement and are difficult for caregivers logistically.; Objective: The aim of this study is to test a problem-solving intervention for stroke caregivers that can be delivered over the telephone during the patient's transitional care period (time when the stroke survivor is discharged to home) followed by 8 asynchronous online sessions.; Methods: The design is a two-arm parallel randomized clinical trial with repeated measures. We will enroll 240 caregivers from eight Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Participants randomized into the intervention arm receive a modified problem-solving intervention that uses telephone and web-based support and training with interactive modules, fact sheets, and tools on the previously developed and nationally available Resources and Education for Stroke Caregivers' Understanding and Empowerment Caregiver website. In the usual care group, no changes are made in the information, discharge planning, or care the patients who have had a stroke normally receive, and caregivers have access to existing VA resources (eg, caregiver support line, self-help materials). The primary outcome is a change in caregiver depressive symptoms at 11 and 19 weeks after baseline data collection. Secondary outcomes include changes in stroke caregivers' burden, knowledge, positive aspects of caregiving, self-efficacy, perceived stress, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care and changes in stroke survivors' functional abilities and health care use. The team will also determine the budgetary impact, facilitators, barriers, and best practices for implementing the intervention. Throughout all phases of the study, we will collaborate with members of an advisory panel.; Results: Study enrollment began in June 2015 and is ongoing. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2021.; Conclusions: This is the first known study to test a transitional care and messaging center intervention combined with technology to decrease caregiver depressive symptoms and to improve the recovery of stroke survivors. If successful, findings will support an evidence-based model that can be transported into clinical practice to improve the quality of caregiving post stroke.; Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01600131; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01600131.; International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/21799. 

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A Novel Educational Prescription Web-Based Application to Support Education for Caregivers of People Living With Dementia: Development and Usability Study With Clinicians

Background: It is estimated that 564,000 Canadians are currently living with dementia and there are approximately 486,000 to 1.1 million informal family/friend caregivers. Family/friend caregivers often receive little to no education or training about dementia but are expected to provide ongoing support for a complex condition. Web-based family/friend caregiver interventions may be helpful, but little is known about how best to implement them.; Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) design and develop a novel education prescription application to help scale and spread web-based dementia education to family/friend caregivers, 2) conduct user testing, and 3) conduct a larger-scale field trial.; Methods: A novel education prescription web-based application was designed and developed. Initial user testing used task completion and the "think aloud" technique with a small sample of representative clinicians who work with people living with dementia and family/friend caregivers. Following iterative incorporation of feedback, a larger field trial was conducted with a convenience sample of clinicians. Account invitations were sent to 55 clinicians and, following a 2-month trial period, surveys were administered to participants including the System Usability Scale and the Net Promoter Score.; Results: During the initial user testing phase, participants (N=7) from representative disciplines easily completed associated tasks, and had very positive feedback with respect to the usability of the application. The System Usability Scale score during this phase was 91.4. Suggestions from feedback were incorporated into the application. During the larger field trial phase, participants (total N=55; activated account n=17; did not activate account n=38) were given access to the iGeriCare education prescription application. During this period, 2 participants created educational prescriptions; a total of 3 educational prescriptions were sent. Survey completers who did not activate their account (n=5) identified that their lack of use was due to time constraints, competing priorities, or forgetting to use the application. Survey completers who activated their account (n=5) identified their lower use was due to lack of time, lack of eligible family/friend caregivers during trial period, and competing priorities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The System Usability Scale score during this phase was 78.75, and the Net Promoter Score was 50.; Conclusions: Study findings indicate a generally positive response for the usability of a web-based application for clinicians to prescribe dementia education to family/friend caregivers. The dissonance between the promising data and widespread enthusiasm for the design and purpose of the education prescription application found in the initial user testing phase and subsequent lack of significant adoption in the field trial represents both an important lesson for other novel health technologies and a potential area for further investigation. Further research is required to better understand factors associated with implementation of this type of intervention and impact on dissemination of education to family/friend caregivers. 

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Moving Evidence-Informed Assessment and Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia into the Real World: Training Family and Staff Caregivers in the DICE Approach

Objective: To investigate the impact of a one-day training program on care-givers' confidence and knowledge in managing aspects of dementia care. Design: One-day caregiver training program featuring: 1) an interactive, multi-media format; 2) a companion manual; and 3) a "brain-storming" session at the end of the day that utilized attendees' real-world cases where the use of the DICE (Describe, Investigate, Create, and Evaluate) approach was illustrated "live." Setting: Three different geographical sites in Michigan. Participants: Family (n = 40) and professional (paid; n = 140) caregivers (total n = 180) for people with dementia. Measures: Preand post self-ratings related to confidence in aspects of dementia care management before and directly after the training. Results: Comparing self-ratings pre and post-training, more than 50% of family caregivers showed improvement in confidence post-training on 11 of 12 items with significant improvement in 4 items. Among professionals, more than 50% of caregivers showed improved confidence on 3 of 12 items, with 4 items showing significant improvement. Family caregivers were significantly more likely than professionals to show improved confidence on 6 of 12 items. Conclusions: The number of people with dementia and their family caregivers is large and growing every day with the aging of the population. Living well with dementia is the goal. Current care systems are inadequate and lead to multiple poor outcomes. Innovative solutions like the DICE Approach with delivery methods including a manual and interactive training can put the key components of good dementia care at the fingertips of the people who need it most.

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Geriatrics workforce enhancement program: educational outcomes of community-based dementia caregiver conferences

Providing educational interventions to informal dementia caregivers has been shown to have numerous positive outcomes including improving general well-being and quality of life as well as reducing depression, anxiety, and caregiver stress. The purpose of this study is the development, delivery, and evaluation of caregiver conferences to educate informal dementia caregivers about dementia and caregiving. We provided eight half-day conferences for informal caregivers to educate them about Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) and make them aware of community and state resources. Demographic and program evaluation surveys including an assessment of Alzheimer's disease knowledge were administered to participants. A total of 563 community-based caregivers attended the conferences. Participants tended to be female, White, and well-educated. Evaluation surveys showed high levels of satisfaction with the training. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences in AD knowledge prior to and following the training. Although there were no statistically significant improvements in participant ADRD knowledge, participant reported satisfaction levels with the conferences were high with the agreement that their educational needs were met and that the information that they learned will help improve the care they provide to the individual(s) with ADRD.

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The experiences of family caregivers who participated in a family involvement program after cancer surgery: A qualitative study

Purpose: As recovery time after oncological surgery can be long, family caregivers often play an important role in the delivery of care after patients' discharge. To prepare carers for this role, we developed a family involvement program (FIP) to enhance their active involvement in post-surgical oncology care during hospitalization. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore family caregivers experience of participating in a FIP. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 family caregivers who participated in the family involvement program. The program is comprised of two main components (1) training and coaching of physicians and nurses; (2) active involvement of family caregivers in fundamental care activities. This active involvement included six activities. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Family caregivers positively valued the program. Active participation in post-surgical care was experienced as an acceptable burden. The program gave participants the ability to simply be present ('being there') which was considered as essential and improved their understanding of care, although family caregivers sometimes experienced emotional moments. Active involvement strengthened existent relationship between the family caregiver and the patient. Participants thought clinical supervision. by nurses is important. Conclusions: Physical proximity appeared as an essential part of the family involvement program. It helped carers to feel they made a meaningful contribution to their loved ones' wellbeing. Asking families to participate in fundamental care activities in post-surgical oncology care was acceptable, and not over-demanding for caregivers.

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Enhanced coping and self-efficacy in caregivers of stem cell transplant recipients: Identifying mechanisms of a multimodal psychosocial intervention

Background In a recent trial, a 6-session intervention (BMT-CARE) integrating medical information with cognitive-behavioral strategies improved quality of life (QOL), mood, coping skills, and self-efficacy for family/friend caregivers of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. This study examined whether improvements in coping and self-efficacy mediated the intervention effects on QOL and mood. Methods From December 2017 to April 2019, 100 caregivers of HCT recipients were enrolled into a randomized clinical trial of BMT-CARE versus usual care. Caregivers completed self-report measures of QOL (CareGiver Oncology Quality of Life questionnaire), depression and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), coping skills (Measure of Current Status), and self-efficacy (Cancer Self-Efficacy Scale-Transplant) at enrollment (before HCT) and 60 days after HCT. Causal mediation regression models were used to examine whether changes in coping and self-efficacy mediated intervention effects on QOL as well as depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Improvements in 60-day QOL in patients assigned to BMT-CARE were partially mediated by improved coping and self-efficacy (indirect effect, 6.93; SE, 1.85; 95% CI, 3.71-11.05). Similarly, reductions in 60-day depression and anxiety symptoms were partially mediated by improved coping and self-efficacy (indirect effect for depression, -1.19; SE, 0.42; 95% CI, -2.23 to -0.53; indirect effect for anxiety, -1.46; SE, 0.55; 95% CI, -2.52 to -0.43). Combined improvements in coping and self-efficacy accounted for 67%, 80%, and 39% of the total intervention effects on QOL and depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Conclusions Coping and self-efficacy are essential components of a brief psychosocial intervention that improves QOL and mood for caregivers of HCT recipients during the acute recovery period. LAY SUMMARY A 6-session program (BMT-CARE) focused on providing medical information, caregiving skills, and self-care and coping strategies has been previously reported to improve the quality of life and mood of caregivers of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients in comparison with caregivers who receive care as usual. Using statistical models, this study suggests that learning coping skills and improving self-efficacy are the most essential components of this program that likely lead to better quality of life and mood for caregivers.

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Effectiveness of online dementia caregivers training programs: A systematic review

• Online interventions improve the condition and preparedness of caregivers, but future evaluations should consider study designs with multiple time points, control groups, and content that is personalized and interactive. • Results are encouraging that the training programs included in this systematic review improved caregiver knowledge, self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, caregiver burden and satisfaction. • Results, however, were less consistent when evaluating competency, stress, and care recipient status.

Over the next thirty years, Alzheimer's disease rates will increase alongside global aging. With the anticipated increase in demand, knowledgeable and skilled dementia caregivers will be in need across the long-term care spectrum. This study is a systematic review of online dementia-based training programs for formal and informal caregivers conducted to analyze evidence for using online training programs. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) method. Methodological quality was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group criteria. No previously published systematic review has analyzed online dementia training programs among both formal and informal caregivers. A systematic search of Web of Science, PsychInfo, and PubMed resulted in a final sample of (N = 19) studies. Results suggest that online interventions improve the condition and preparedness of caregivers, but future evaluations should consider study designs with multiple time points, control groups, and content that is personalized and interactive.

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Effect of family and patient centered empowerment program on depression, anxiety and stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their caregivers' burden

Background: Considering the importance of family participation in patients' treatment and the positive effects of simultaneous patient and family education, this study was conducted to determine the effect of a family and patient-oriented empowerment program on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and their caregivers' burden. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 50 OCD patients along with their primary caregivers. The intervention group participated in eight sessions of training, each lasting from 60 to 90 min (twice a week), and the control group received the usual treatment. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Maudsley's Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, and Zarit's Burden Inventory were used to collect the data before, immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, and then the gathered data were analyzed with t-test and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 21. Results: The changes in the mean scores of depression (F2,48= 21.02, p < 0.001), anxiety (F2,48= 29.72, p < 0.001), and stress (F2,48= 16.52, p < 0.001) of the patients in the intervention group showed significant decrease over time; however, in the control group, there was no significant decrease in the mean scores of depression (F2,48= 1.69, p = 0.19), anxiety (F2,48= 0.47, p = 0.62), and stress (F2,48= 1.09, p = 0.34) over time. The changes in the caregiver's burden score in both groups indicated a significant decrease over time in the intervention group (F2,48= 24.70, p < 0.001) and the control group (F2,48= 33. 30, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that concurrently training the patients and caregivers could reduce the negative emotions of the patients and their caregivers' burden.

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Effect of a tailored multidimensional intervention on the care burden among family caregivers of stroke survivors: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Introduction Caring for stroke survivors creates high levels of care burden among family caregivers. Previous initiatives at alleviating the care burden have been unsuccessful. The proposed study aims to evaluate the effect of a tailored multidimensional intervention on the care burden among family caregivers of stroke survivors. Based on the perceived needs of family caregivers, this intervention takes into account scientific recommendations to combine three different approaches: skill-building, psychoeducation and peer support. Methods and analysis Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, parallel-group design, 110 family caregivers will be enrolled from Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt between December 2019 and May 2020, and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The tailored multidimensional intervention will be administered for 6 months, including three home visits, six home-based telephone calls and one peer support session. The primary outcome is the care burden as measured using the Zarit Burden Interview. Secondary outcomes include changes in the family caregivers' perceived needs (Family Needs Questionnaire-Revised), coping strategies (Brief-Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced) and quality of life (WHO Quality of Life-BREF). Outcomes evaluation will be conducted at baseline (T0), month 3 (T1) and month 6 (T2). Independent t-test will be performed to compare the mean values of study variables between the two groups at both T1 and T2. After adjusting for confounding variables, analysis of covariance will be used to assess the effect of the intervention. In addition, repeated measures analysis of variance will be conducted to assess changes in effect over time. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt (P.0195). The results will be published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal, and findings will be disseminated at the local and international levels.

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Education Experiences of Adult Subjects and Caregivers for Mechanical Insufflation-Exsufflation at Home

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Ministry of Health of Ontario, Canada, approved a program of public funding for specialist-prescribed mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) devices for home use by individuals with neuromuscular respiratory insufficiency. Since 2014, 1,926 MI-E devices have been provided, exceeding device-use projections. Few studies describe the initial and ongoing education and support needs of home MI-E users and their family caregivers. This study aimed to explore the requirements of initial and ongoing education and support for MI-E device use, user confidence, and barriers and facilitators to home MI-E. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with new (< 6 months) and established (6-48 months) MI-E users and family caregivers. Device users rated their confidence on a numeric rating scale of 1 (not confident) to 10 (very confident). RESULTS: We recruited 14 new and 14 established MI-E users and caregivers (including 9 dyads), and we conducted 28 interviews. Both new and established users were highly confident in use of MI-E (mean +/- SD scores were 8.8 +/- 1.2 and 8.3 +/- 2.1, respectively). Overall, the subjects were satisfied with their initial education, which consisted of a 1-2 h one-on-one session at home or in the clinic with a device demonstration and hands-on practice. Subjects viewed hands-on practice and teaching of caregivers as more beneficial than written materials. Ongoing support for device use was variable. Most subjects indicated a lack of specific follow-up, which resulted in uncertainty about whether they were using the MI-E device correctly or whether MI-E was effective. Facilitators to device utilization were ease of use, initial training, support from formal or informal caregivers, and symptom relief. Barriers were inadequate education on MI-E purpose, technique, and benefit; lack of follow-up; and inadequate knowledge of MI-E by nonspecialist health providers. CONCLUSIONS: The current model of home M1-E education at initiation meets user and caregiver needs. Better ongoing education and follow-up are needed to sustain the benefits through assessment of MI-E technique and its effectiveness.

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Assess the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding early warning signs and management of Alzheimer's disease among care givers of elderly client

Background: More than four million people in India have some sort of Alzheimer's. This global estimate of 43.8 million people living with Alzheimer's in 2016 in the World Alzheimer's Study is close to an estimated 46 8 million in 2015. A study published on early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer's by the Alzheimer's association. In the study, they concluded that education years among caregivers is a predictor of Alzheimer's experience. It appears that family members, especially those with lower levels of education, need to have more knowledge of Alzheimer's. Objectives: 1) To assess the existing knowledge regarding early warning signs and it's management of Alzheimer's disease among care giver of elderly client. 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding early warning signs and it's management of Alzheimer's disease among care giver of elderly client. 3) To associate the knowledge scores with selected demographic variables. Methodology: The pre-test and post-test research design was used. Research approach was Interventional Evaluatory Approach and the sample for the study is general population. The Samples size is 50 will be obtained by using Non-Probability Convenient sampling technique. The setting of the study is selected area of Wardha. Expected Results: The result of the present study is intended to examine the improvement of the knowledge score early warning sign's and their management of Alzheimer's disease among elderly caregivers, hence it will also be evaluated by post-test.

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Caring for Our Caregivers: a feasibility study of caregiver preparedness training within inpatient brain injury rehabilitation

Background/aims: Evidence-based inpatient caregiver training may ensure that caregiver needs are met and hospital readmission costs reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a caregiver education model, Caring for Our Caregivers, within an inpatient brain injury programme. Methods: A total of 32 adults were admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation during the 7-week feasibility trial. The three-step Caring for Our Caregivers programme included evidence-based recommendations following a caregiver needs assessment, goal setting and hands-on training. Satisfaction levels and caregiver preparedness were assessed via a survey. Results: The caregiver needs assessment and goal collaboration was completed within 5 days 66% of the time. Results indicated an even distribution of hands-on (47%) and discussion-based (53%) education. Caregivers and staff identified high levels of satisfaction with the programme. Conclusions: Early engagement, collaborative goals and hands-on training of the family caregiver of a client with acquired brain injury during inpatient rehabilitation demonstrated initial feasibility with positive implications for caregiver satisfaction and community discharge. 

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The Specialized Early Care for Alzheimer’s method of caring for people with dementia: an investigation of what works and how

Background and rationale SPECAL is a model of care for people with dementia based on a novel conceptualisation of memory and how this changes in dementia. Carers adapt their communication style to prevent distress and promote well‐being for the person with dementia. However, there is limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of SPECAL. Aim This study explored mechanisms of SPECAL through a qualitative enquiry with family carers. Method Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with family carers who had been coached in SPECAL and applied its principles and practices. Thematic analysis was applied. Findings All participants had found SPECAL helpful in caring for a person with dementia. The core themes of this positive experience were empathy, harmony and resilience. Synthesis of these themes contributes to a proposed model of the mechanisms of SPECAL. Conclusion In applying SPECAL, carers gained an empathetic insight to the feelings of the person with dementia. This empathy leads to a more harmonious environment, which enhances the carer’s resilience.

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Simulation to Teach Safe Patient Handling and Mobility for Home Caregivers

Safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) programs are needed in the home care environment. As patient-lifting technology and devices become more widely available for use in the home setting, caregivers need opportunities to learn how to properly use these devices. Nonmedical caregivers employed by personal support services agencies (PSSAs) and home caregivers have very limited access to opportunities for SPHM training in rural areas of Tennessee. Safe patient handling and mobility training utilizing simulation with an interprofessional approach was developed and provided to 17 nonmedical and family home caregivers. The training was evaluated utilizing Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model. Participants completed anonymous surveys immediately following the training and 4 to 6 weeks after the training. Survey I (n = 17): Respondents indicated increased knowledge of safe patient handling (94%) and applied knowledge of safe patient handling in training (90%). Survey II (n = 6): Most respondents (67%) indicated that they had applied the knowledge and skills that they had learned in the training. Two respondents (33%) indicated that they had not yet had the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills they learned. The survey also showed that all respondents believed that the knowledge and skills they had learned helped to decrease the risk of personal injury and injury to patients. Safe patient handling and mobility training utilizing simulation with an interprofessional approach was effective in promoting safety of nonmedical and family caregivers in the home setting. Based on the success of this program, more training opportunities should be implemented to improve patient and caregiver safety. 

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Rural/Urban Differences in Clinical Care Task Learning (RP416)

Objectives Describe preferred learning modalities for clinical care task assistance among general adults and family caregivers. Report differences by rural/urban residence in learning modalities for clinical care task assistance among general adults and family caregivers. Importance. Rural family caregivers for patients with serious illness receive minimal formal training but often perform clinical care tasks far from clinical settings. Evidence-based strategies to prepare caregivers for these tasks are needed. Objective(s). We examined acceptability of clinical care task learning modalities among the general population and family caregivers. Method(s). Data from the population-based National Cancer Institute's 2018 Health Information National Trends were analyzed. Caregivers were those currently providing unpaid care/ making healthcare decisions for someone with a health condition. Main outcomes were learning modalities for clinical care tasks: in-person instruction, phone number/hotline, reading materials, online video instruction, or virtual (live instruction over the internet). Rural/urban residence was defined by Rural/Urban Commuting Area Codes: urban¼1-3, rural¼4-9. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting endorsement (yes/no) of learning modalities were regressed on rural/urban status for the general adult and caregiver populations. Models used sampling weights and adjusted for sociodemographics, and for the caregiver models included duration and hours/week caregiving and caregiver-patient relationship. Results. Analyses included 2847 adults (51% female, 64% White, 15% rural) and 378 caregivers (66% female, 66% White, 16% rural). In both the general and caregiver population, the most preferred modality for training was in-person (73%, 69% respectively) and the least endorsed were hotlines (13%, 18%). Rural general adult respondents reported 45% lower odds of preferring online/video instruction than urban respondents (adjusted OR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.39- 0.78). No other associations were significant in the general adult population and none were significant among caregivers. Conclusion(s). No differences in training preferences for clinical care task instruction between rural and urban family caregivers were found. However, among the general population, rural individuals were less likely to prefer online/video instruction. Impact. Future research to replicate these findings should be conducted to determine whether telehealth supportive care modalities are acceptable for rural populations.

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Pilot Study of a Video-Based Educational Program to Reduce Family Violence for Parents of Adult Children with Schizophrenia

This pilot study evaluated a video-based educational program for improving communication skills and reducing family violence between parents and their adult children with schizophrenia. We used a one group pretest-posttest design. The program included a main 90-min video and six stories, each 20–30 min long. We made assessments at baseline and program completion (three months after baseline). Sixty-six parent participants completed the intervention. The average frequency of acts of family violence significantly decreased from 11.4 (SD = 26.2) at pretest to 5.1 (SD = 13.2) at posttest (p = 0.016). Our findings showed significant improvements regarding expressed emotion, psychological distress, family empowerment, and hope, demonstrating preliminary positive results for this video-based educational program. The program was shown to be feasible for support/educational groups of family members of adults with mental disorders to deliver and may also be useful for practitioner-led educational groups for families in public health centers or medical settings to offer. 

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A Pilot Study of a Comprehensive Financial Navigation Program in Patients With Cancer and Caregivers

Background: Few studies have engaged patients and caregivers in interventions to alleviate financial hardship. We collaborated with Consumer Education and Training Services (CENTS), Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF), and Family Reach (FR) to assess the feasibility of enrolling patient-caregiver dyads in a program that provides financial counseling, insurance navigation, and assistance with medical and cost of living expenses.; Methods: Patients with solid tumors aged ≥18 years and their primary caregiver received a financial education video, monthly contact with a CENTS counselor and PAF case manager for 6 months, and referral to FR for help with unpaid cost of living bills (eg, transportation or housing). Patient financial hardship and caregiver burden were measured using the Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity-Patient-Reported Outcomes (COST-PRO) and Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) measures, respectively, at baseline and follow-up.; Results: Thirty patients (median age, 59.5 years; 40% commercially insured) and 18 caregivers (67% spouses) consented (78% dyad participation rate). Many participants faced cancer-related financial hardships prior to enrollment, such as work change or loss (45% of patients; 39% of caregivers) and debt (64% of patients); 39% of caregivers reported high levels of financial burden at enrollment. Subjects received $11,000 in assistance (mean, $772 per household); 66% of subjects with income ≤$50,000 received cost-of-living assistance. COST-PRO and CSI scores did not change significantly.; Conclusions: Patient-caregiver dyads were willing to participate in a financial navigation program that addresses various financial issues, particularly cost of living expenses in lower income participants. Future work should address financial concerns at diagnosis and determine whether doing so improves patient and caregiver outcomes.

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Perspectives on Components of an Online Training and Support Program for Dementia Family Caregivers in India: A Focus Group Study

There is a considerable need for support interventions for caregivers of people with dementia in developing countries, such as India. The purpose of the study was to identify the components and understand the acceptability of an online training and support program for dementia caregivers in India. Three focus group discussions were carried out with dementia caregivers (2) and health professionals (1) to understand the requirements of an online training and support program from their perspective. The commonly recurring themes were identified and defined using thematic content analysis. The expectations from an online training and support program were wide-ranging from information about identification and management of dementia to support caregiver well-being. Use of simple language, cultural relevance, and an interactive design were suggestions to facilitate the use of the support program. Lack of time, difficulty in accessing the internet, lack of awareness about the portal, difficulty in reaching the rural population were anticipated as challenges in using the program. The study highlights the requisite components of a first of its kind online training and support program in India by integrating the experiences, motivations, challenges, and expectations of caregivers and professionals involved in dementia care. The focus group discussions in the current study provide a road map for the development of an online caregiver training and support program underlying the perspectives of the stakeholders for the consolidation of an effective dementia care program for lower resourced settings. 

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Outside-in or Inside-out? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Empowerment Approaches for Family Caregivers of People with Schizophrenia

Training-based intervention such as psychoeducational groups has become increasingly popular to empower family caregivers of people with schizophrenia, yet existing supportive programs for caregivers tend to focus more on the needs of the patients rather than the development of the caregivers. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of a skill-based empowerment psychoeducational group and an inner-resource enhancing empowerment narrative therapy group for family caregivers of people with schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a longitudinal design. The sample consisted of 132 family caregivers who were randomly assigned to eight sessions of the two groups (i.e. a narrative-based group, or a psychoeducational group), or a control group with delayed treatment. Psychometric scales were administrated throughout the project. Both the psychoeducational group and the narrative group showed significant improvements in family relationships, caregiving burden, and coping skills compared with the control group across the three time points (pretest, posttest, and 2-month follow-up). A statistically significant advancement in coping skills was found in the psychoeducational group. The narrative group outperformed the psychoeducational group and the control group in the enhancement of inner resources, perceived control, and level of hope. The findings call for the need of an integrative empowerment approach that both values the inner strength and unique experiences of the caregivers and at the same time provides them with necessary skills and knowledge in taking care of their family members with schizophrenia. 

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Older Adult Caregivers' Experiences in an Online, Interactive Mindfulness Intervention

Background.: While today's older adults experience longevity, they often manage several chronic conditions and increasingly serve as informal caregivers for aging parents, children with life-long disabilities, and spouses. Older adult caregivers managing personal chronic illness often experience significant psychosocial hardships. Objective.: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of older adult caregivers in an online, interactive mindfulness intervention. Methods.: Self-reported older caregivers who participated in an online-based mindfulness program (n = 20) were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Participants were asked to provide feedback about any previous experience with mindfulness and/or meditation, hopes or goals held prior to the start of the program, desired expectations, motivation for joining, impressions of sessions, most beneficial topics, potential application of content, and any perceived effects. Participants' responses were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results.: Five themes emerged from the analysis: Managing the Comprehensive Effects of Caregiving, Openness to Meditation and Mindfulness, Course Engagement and Incremental Growth, Building Rapport through Shared Experiences, and Ongoing Application and Opportunities for Refinement. Participants reported both short-term post-exercise benefits such as increased calm, relaxation, and stress relief, as well as long-term positive outcomes. Notably, participants found the program's unique interactive feature to be particularly beneficial as a form of perceived social support. Conclusions.: Caregivers for older adults may derive benefit and potentially experience reduced subjective caregiver burden as a result of participating in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, particularly when the program is augmented with a self-compassion approach and perceived social support.

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Negative Studies Should Inform Our Research and Care: Engaging Family Members in the Care of the Critically Ill

ICU delirium is a deleterious and pervasive complication of critical illness, occurring in up to 80% of ICU patients ([1]). The reader should conclude from the study by Fiest et al ([11]) that, at this time, the family administered delirium screening tools FAM-CAM and Sour Seven should not replace intensivist administered CAM-ICU or ICDSC. We should understand that the diagnosis of delirium is difficult even with medical training; the recognition of acute delirium may be best identified through individuals most familiar with the patient, albeit with some tools and training. In summary, Fiest et al ([11]) are to be commended on performing a sizable study among critically ill patients to assess the test characteristics of two novel family administered delirium screening tools, the FAM-CAM and Sour Seven. [Extracted from the article]

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Interventions to Support Family Caregivers in Pain Management: A Systematic Review

Context: Family caregivers encounter many challenges when managing pain for their loved ones. There is a lack of clear recommendations on how to prepare caregivers in pain management. Objectives: To evaluate existing interventions that support family caregivers in providing pain management to patients with all disease types. Methods: Four electronic databases were systematically searched (PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, and Scopus) using index and keyword methods for articles published before December 2019. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess the quality. Results: The search identified 6851 studies, and 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies exclusively focused on noncancer populations (8%). Three types of interventions were identified in this review: educational interventions, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and technology-based interventions. Both educational and cognitive-behavioral interventions improved family caregiver and patient outcomes, but the content and intensity of these interventions in these studies varied widely, and there was a limited number of randomized clinical trials (68%). Hence, it is unclear what strategies are most effective to prepare family caregivers in pain management. Technology-based interventions were feasible to support family caregivers in providing pain management. Conclusion: Providing adequate pain management training can improve patient and family caregiver outcomes. However, the most effective interventions for family caregivers are still unclear. More rigorous and replicable clinical trials are needed to examine the effects of educational interventions, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and technology-based interventions. Also, more studies are needed in patients with a noncancer diagnosis or multimorbidity. 

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How Can the Arts Influence the Attitudes of Dementia Caregivers? A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Investigation

Background and Objectives Arts activities can improve social connectedness and foster reciprocity between people living with dementia and their caregivers. The extent to which the arts can help shape attitudes towards dementia remains unclear. This paper explores the impact of a 12-week visual arts program "Dementia and Imagination" on the attitudes of family and professional caregivers through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation, underpinned by a conceptual framework of the arts in dementia care. Research Design and Methods One hundred and forty-six family and professional caregivers were recruited across three settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on caregivers' attitudes and perceptions of the impact of the arts program were collected through interviews at three time points. Results Thematic analysis identified four themes shared across the caregivers: (1) Recognizing capabilities , (2) Social connectedness , (3) Improvements to well-being , and (4) Equality and personhood. Two further themes were distinct to family caregivers: (5) Duration of the effects of the art program , and (6) Enriched perspective. The final theme Inspiring professional development was distinct to the professional caregivers. The quantitative analysis found no effect for caregivers' attitude change over time. Family caregivers scored significantly lower than professional caregivers at each of the three time points. Discussion and Implications Art programs have the potential to make visible the capabilities of the people living with dementia, enabling caregivers to see the person behind the condition. This study highlights practice implications for future implementation, such as the role of the arts in dementia care education. 

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FAMILIES: an effective healthcare intervention for caregivers of community dwelling people living with dementia

Objectives: Caregiving for a person with dementia (PWD) carries increased risk of poorer health and quality of life. Non-pharmacological interventions improve outcomes for caregivers of PWDs. We evaluated the efficacy of a modified New York University Caregiver Intervention (NYUCI), named FAMILIES, delivered to spousal and non-spousal caregivers of PWDs from diverse etiologies in a reduced number of sessions. Methods: Participants were 122 primary caregivers for community dwelling PWDs in Virginia. The intervention included two individual and four family/group counseling sessions that integrated dementia education, coping skills and behavioral management training, emotional support, and identification of family and community resources. Assessment of depression, caregiver well-being and burden, and caregiver reactions to the behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD) were completed at baseline, the sixth session, and 6-month follow-up. Results: Symptoms of depression (p <.001) and caregiver burden (p =.001) and caregivers' capacity to effectively manage their reactions to BSD (p =.003), significantly improved at the sixth session. Benefits were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Being married and female predicted improvement in caregiver burden; being male and living in a rural area predicted reduced risk of depression. Caregivers reported that the intervention was helpful and had a positive impact on the PWD. Conclusions: Modifications to the NYUCI did not diminish its efficacy. Caregivers in FAMILIES experienced improvements in depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, and their ability to effectively manage their reactions to BSD. Systemic support for implementing FAMILIES could have a broad impact on caregivers, PWDs, and the healthcare system. 

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Exploring the Impact of a Peer-Led Education Group for Loved Ones of Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study

Clinicians have long identified the psychological impacts and objective burdens on family members and caregivers who support loved ones with psychiatric conditions. However, there is a lack of programming available to support families with relatives who have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, and research in this area is scant. The current pilot study evaluated the impact of providing a peer-led education group for loved ones of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A mixed-methods study design was implemented: quantitative self-report scales were used to derive scores of mastery and burden and focus groups gathered qualitative narratives. Data were collected from participants (N = 15) before and after the group intervention, as well as 4 months later. Quantitative results indicated that while participants initially reported a sense of burden in their caregiving role, their self-report of this phenomenon reduced over time following engagement with the group. The focus groups revealed that participants found the group had a positive impact on their well-being as a result of the information, skills acquisition, and support/validation they received. They also noted clinical improvements for their relatives with BPD. This study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the peer-led education group in supporting families. The results suggest that particular variables such as peer leadership, skills-based learning, and focus on caregiver wellness—rather than on the person with a diagnosis – may explain improved outcomes of this family intervention.

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The evidence supporting educational videos for patients and caregivers receiving hospice and palliative care: A systematic review

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the evidence surrounding educational videos for patients and family caregivers in hospice and palliative care. We ask three research questions: 1. What is the evidence for video interventions? 2. What is the quality of the evidence behind video interventions? 3. What are the outcomes of video interventions? Methods: The study is a systematic review, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Researchers systematically searched five databases for experimental and observational studies on the evidence supporting video education for hospice and palliative care patients and caregivers, published in 1969-2019. Results: The review identified 31 relevant articles with moderate-high quality of evidence. Most studies were experimental (74 %), came from the United States (84 %) and had a mean sample size of 139 participants. Studies showed that video interventions positively affect preferences of care and advance care planning, provide emotional support, and serve as decision and information aids. Conclusion: A strong body of evidence has emerged for video education interventions in hospice and palliative care. Additional research assessing video interventions' impact on clinical outcomes is needed. Practice Implications: Videos are a promising tool for patient and family education in hospice and palliative care.

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Evaluation of START (STrAtegies for RelaTives) adapted for carers of people with Lewy body dementia

Family carers of people with Lewy body dementia (LBD) have a particularly high burden of care, as LBD has a faster rate of decline, greater physical dependence and additional neuropsychiatric disturbances compared with other dementias. Despite this, there are no evidence-based support services designed specifically for LBD carers. STrAtegies for RelaTives (START) is an eight-session, individually delivered coping therapy that has been shown in a randomised controlled trial to reduce depression and anxiety symptoms and increase quality of life in carers of people with dementia, with effects lasting several years. We adapted START for LBD, and piloted its use both face-to-face and on the phone with 10 carers to test acceptability and indications of similar effects in this group. Our findings suggest that the therapy was acceptable and feasible using either delivery mode, providing much appreciated and needed strategies, education and support for carers of people with LBD. Trials of effectiveness are now needed. 

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Evaluation of a psychoeducational intervention compared with education in people with Parkinson's disease and their informal caregivers: a quasi‐experimental study

Aim: To evaluate the effects of a psychoeducational intervention compared with an education programme to strengthen quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, and coping in people with Parkinson's disease and their informal caregivers. Design: A quasi‐experimental study was performed with repeated measures at baseline, after the intervention and 6 months post‐intervention. Methods: The study was carried out at seven primary care centres from 2015‐2017. A total of 140 people with Parkinson's and 127 informal caregivers were allocated to the experimental and the control groups. The experimental group received a 9‐week psychoeducational intervention, whereas the control group received a 5‐week education programme. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to test differences in quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, and coping between the experimental and control groups and over time. Results: Patients and informal caregivers in both the experimental and control groups showed significantly better psychosocial adjustment at the post‐intervention measurement compared with baseline data. We also found significantly greater quality of life in patients and coping skills in caregivers after the end of the interventions in the experimental and control groups. Nevertheless, no significant differences were identified on the outcomes at the 6‐month post‐intervention measurement. Conclusion: The effect of the psychoeducational intervention was not different from the effect of the education programme. The strategies applied in both interventions followed a group approach led by a multidisciplinary team covering information about PD, healthy lifestyles, and social resources. They might be easily sustained in Primary Care to improve care for people with Parkinson's and informal caregivers.

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Effects of strength‐based intervention on health outcomes of family caregivers of persons with dementia: A study protocol

Aims: This study aims at identifying the health effects of a strength‐based intervention on family caregivers of persons with dementia and to explore the underlying mechanism. The perception of family caregivers on the strength‐based intervention will also be explored. Design: This sequential mixed‐method study comprises a double‐blind randomized controlled trial and a descriptive qualitative study. Methods: A group of 372 family caregivers of persons with dementia will be recruited from community settings. They will be randomized to receive the strength‐based intervention or a dementia education program. Based on Antonovksy's theory of salutogenesis, the strength‐based intervention integrates skills of narrative therapy and empowerment strategies. It comprises 14 weekly group‐based sessions and two bi‐weekly follow‐up telephone calls. The education program serves as the control intervention. Validated instruments are used to measure sense of coherence, coping, caregiver burden, and health‐related quality of life at baseline, 14 weeks, and 22 weeks. Mixed‐effects models and path analysis will be used to identify the treatment effect and the mediating mechanism. A subsample of 30 caregivers who report differential changes in the health outcome will be engaged in qualitative interviews. The study was funded in 2017. Discussion: This study marks the first attempt to adopt a theory‐driven strength‐based approach to improve the health outcomes of family caregivers of persons with dementia. The stringent and comprehensive evaluation will inform its effects and the underlying mechanism. Impact: This study will have important theoretical and public health implications. Theoretically, the study will enhance understanding of Antonovsky's theory of salutogenesis by examining the modifiability of sense of coherence and the way it enhances health‐related outcomes. In terms of public health implications, the strength‐based intervention focusing on optimizing the inner strength can provide a new paradigm to promote the adjustment of family caregivers of persons with dementia. Trial Registration: This project was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of the Centre for Clinical Research and Biostatistics (registration number: CUHK_CCRB00551; date registered: 6 April 2017).

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Effects of an educational intervention on health-related quality of life among family caregivers of people with dementia with a Turkish or Moroccan immigrant background: Insights from a cluster randomised controlled trial

Objective: Gaining understanding of the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of family caregivers of people with dementia with Turkish or Moroccan immigrant backgrounds and to examine whether an educational peer group intervention can improve HRQL.; Methods: Understanding of HRQL and associated variables was obtained by multiple linear regression analyses. The effects of the intervention on HRQL were assessed in multilevel analyses using data collected before the start (baseline), directly after the intervention (one to two weeks after baseline) and three months after the start of the intervention. The intervention (two interactive group sessions) entailed providing information about dementia and care/support options.; Results: At baseline (n = 319), HRQL was moderately and significantly associated with migration background, gender, self-perceived pressure from informal care and the formal and informal support received (p < .05). The intervention had a small effect on emotional wellbeing directly after the intervention (p < .05) and on perceived general health status three months after (p < .05).; Conclusion: Culturally sensitive peer group education on dementia and care/support options can to some extent enhance HRQL among family caregivers in the short term.; Practice Implications: The intervention as described in this study is recommended for supporting family caregivers of people with dementia with Turkish or Moroccan backgrounds. 

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Effects of a Death Education Intervention for Older People with Chronic Disease and Family Caregivers: A Quasi-Experimental Study

To investigate the effectiveness of a structured death education program for older adults with chronic illness and their family caregivers. This study adopted two-group, nonrandomized quasi-experimental design. Patient–caregiver dyads in the intervention group (N = 40 dyads) engaged in the death education program at the bedside once a week for 5 weeks, and were compared with participants (N = 40 dyads) in the control group who received usual health education. The program consisted of five sessions based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Death attitude, death competence, well-being, family function, and satisfaction were measured at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1), and 1 month later (T2). Data collection was conducted from July 30, 2019, to December 30, 2019. The intention-to-treat analysis The intention-to-treat analysis of between groups at 1-month follow-up revealed that the intervention group had greater decreases in the fear of death (p =.002, 95% CI -2.53, -0.47; p <.001, 95% CI -3.61, -1.65) and death avoidance (p <.001, 95% CI -3.46, -1.84; p <.001, 95% CI -3.89, -2.43), had greater increases in the neutral acceptance (p =.032, 95% CI 0.05, 1.38; p <.001, 95% CI 0.99, 2.56) and death competence (p <.001, 95% CI 4.10, 8.01; p <.001, 95% CI 7.80, 12.11) in patients and caregivers, respectively. There were significant intergroup differences over time for patient well-being of (p <.001, 95% CI 3.06, 9.74) and satisfaction of (p <.001, 95% CI 2.01, 4.59). Results were consistent with the results from the sensitivity analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of death education in hospitals and provided an implementation plan for nursing professionals. Nurses should consider providing death education for older adults with chronic diseases and their families to promote the development of palliative care and the quality of end-of-life.

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Effectiveness of Powerful Tools for Caregivers on Caregiver Burden and on Care Recipient Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention, Powerful Tools for Caregivers (PTC), for family caregivers of individuals with dementia. A pragmatic, 2-arm randomized controlled trial compared the PTC intervention, as delivered in practice, to usual care. Participants randomized to usual care functioned as a control group and then received the PTC intervention. PTC is a 6-week manualized program that includes weekly 2-hour classes in a group setting facilitated by 2 trained and certified leaders. The educational program helps caregivers to enhance self-care practices and manage emotional distress. Two stakeholder organizations delivered the intervention in community settings. Participants were family caregivers of individuals with dementia recruited from the community in Florida. Primary outcomes were caregiver burden and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia of the care recipient. Secondary outcomes included caregiver depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, self-rated health, and life satisfaction. Measures were collected at baseline (n = 60 participants), postintervention (n = 55), and at 6-week follow-up (n = 44). Intent-to-treat analyses found PTC reduced caregiver burden (d = −0.48) and depressive symptoms (d = −0.53), and increased self-confidence (d = 0.68), but found no significant benefit for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in care recipients. PTC was rated highly by participants and program attrition was low, with 94% of caregivers completing at least 4 of the 6 classes. Although no significant effects were found for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, this trial supports the effectiveness of PTC to improve caregiver outcomes as delivered in the community. 

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Effect of Strengthening Family Coping Resources on Emotion Regulation of Family Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia

Background: Strengthening the coping resources as an instruction for anxiety-regulation may affect the emotion-regulation of families. Regarding the significant role of families in health of these patients, it seems that interference in strengthening coping resources affects their emotion-regulation. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of strengthening family coping resources on the emotion-regulation of schizophrenic patients' caregivers. Method: This quasi-experimental research was conducted on families with hospitalized schizophrenic patients in one of the most prominent psychiatric centers in the Northeast of Iran in 2018. The participants were assigned to intervention (n=29) and control (n=31) groups. A short revised form of Emotion-Regulation Questionnaire was utilized as data collection tool. The intervention based on strengthening family coping resources (SFCR) was administered in three modules and 15 group sessions (groups of 6-8 individuals) according to the instructions of the multi-family model of Kisser et al. On the other hand, the controls received routine cares in hospital wards. The data were analyzed in SPSS software version (16) using independent and paired t-tests. Results: The groups were homogenous in terms of demographic characteristics. The result of independent t-test demonstrated a significant difference in the mean score of revaluation (P=0.001) and suppression (p=0.001) in the intervention group, compared to the control group, after the intervention. Implications for Practice: This intervention can guide clinicians on how to implement a familycentered care program to reduce the burden of caring schizophrenic patients through gaining family support in the efficient care of these patients.

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Effect of group counseling on the attitude among the family caregivers of patients with mental disorders

Background and Aim: Incorrect beliefs and negative thinking of society and in the family affect psychiatric patients over the process of treatment, care and recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of group counseling on the attitude of family caregivers in patients with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted in psychiatric wards of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan in Iran in 2018. 49 family caregivers were randomly selected to the study. Data were collected using a researcher-made mental attitude questionnaire. At first, family caregivers' attitudes were evaluated; then, they held 4 groups and for each group done 4 sessions of 60 minutes of group counseling. The questionnaire was completed again by the family caregivers immediately after the intervention. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean of the attitude of the family caregivers before the group counseling was (12.59 ± 13.49). The mean of the attitude score of family caregivers after group counseling was (24.45 ± 8.32). Paired t-test showed that the attitude score of caregivers increased significantly after group counseling (p <0.001). Discussion and Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that group counseling improves the attitude of family caregivers towards mental illness. Therefore, it is recommended that psychiatric nurses use this method to educate families of mental patients. 

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The Effect of Emotion Regulation Training on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Family Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Schizophrenia is the most severe chronic disabling psychiatric disorder that needs long term care in various aspects. Therefore, the family's emotional atmosphere caused by the disease affects the condition of the patients' caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of emotional regulation training on stress, anxiety, and depression in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. The study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy caregivers of patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to a group that received emotion regulation training and a control group. The intervention group was trained about emotion regulation during eight 90-min sessions. The participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 questionnaire before and one month after the intervention. The results showed that stress, anxiety and depression scores significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group. Emotional regulation training with cognitive methods has significantly reduced the anxiety, stress, and depression of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. 

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The effect of family-centered empowerment program on the family caregiver burden and the activities of daily living of Iranian patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial study

Dependence of stroke survivors regarding the ability to perform activities of daily living imposes a burden on family caregivers. The study evaluated the effect of the family-centered empowerment program on the ability of Iranian patients with stroke to perform activities of daily living, as well as on family caregiver burden. In this randomized controlled trial study, a total of 90 pairs of patients with stroke and their family caregivers was selected and randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. Patients and their family caregivers participated in four family-centered empowerment program sessions over four consecutive days while the patient was hospitalized. The difference in the ability of patients with stroke in the intervention and control groups to perform activities of daily living was not significant 2 weeks after the intervention. However, the ability of patients with stroke in the intervention group to perform activities of daily living increased significantly 2 months after the intervention compared with the control group: 66 ± 35.95 and 51.31 ± 36.28, respectively (p = 0.047). Two weeks after the intervention, the family caregiver burden significantly decreased in the intervention group (29.55 ± 15.38) compared with the control group (38.77 ± 18.53 and p = 0.012). The burden in the intervention group also decreased 2 months after the intervention compared with the control group: 22.95 ± 15.68 and 36.11 ± 18.88, respectively (p < 0.001). Nurses can use the family-centered empowerment program to improve the quality of life of patients with stroke, and to reduce the burden of family caregivers.

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Development and validation a nursing care protocol with educational interventions for family caregivers of elderly people after stroke

Objective: development and validation the content of a nursing care protocol with educational interventions for family caregivers of elderly people after stroke. Methods: a methodological study conducted in three stages: (1) protocol development through literature review; (2) pretest with multidisciplinary team, analyzed with literature articulation; (3) protocol validation by the Delphi Technique. Results: the protocol was structured in the following areas: Disease Guidelines; Emotional Support; Using the Health Care Network; Diet; Airways; Medications; Hygiene; Skin Care; Disposal; Dressing/Undressing; Positioning and Transfer; Fall Prevention. In the pretest, eight experts assessed protocol clarity and content. In validation, there were two rounds by the Delphi Technique. The validated protocol consisted of 12 domains, containing 42 items and 240 care guidelines. Conclusion: the protocol qualifies the transition of care after hospital discharge assisting nurses in home care practice.

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Development and Evaluation of a Post-Hip Fracture Instructional Workshop for Caregivers

Background and Purpose: A hip fracture is an unexpected traumatic event. Caregivers of patients with an acute hip fracture have only short time to learn the new skills of postoperative care and handling of the patient. This sudden responsibility changes the life of the caregivers who perceive a higher level of preoccupation about the care of their family member/friend. The objective of this study was to develop and test feasibility for a post-hip fracture inpatient instructional workshop for caregivers of older adults with hip fracture and to establish their knowledge of hip fracture recovery and perceptions of the utility and satisfaction with the workshop. Methods: This 2-part study was conducted at the University Hospital of Granada, Spain, from September 2016 to April 2017. We invited caregivers of patients (60 years of age or older) hospitalized for a surgically treated fall-related hip fracture to attend an informational and skill development hospital-based workshop (60-90 minutes in duration) on post-discharge management strategies. Following the workshop, we invited caregivers to complete a questionnaire to obtain their knowledge about care after hip fracture and their perceived concerns. Furthermore, we requested that they provide feedback on workshop utility and satisfaction (0-10 points) and suggestions for improving the workshop. Results and Discussion: We delivered 42 workshops over an 8 month period. One hundred three caregivers attended the sessions and enrolled in the study, mean (SD) age: 52.1 (12.8) years. Sixty-nine percent of the caregivers were women. Caregivers' main concern was apprehension for delivering physical care to their family member/friend (75%), followed by lack of time (42%). Caregivers who were employed were 3.16 times as likely to be concerned about time availability to provide care for their family member/friend. The median (Q1, Q3) of both workshop utility and satisfaction was 10 (10, 10), minimum-maximum: 7 to 10. Conclusions: Caregivers in this study stated that the workshop was useful and satisfactory. Because caregivers play such a vital role in recovery after hip fracture, providing knowledge and skill development as part of health care delivery may support more person-centered care.

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Developing Service User Skills in Co-Production of Research: Course Development and Evaluation

Purpose : The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of the increasing importance of service user and carer involvement in social work research. The paper outlines actions taken to develop knowledge and skills at post-qualifying level. Method : In 2016 three postgraduate modules on research methods and evidence-into-practice for service users and carers were created and taught jointly with existing parallel post-qualifying modules for experienced social workers. Over a three-year period 2016-2019 modular assessments; pre and post-testing of knowledge and self-efficacy; regular participant feedback sheets; and end-of-course reflections were undertaken. Results : Qualitative feedback indicated that the classroom experience was regarded positively. Valuable literature reviews and projects were produced which have the potential to contribute to transferring knowledge into practice. Though small in scale and using non-validated tools, increased mean scores were recorded on both Test of Knowledge (3.97; p <.001) and Self Efficacy (478.8 ( p <.001) showing promise. Formal measures, exam results, and informal feedback demonstrate the success of the initiative as a means of enhancing a wider understanding of user participation in the research process. Discussion: Demonstrating how well-equipped service users and carers are to be more effective on research advisory panels and grant committees will take more time. Conclusion: Providing teaching on research methods for service users jointly with experienced social workers shows potential for developing coproduction of social care research and translating evidence into practice.

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Caregiver-Guided Pain Management for Advanced Cancer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Objectives Explain the potential benefits of a caregiver-assisted pain coping skills training intervention. Describe the relative benefits of the caregiver-assisted pain coping skills intervention compared to enhanced treatment-as-usual for patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers. Describe challenges of delivering a behavioral intervention to patients with serious illness. Importance. Pain is common among patients with advanced cancer and causes distress for both patients and their caregivers. Cognitive-behavioral pain coping skills interventions can improve pain and pain-related outcomes but have rarely been tested in advanced cancer. Objective(s). To conduct a multi-site RCT testing the efficacy of a caregiver-assisted pain coping skills training (CG-CST) intervention for advanced cancer. Method(s). Patients with stage III-IV cancer and moderate-severe pain and their family caregivers were recruited from four academic medical centers and one hospice/palliative care organization. They were randomized to CG-CST or enhanced treatmentas-usual (E-TAU). Dyads in both conditions received educational resources on pain management; those in CG-CST received three 60-minute sessions via videoconference. Caregiver outcomes (self-efficacy for helping the patient manage pain, caregiver strain, caregiving satisfaction, psychological distress) and patient outcomes (self-efficacy for pain management, pain intensity and interference, psychological distress) were collected at baseline and post-intervention. Results. 202 dyads enrolled and were randomized to E-TAU (N¼101) or CG-CST (N¼101). 171 dyads (92 E-TAU, 79 CG-CST) completed post-intervention assessments. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to estimate pre-post changes in outcomes; effect sizes (ES) for within and between group changes were calculated. Both conditions led to comparable improvements in patient self-efficacy (E-TAU/CG-CST ES¼0.42/0.43), caregiver self-efficacy (E-TAU/CGCST ES¼0.43/0.42), patient pain severity (E-TAU/ CG-CST ES¼-0.27/-0.32), pain interference (E-TAU/ CG-CST ES¼-0.44/0.42), and patient psychological distress (E-TAU/CG-CST ES¼-0.31/-0.27) (all p's<.02). Compared to E-TAU, CG-CST improved caregiving satisfaction (differential ES¼0.41, p<.01) and tended to improve caregiver anxiety (differential ES¼-0.30, p¼.06). Conclusion(s). Contrary to expectations, the CGCST intervention did not improve pain outcomes relative to enhanced TAU, although it did lead to improved caregiving satisfaction and decreased caregiver anxiety. Differential retention in the study arms and temporal improvement trends may have impacted findings. Impact. Despite the promise of behavioral pain coping interventions, challenges in retaining seriously ill patients in such interventions may dampen their effects.

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Building Capacity for Caregiver Education in Yap, Micronesia

The US Affiliated Pacific Islands have an urgent need for family caregiver education to prevent caregiver burnout and strengthen the existing culture where seniors are cared for at home by their families. The Pacific Islands Geriatric Education Center conducted a 32-hour family caregiver train-the-trainer workshop in partnership with the Yap Department of Health Services and the Yap Area Health Education Center (AHEC) from October 16 - 20, 2017. Twenty-seven participants including community health workers, peer educators, health assistants, nurses, and physicians were trained as instructors. Confidence in caregiving increased following the training and feedback was extremely positive. Competence in geriatric syndromes was improved after attending the workshop (P < .001). Lessons from the field revealed an immense value of adding home visits to the training practicum as well as the need to translate caregiving handouts into the outer island languages. Yap AHEC is committed to offering this course as part of caregiver education at the hospital and in the community. 

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Biopsychosocial intervention for stroke carers (BISC): results of a feasibility randomised controlled trial and nested qualitative interview study

Objective: To determine the feasibility of recruiting to and delivering a biopsychosocial intervention for carers of stroke survivors. Design: Feasibility randomised controlled study with nested qualitative interview study. Setting: The intervention was delivered in the community in either a group or one-to-one format. Subjects: Carers and stroke survivors within one year of stroke onset. Interventions: A carer targeted intervention delivered by a research psychologist in six structured two-hour sessions or usual care control. The intervention combined education about the biological, psychological and social effects of stroke with strategies and techniques focussing on adjustment to stroke and caregiving. Stroke survivors in both groups received baseline and follow-up assessment but no intervention. Main Outcome: Recruitment rate, study attrition, fidelity of intervention delivery, acceptability and sensitivity of outcome measures used (health related quality of life, anxiety and depression and carer burden six months after randomisation). Results: Of the 257 carers approached, 41 consented. Six withdrew before randomisation. Eighteen participants were randomised to receive the intervention and 17 to usual care. Attendance at sessions was greater when treated one-to-one. Feedback interviews suggested that participants found the intervention acceptable and peer support particularly helpful in normalising their feelings. Thirty participants were assessed at follow-up with improvements from baseline on all health measures for both groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a biopsychosocial intervention was acceptable to carers and can be delivered in group and one-to-one formats. Timing of approach and mode of intervention delivery is critical and requires tailoring to the carers individual needs. 

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Benefits of mindful compassion for staff, patients and carers

Aims and objective: This study intended to examine the long-term effect on the emotional wellbeing and behaviour change of staff, patients and carers who attended a one-day Macmillan course on mindful compassion. Methods: People who attended mindful compassion study days in 2016 and 2017 were invited to participate in an online questionnaire in 2019. Results: Nearly 50% (99) of the 200 people who received the invitation completed the survey. Immediately after the course, 38.78% practised mindful compassion as and when required, 28.57% practised when possible, 15.31% practised daily, 13.27% practised 3–4 times a week and 3.5% were not practising. More than half (56%) used mindful compassion to help with home and work life, relationships and family. Two or three years after the course, when asked again, 15.31% of those who answered still practised daily, 11.22% practised 3–4 times a week, 23.47% practised as and when possible and 42.86% did so as needed; 7.14% had not continued practising. Conclusion: Training in mindful compassion benefits patients and carers. In both the short and long terms, mindful compassion was found to reduce anxiety, aid sleep, improve pain management and help people feel more empowered, calm and relaxed. It also helped people cope with stressful situations, gave them time for themselves and enabled them to become much more focused.

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Assessing a WeChat-Based Integrative Family Intervention (WIFI) for Schizophrenia: Protocol for a Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial

Background: Schizophrenia is a persistent and debilitating mental illness, and its prognosis depends largely on supportive care and systematic treatment. In developing countries like China, families constitute the major caregiving force for schizophrenia and are faced with many challenges, such as lack of knowledge, skills, and resources. The approach to support family caregiving in an accessible, affordable, feasible, and cost-effective way remains unclear. The wide-spread use of WeChat provides a promising and cost-effective medium for support.; Objective: We aim to present a protocol for assessing a WeChat-based integrative family intervention (WIFI) to support family caregiving for schizophrenia.; Methods: We will develop a WIFI program that includes the following three core components: (1) psychoeducation (WeChat official account), (2) peer support (WeChat chat group), and (3) professional support (WeChat video chat). A rigorous stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial will be used to evaluate the implementation, effectiveness, and cost of the WIFI program. The WIFI program will be implemented in 12 communities affiliated with Changsha Psychiatric Hospital through the free medicine delivery process in the 686 Program. The 12 communities will be randomized to one of four fixed sequences every 2 months during an 8-month intervention period in four clusters of three communities each. Outcomes will be assessed for both family caregivers and people with schizophrenia. Family caregivers will be assessed for their knowledge and skills about caregiving, social support, coping, perceived stigma, caregiver burden, family functioning, positive feelings, and psychological distress. People with schizophrenia will be assessed for their symptoms, functioning, quality of life, recovery, and rehospitalization. Cost data, such as intervention costs, health care utilization costs, and costs associated with lost productivity, will be collected. Moreover, we will collect process data, including fidelity and quality of program implementation, as well as user attitude data. Treatment effects will be estimated using generalized linear maximum likelihood mixed modeling with clusters as a random effect and time as a fixed effect. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the societal perspective using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Qualitative analysis will use the grounded theory approach and immersion-crystallization process.; Results: The study was funded in August 2018 and approved by the institutional review board on January 15, 2019. Preliminary baseline data collection was conducted in May 2019 and completed in September 2019. The WIFI program is expected to start in September 2020.; Conclusions: This is the first study to assess a WeChat-based mHealth intervention to support family caregiving for schizophrenia in China. The innovative study will contribute to the development of a more cost-effective and evidence-based family management model in the community for people with schizophrenia, and the approach could potentially be integrated into national policy and adapted for use in other populations.; Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04393896; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04393896.; International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/18538. (©Yu Yu, Tongxin Li, Shijun Xi, Yilu Li, Xi Xiao, Min Yang, Xiaoping Ge, Shuiyuan Xiao, Jacob Tebes. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.08.2020.)

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Adapting a Palliative Care Literacy Intervention for Use in Israel (GP787)

Objectives Describe growth of palliative care in Israel and the need to increased palliative care literacy among patients and family caregivers. Describe the process of adapting the Managing Cancer Care intervention for use in Israel. Summarize recommended expert panel, patient, and family caregiver edits to the Managing Cancer Care intervention. Importance. Although palliative care (PC) is growing in Israel, few receive PC due to lack of knowledge and availability of services. Increased PC literacy and use is needed to improve health outcomes. Objective(s). Adapt a PC-focused cancer self-management intervention to improve PC literacy and use in Israel. Method(s). Managing Cancer Care (MCC) consists of two interventions, MCC-PTfor patients and MCCCGfor family caregivers. Both have improved knowledge of PC and its integration into cancer self-management among users in Connecticut. To adapt MCC for use in Israel, we professionally translated MCC from English to Hebrew. An expert panel of Israeli clinicians (n¼3) edited modules for cultural relevance. We conducted cognitive interviews with patients and family caregivers at an oncology center in northern Israel to inform further edits. Inclusion criteria were patients and family caregivers managing Stage III/IV breast cancer, aged 18+, Hebrew- or English-speaking, and receiving any type of treatment. Participants provided demographic/clinical information and received the appropriate version of MCC. Interviews on intervention content and format occurred 2-4 weeks later. We analyzed interview data using content analysis. Results. Following expert review, we revised MCC content specific to the U.S. health care system (e.g., hospice benefit) and American culture/language (e.g., no Hebrew word for ''multidisciplinary''). Patients' (n¼13) mean age was 49 (range 36-69). 85% had Stage IV disease with an average 6 years since diagnosis. Caregivers' (n¼10) mean age was 57 (range 47-66) with 60% male. 23% of patients and 30% of caregivers correctly defined PC. 30% of patients had seen a PC physician. MCC was reported by patients and caregivers as topically relevant (80%,70%), attractive (70%,80%), and culturally appropriate, and suggested more Israel-specific content on PC resources. Conclusion(s). MCC appears acceptable to Israeli users and warrants pilot-testing. Impact. PC infrastructure in Israel may grow in response to increased PC literacy and requests for PC. We are collaborating with Israel's Ministry of Health to further study objectives.

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A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Stress Relief Programs for Family Caregivers of Older People with Dementia

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stress-relief programs on positive aspects of caregiving and depression among caregivers of older people with dementia. A quasi-experimental design was employed. Participants in the experimental group received a 8-week period and 120 minutes each session cognitive-behavioral therapy. Participants in the control group received standard health education. Stress relief programs may alleviate depression and increase positive aspects of caregiving among family caregivers of older people with dementia. These findings will help health professionals to implement stress-relief strategies for family caregivers of older people with dementia, or to use those strategies to increase positive aspects of caregiving, or to alleviate depression in caregivers.

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An empowerment program for family caregivers of people with dementia

Objectives: Family caregivers of people with dementia (PWD) often feel powerless and experience decreased well-being. Our aim was to develop an intervention program based on the caregiver empowerment model (CEM) and apply it with the Korean caregivers to evaluate its effects. Design and Sample: The study population comprised 115 family caregivers (experimental group, n = 35, control group 1, n = 40, control group 2, n = 40). Methods: Using an experimental design with two control groups. The experimental group received a 12-week program including intensive counseling, education, and telephone calls. The control group 1 (CG1) received usual service. The control group 2 (CG2) was provided with a handbook during the first week. A mixed-effects model was used to clarify longitudinal changes in participants' outcomes. Results: The experimental group showed significantly increased caregiving appraisal (effect size in CG1 = −7.25; CG2 = −5.63), caregiving attitude (CG1 = −21.47; CG2 = −17.79), self-efficacy (CG1 = −12.42; CG2 = −10.12), and well-being (CG1 = −4.33; CG2 = −2.35) after the program. Conclusions: The empowerment program can be used to promote family caregivers' positive adaptation and to help caregivers who care for PWD to effectively cope with their problems. 

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Health literacy and health communication training for underserved patients and informal family caregivers

Communication training effectiveness for health care providers has been well documented, however patient and caregiver training may present a prime opportunity to mitigate communication challenges that provider-only training cannot. The aim of this study is to describe the multi-step process of adapting a national, provider, health communication training program (COMFORT) for use with underserved patients and caregivers who (1) are not regular consumers within health care systems and/or (2) do not have ready access to providers. We examine three iterations of training feedback for implementation in future training. 

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Translating an Evidence-based Multicomponent Intervention for Older Adults With Dementia and Caregivers

Background and Objectives Effective community-based programs to maintain health and well-being of adults with dementia are needed. This article describes the translation, implementation, and effectiveness of a multicomponent exercise plus behavioral/psychosocial intervention (Reducing Disability in Alzheimer's Disease-NorthWest [RDAD-NW]) conducted by staff in regional Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). Research Design and Methods Staggered multiple baseline design was used; 10 AAAs, 20 case managers, and 255 community-residing persons with dementia (PWDs), and family caregivers were enrolled. RDAD-NW was conducted in-home over 6 weeks with aerobic/endurance, strength, and balance/flexibility exercises, dementia education, training to increase pleasant events, and activator-behavior-consequence problem-solving approach. Outcomes included case manager treatment fidelity, and caregiver/PWD physical activity, restricted activity days, physical functioning, quality of life, and affect. Results RDAD-NW was successfully translated and implemented by AAA agency staff through their usual service provision mechanisms. Staff responded positively and delivered the program with a high degree of fidelity. Caregiver/PWD dyads also responded favorably engaging in both exercise and behavioral/psychosocial portions of the program. A total of 207 dyads (81%) completed the intervention and 140 (55%) completed the 13-month follow-up. PWD physical activity increased significantly pre- to posttreatment (p < .001, ES = .54), and 13 months (p < .01, ES = .21). Quality of life of PWD increased significantly pre- to posttreatment (p < .001, ES = .29); caregiver depression improved pre- to posttreatment (p = .01, ES = −.18). Discussion and Implications RDAD-NW was successfully translated and implemented by AAA case managers and resulted in increased physical activity and improved behavioral and emotional outcomes of caregiver/PWDs. Results support continued dissemination and implementation of RDAD-NW.

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‘Living together with dementia’ – Conceptual validation of training programme for family caregivers: Innovative practice

This article presents results from a conceptual validation of the programme ‘Living Together with Dementia’, through an e-Delphi study carried out during April/May, 2015 with 26 Portuguese and Spanish experts. The programme consists of seven individual weekly sessions and two group sessions over a seven-week period. It covers dementia, communication and behaviour; demands and expectations of the caregiver role; basic activities of daily living; coping and problem solving strategies; physical and mental health of the caregiver and community support. The programme methods mainly consist of discussion sessions, practical examples/simulations and skill training. 

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Identifying treatment effects of an informal caregiver education intervention to increase days in the community and decrease caregiver distress: a machine-learning secondary analysis of subgroup effects in the HI-FIVES randomized clinical trial

Background Informal caregivers report substantial burden and depressive symptoms which predict higher rates of patient institutionalization. While caregiver education interventions may reduce caregiver distress and decrease the use of long-term institutional care, evidence is mixed. Inconsistent findings across studies may be the result of reporting average treatment effects which do not account for how effects differ by participant characteristics. We apply a machine-learning approach to randomized clinical trial (RCT) data of the Helping Invested Family Members Improve Veteran's Experiences Study (HI-FIVES) intervention to explore how intervention effects vary by caregiver and patient characteristics. Methods We used model-based recursive partitioning models. Caregivers of community-residing older adult US veterans with functional or cognitive impairment at a single VA Medical Center site were randomized to receive HI-FIVES (n = 118) vs. usual care (n = 123). The outcomes included cumulative days not in the community and caregiver depressive symptoms assessed at 12 months post intervention. Potential moderating characteristics were: veteran age, caregiver age, caregiver ethnicity and race, relationship satisfaction, caregiver burden, perceived financial strain, caregiver depressive symptoms, and patient risk score. Results The effect of HI-FIVES on days not at home was moderated by caregiver burden (p < 0.001); treatment effects were higher for caregivers with a Zarit Burden Scale score <= 28. Caregivers with lower baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) scores (<= 8) had slightly lower CESD-10 scores at follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusions Family caregiver education interventions may be less beneficial for highly burdened and distressed caregivers; these caregivers may require a more tailored approach that involves assessing caregiver needs and developing personalized approaches.

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Oral Health Assessment by Lay Personnel for Older Adults

Oral health is an often-undervalued contributor to overall health. The literature, however, underscores the myriad of systemic diseases influenced by oral health, including type II diabetes, heart disease, and atherosclerosis. Thus, assessments of oral health, called oral screenings, have a significant role in assessing risk of disease, managing disease, and even improving disease by oral care. Here we present a method to assess oral health quickly and consistently across time. The protocol is simple enough for non-oral health professionals such as students, family, and caregivers. Useful for any age of patient, the method is particularly key for older individuals who are often at risk of inflammation and chronic disease. Components of the method include existing oral health assessment scales and inventories, which are combined to produce a comprehensive assessment of oral health. Thus, oral characteristics assessed include intraoral and extraoral structures, soft and hard tissues, natural and artificial teeth, plaque, oral functions such as swallowing, and the impact this oral health status has on the patient's quality of life. Advantages of this method include its inclusion of measures and perceptions of both the observer and patient, and its ability to track changes in oral health over time. Results acquired are quantitative totals of questionnaire and oral screening items, which can be summed for an oral health status score. The scores of successive oral screenings can be used to track the progression of oral health across time and guide recommendations for both oral and overall health care.

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Adapting Project RED to Skilled Nursing Facilities

This article describes our recommendation for adapting hospital-based RED (Reengineered Discharge) processes to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Using focus groups, the SNFs’ discharge processes were assessed twice additionally, research staff then recorded field notes documenting discussions about facility discharge processes as they related to RED processes. Data were systematically analyzed using thematic analysis to identify recommendations for adapting RED to the SNF setting including (a) rapidly identifying, involving, and preparing family/caregivers to implement a patient focused SNF discharge plan; (b) reconnecting patients quickly to primary care providers; and (c) educating patients at discharge about their target health condition, medications, and impact of changes on other chronic health needs. Limited SNF staff capacity and corporate-level policies limited adoption of some key RED components. Transitional care processes such as RED, developed to avoid discharge problems, can be adapted for SNFs to improve their discharges.

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Carer administration of as-needed subcutaneous medication for breakthrough symptoms in people dying at home: the CARiAD feasibility RCT

BACKGROUND: Most people who are dying want to be cared for at home, but only half of them achieve this. The likelihood of a home death often depends on the availability of able and willing lay carers. When people who are dying are unable to take oral medication, injectable medication is used. When top-up medication is required, a health-care professional travels to the dying person's home, which may delay symptom relief. The administration of subcutaneous medication by lay carers, although not widespread UK practice, has proven to be key in achieving better symptom control for those dying at home in other countries. OBJECTIVES: To determine if carer administration of as-needed subcutaneous medication for common breakthrough symptoms in people dying at home is feasible and acceptable in the UK, and if it would be feasible to test this intervention in a future definitive randomised controlled trial. DESIGN: We conducted a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomised, open pilot trial of the intervention versus usual care, with a 1 : 1 allocation ratio, using convergent mixed methods. SETTING: Home-based care without 24/7 paid care provision, in three UK sites. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were dyads of adult patients and carers: patients in the last weeks of their life who wished to die at home and lay carers who were willing to be trained to give subcutaneous medication. Strict risk assessment criteria needed to be met before approach, including known history of substance abuse or carer ability to be trained to competency. INTERVENTION: Intervention-group carers received training by local nurses using a manualised training package. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative data were collected at baseline and 6-8 weeks post bereavement and via carer diaries. Interviews with carers and health-care professionals explored attitudes to, experiences of and preferences for giving subcutaneous medication and experience of trial processes. The main outcomes of interest were feasibility, acceptability, recruitment rates, attrition and selection of the most appropriate outcome measures. RESULTS: In total, 40 out of 101 eligible dyads were recruited (39.6%), which met the feasibility criterion of recruiting > 30% of eligible dyads. The expected recruitment target (≈50 dyads) was not reached, as fewer than expected participants were identified. Although the overall retention rate was 55% (22/40), this was substantially unbalanced [30% (6/20) usual care and 80% (16/20) intervention]. The feasibility criterion of > 40% retention was, therefore, considered not met. A total of 12 carers (intervention, n = 10; usual care, n = 2) and 20 health-care professionals were interviewed. The intervention was considered acceptable, feasible and safe in the small study population. The context of the feasibility study was not ideal, as district nurses were seriously overstretched and unfamiliar with research methods. A disparity in readiness to consider the intervention was demonstrated between carers and health-care professionals. Findings showed that there were methodological and ethics issues pertaining to researching last days of life care. CONCLUSION: The success of a future definitive trial is uncertain because of equivocal results in the progression criteria, particularly poor recruitment overall and a low retention rate in the usual-care group. Future work regarding the intervention should include understanding the context of UK areas where this has been adopted, ascertaining wider public views and exploring health-care professional views on burden and risk in the NHS context. There should be consideration of the need for national policy and of the most appropriate quantitative outcome measures to use. This will help to ascertain if there are unanswered questions to be studied in a trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11211024. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology A sessment; Vol. 24, No. 25. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information

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Massive Open Online Courses: enhancing caregiver education and support about dementia care towards and at end of life

As the ageing population grows globally, the need for informal care-usually provided by family and friends-will continue to increase. Numbers of people with dementia also continue to rise, and much of their care will be provided by relatives. As such, more people who may themselves be older, will take on such caring roles. Consequently, more carers are likely to have education and support needs. Amidst government recognition of the need to provide good quality, person-centred education and support to carers, there are tensions between the potential for such provision to be resource intensive and whether existing services have the capacity to meet the needs of carers. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a resource with scope to meet some of these educational and support needs. MOOCs enable flexible learning, are often free, and can be accessed anywhere in the world. Providing supportive dementia care requires carers to have an understanding of the condition, assistance to cope with the responsibilities of caring, and recognition of the importance of their own health and wellbeing as well as the person they support. In response to the needs of family carers of people with advancing dementia identified through a 5 year programme of research, we developed a MOOC-dementia care: living well as dementia progresses. This is an accessible source of relevant and engaging information; which enables carers to learn about advancing dementia, consider their own needs and create an interactive global forum of peer support. 

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Caring4Dementia: A mobile application to train people caring for patients with dementia

Dementia is a term used when the brain functionality reduces in terms of behaviour, memory and thinking clearly for daily activities. In the early stages, memory impairment limits the memory processes in patients with dementia (PwD). In advanced stages, it affects the PwD’s autonomy when performing complex daily activities such as PwD’s interaction and communication with people around them. Dementia is becoming one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. It affects the ability of an individual to reason with and to understand others, which creates difficulties in communication between the family caregivers and PwDs. Thus, there is a need for a platform to help family caregivers to communicate with the PwDs efficiently. One of the helpful tools to work with is a mobile application (app). Mobile apps can be widely available and easy to use for the people caring for PwDs. This paper describes the development of a mobile app for people interacting with PwDs. The app contains different scenarios related to daily activities that are usually performed by PwDs. Each scenario includes a set of options for the users and asks them to choose the option in response to the corresponding daily activity. Having chosen the option, the app provides the user with comments which are already included in the app for each scenario. The comments were developed by the research team in partnership with clinicians having more than 5 years of experience with PwDs. Caring4Dementia app can address the communication problem by providing (1) specific knowledge about the PwD’s condition cognitive performance evaluation, and monitoring, and (2) educating on appropriate behaviour to adopt while facing communication challenges associated with dementia. The theoretical framework of a communication training app introduced in the present paper will direct the future empirical investigations where the effectiveness of the app will be compared to the effectiveness of currently existing methods. 

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A nurse-led health coaching intervention for stroke survivors and their family caregivers in hospital to home transition care in Chongqing, China: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background Hospital to home transition care is a most stressful period for stroke survivors and their caregivers to learn self-management of stroke-related health conditions and to engage in rehabilitation. Health coaching has been identified as a strategy to enhance self-management of poststroke care at home. However, interventions in this field that are informed by a health coaching framework are scarce. This study will address a gap in research by testing the hypothesis that a nurse-led health coaching intervention can improve health outcomes for stroke survivors and their family caregivers in hospital to home transition care. Methods This is a single-blind, two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of a nurse-led health coaching program versus routine care situated in two tertiary hospitals in Chongqing, China. Stroke survivors and their primary family caregivers will be recruited together as "participant dyads", and the estimated sample size is 140 (70 in each group). The intervention includes a 12-week nurse-led health coaching program in hospital to home transition care commencing at discharge from the hospital. The primary outcome is changes in self-efficacy of stroke survivors at 12 weeks from the baseline. The secondary outcomes are changes in stroke survivors' and quality of life, functional ability, stroke-related knowledge, the number of adverse events, and unplanned hospital admissions, and caregivers' self-efficacy and caregiver-related burden at 12 weeks from the baseline. The outcomes will be measured at 12 weeks and 24 weeks from the baseline. Discussion This study will examine the effect of nurse-led health coaching on hospital to home transition care for stroke survivors and their caregivers. It is anticipated that findings from this trial will provide research evidence to inform policy, and resource and practice development to improve hospital to home transition care for stroke survivors and their caregivers.

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Does Telehealth Delivery of a Dyadic Dementia Care Program Provide a Noninferior Alternative to Face-To-Face Delivery of the Same Program? A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether delivery of a dyadic intervention using telehealth was noninferior to delivery of the same program using traditional face-to-face delivery through home visits. Design: We conducted a noninferiority randomized controlled trial. Participants: Participants had a diagnosis of dementia, were living in the community, and had an informal caregiver who reported difficulties in managing activities of daily living or behavioral symptoms. Intervention: Participants were randomized to receive either telehealth or home visit delivery of the same intervention program. Measurements: The primary outcome was the Caregiving Mastery Index, secondary outcomes included caregiver's perceptions of change, activities of daily living function, and type and frequency of behavioral symptoms of persons living with dementia. Therapists delivering the intervention recorded the time spent delivering the intervention as well as travel time. Results: Sixty-three dyads were recruited and randomized. Both groups reported improvements for the primary outcome, however, these were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences between groups for the primary outcome (mean difference 0.09 (95% confidence interval −1.26 to 1.45) or the secondary outcomes at 4 months. Both groups reported significant improvements in caregiver's perceptions of change. The amount of time spent delivering the content of the program was similar between groups, however offering the intervention via telehealth significantly reduced travel time (mean 255.9 minutes versus mean 77.2 minutes, p <0.0001). Conclusion: It is feasible to offer dyadic interventions via telehealth and doing so reduces travel time and results in similar benefits for families. 

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Aggression Prevention Training for Individuals With Dementia and Their Caregivers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective: International appeals call for interventions to prevent aggression and other behavioral problems in individuals with dementia (IWD). Aggression Prevention Training (APT), based on intervening in three contributors to development of aggression (IWD pain, IWD depression, and caregiver–IWD relationship problems) aims to reduce incidence of aggression in IWD over 1 year. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Three clinics that assess, diagnose, and treat dementia. Participants: Two hundred twenty-eight caregiver–IWD dyads who screened positive for IWD pain, IWD depression, or caregiver–IWD relationship problems randomized to APT or Enhanced Usual Primary Care (EU-PC). Intervention: APT, a skills-based intervention delivered over 3 months to address pain/depression/caregiver–IWD relationship issues. EU-PC included printed material on dementia and community resources; and eight brief, weekly support calls. Measurements: The primary outcome was incidence of aggression over 1 year, determined by the Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Aggression Subscale. Secondary outcomes included pain, depression, caregiver–IWD relationship, caregiver burden, positive caregiving, behavior problems, and anxiety. Results: Aggression incidence and secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. However, in those screening positive for IWD depression or caregiver–IWD relationship problems, those receiving EU-PC had significant increases in depression and significant decreases in quality of the caregiver–IWD relationship, whereas those receiving APT showed no changes in these outcomes over time. Conclusion: The cost to patients, family, and society of behavioral problems in IWD, along with modest efficacy of most pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, calls for more study of novel preventive approaches. 

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Effects of a dementia dietary educational program on nutritional knowledge and healthy eating behavior of family caregivers

Family caregivers play a critical role in dietary care and the nutritional status of people with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a family care-based dementia dietary educational program (DDEP) on family caregivers’ nutritional knowledge, healthy eating behavior and nutritional status of people with dementia. A total of 57 pairs of participants completed this longitudinal experimental study. Group A received routine care. Group B received the DDEP. Three outcomes were measured at pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and follow-up test (T3). Generalized estimating equations and regression were used to analyze the data. The scores of the caregivers’ nutritional knowledge significantly increased after receiving the DDEP in group B, and this increase was better than in group A. The posttest and follow-up test scores of healthy eating behavior were significantly higher than the pretest scores in both groups. The scores of nutritional status in group B increased from the pretest to the follow-up test, although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Some demographic factors played significant roles in the caregivers’ nutritional knowledge and healthy eating behavior. In sum, the DDEP improved the caregivers’ nutritional knowledge and healthy eating behavior for dementia. The demographic factors of family caregivers should be considered when providing nutritional information to enhance the nutritional status of people with dementia. The DHPDEP should be incorporated into the in-service education and training courses for nurses or dietitians who work with people with dementia. 

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Effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention for caregivers of People With Dementia with regard to burden, anxiety and depression: A systematic review

Aim To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions with respect to burden, anxiety and depression in family caregivers of People With Dementia living at home. Background In dementia, the family assumes the role of main caregiver, maintaining the patient in a good state of health. Nevertheless, burden, anxiety and depression may have negative repercussions in caregivers. Therefore, professional supports through psychoeducational programmes are recommended as interventions for improving caregivers' health. Design A quantitative systematic review. Data Sources Electronic searches were performed in CINAHL/AMED/CENTRAL/Web of Science/LILACS/PUBMED from January 2005–August 2018. Review Methods The review was conducted using the JADAD scale to assess bias risk and the quality of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the CONSORT instrument to assess study quality report. The extracted data were reviewed by independent reviewer pairs. The review was reported using PRISMA. Results A total of 18 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Seven were classified as Technology‐based Interventions and 11 as Group‐based Interventions. Conclusion Psychoeducational interventions for caregivers allow them to increase their knowledge of the illness, develop problem‐solving skills and facilitate social support. Technology‐based Interventions significantly affect burden while Group‐based Interventions affect anxiety, depression, insomnia and burden and quality of life and self‐efficacy. Impact Research findings can be used to classify caregivers in future interventions according to illness stage to obtain more precise results.

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Outcomes and change processes of an established family education program for carers of adults diagnosed with a serious mental health condition

Background Family education programs (FEPs) target caregiving-related psychological distress for carers of relatives/friends diagnosed with serious mental health conditions. While FEPs are efficacious in reducing distress, the mechanisms are not fully known. Peer group support and greater mental health knowledge are proposed to reduce carers' psychological distress by reducing stigmatising attitudes and self-blame, and strengthening carers' relationship with their relative. Methods Adult carers (n = 1016) who participated in Wellways Australia's FEP from 2009 to 2016 completed self-report questionnaires at the core program's start and end, during the consolidation period, and at a 6-month follow-up. Those who enrolled early completed questionnaires prior to a wait-list period. We used linear mixed-effects modelling to assess the program's effectiveness using a naturalistic wait-list control longitudinal design, and multivariate latent growth modelling to test a theory-based process change model. Results While there was no significant change over the wait-list period, psychological distress, self-blame and stigmatising attitudes significantly decreased, and communication and relationship quality/feelings increased from the core program's start to its end. Changes were maintained throughout the consolidation period and follow-up. Peer group support significantly predicted the declining trajectory of distress. Peer group support and greater knowledge significantly predicted declining levels of self-blame and stigmatising attitudes, and increasing levels of communication. Conclusions This is the first study to quantitatively validate the mechanisms underlying the effect of FEPs on carers' psychological distress. Peer group support is key in modifying carers' appraisals of their friend/relatives' condition. Continued implementation of FEPs within mental health service systems is warranted. 

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eHealth Education: Methods to Enhance Oncology Nurse, Patient, and Caregiver Teaching

BACKGROUND: eHealth can enhance the delivery of clinical cancer care by offering unique education opportunities for oncology nurses, patients, and family caregivers throughout the cancer trajectory. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews eHealth technology that can be applied to oncology education, such as mobile health applications, text messaging, web-based education, and audio- and videoconferencing. METHODS: Case studies provide exemplars of eHealth technologies used for delivering oncology education to nurses, patients, and caregivers. FINDINGS: By using eHealth technologies to obtain and provide education, oncology nurses are well positioned to improve the lives of patients and caregivers.

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Decreasing Heart Failure Readmissions Among Older Patients With Cognitive Impairment by Engaging Caregivers

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in older patients with heart failure (HF), leading to higher 30-day readmission rates than those without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether increased readmissions in older adults with cognitive impairment are related to HF severity and whether readmissions can be modified by caregiver inclusion in nursing discharge education. METHODS: This study used prospective quality improvement program of cognitive testing and inclusion of caregivers in discharge education with chart review. Two hundred thirty-two patients older than 70 years admitted with HF were screened for cognitive impairment using the Mini-Cog; if score was less than 4, nurses were asked to include caregivers in education on 2 cardiovascular units with an enhanced discharge program. Individuals with ventricular assist device, transplant, or hospice were excluded. Measurements include Mini-Cog score, 30-day readmissions, readmission risk score, ejection fraction, brain natriuretic peptide, and medical comorbidities. RESULTS: Readmission Risk Scores for HF did not correlate with Mini-Cog scores, but admission brain natriuretic peptide levels were less abnormal in those with better Mini-Cog scores. Only for patients with cognitive impairment, involving caregivers in discharge teaching given by registered and advanced practice nurses was associated with decreased 30-day readmissions from 35% to 16% (P = .01). Readmission rates without/with cognitive impairment were 14.1% and 23.8%, respectively (P = .09). Abnormal Mini-Cog screen was associated with a significantly increased risk of 30-day readmission (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.68; P = .03), whereas nurse documentation of education with family was associated with a significantly decreased risk of 30-day readmission (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.90; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Involving caregivers in discharge education significantly reduced 30-day readmission rates for patients with HF and cognitive impairment. The Readmission Risk Score was similar between patients older than 70 years with and without cognitive impairment. We have hypothesis-generating evidence that identification of cognitive impairment and targeted caregiver engagement by nurses may be critical in the reduction of readmission rates for older patients with HF.

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The effects of the family-centered empowerment model on self-efficacy and self-esteem among the family caregivers of patients with prosthetic heart valve: A controlled clinical trial

Background: Patients with heart valve disease need to receive long-term care from their family members after surgical valve replacement. Thus, family caregivers should have adequate self-efficacy for patient care. Objectives: This study examined the effects of the family-centered empowerment model (FCEM) on self-efficacy and self-esteem among the family caregivers of patients with prosthetic heart valve. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, forty patients together with one of their family caregivers were consecutively recruited and allocated to an intervention or a control group. The FCEM was used in three to five sessions for patients in the intervention group. Besides, we sent their family caregivers educational cards containing the same educations provided to their patients. Finally, an educational session was held for family caregivers in which their questions were answered and each of them was provided with an educational booklet containing the same materials as the educational cards. Patients and their family members in the control group received routine care. Self-efficacy and self-esteem of family caregivers were assessed before, 1 week, and 1.5 months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed through the independent-samples t-test and the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Before the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy in the control and the intervention groups were 26.68 ± 4.79 and 26.79 ± 5.49, whereas the mean scores of self-esteem in these groups were 33.74 ± 4.55 and 33.84 ± 4.72, respectively. None of the between-group differences were significant. After the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy and self-esteem in the intervention group were significantly greater than the control group (37.32 ± 2.68 versus. 29.89 ± 2.20 and 36.26 ± 3.66 versus. 29.26 ± 5.84; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of the FCEM promotes self-efficacy and self-esteem among the family caregivers of patients with prosthetic heart valve. 

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Caring safely at home

This video-based resource is designed to help people look after someone safely at home.

This resource will help you care for people in any situation, although this resource may be particularly useful if you are supporting someone during the COVID-19 crisis.

Each section has a set of videos designed to give you and the person you care for practical and relevant information to support you day to day.

What will the videos cover?

  • how to help manage certain conditions
  • providing everyday support for any person you’re caring for.

There is no set order you need to go through these topics, and some may not apply to your specific situation. Learn at your own pace and choose whichever is relevant to you.

Original source (some source materials require subscription or permission to access)

Reablement

Resources for home care providers, GPs, commissioners and families on how to deliver reablement services that promote independence. Includes 'updated guidance for carers and families'.

Original source (some source materials require subscription or permission to access)

Cygnus: a psychoeducational group for carers of people with a personality disorder

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance suggests that carers of individuals with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder experience high levels of psychological distress, yet few services in the UK offer specific support to this group of carers. This article will describe the development of a psychoeducational carers' group based on schema theory (Young et al, 2003), including the development of the role of carer experts-by-experience as group co-facilitators. Initial outcome data from the pilot suggest that carers are highly satisfied with the group and that it improves their knowledge, understanding and personal well-being.

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Use and impact of virtual reality simulation in dementia care education: A scoping review

Background: Communication and empathy are considered as key competences in the care of persons with dementia. Virtual reality might be an effective intervention to train informal and professional caregivers of persons with dementia in order to improve their communication skills and empathy.; Objectives: The aim of this study was to map the use and impact of virtual reality simulation in dementia care education.; Method: A scoping review was performed. Studies with all types of qualitative or quantitative design published since 2007 in English, French or German were included if a virtual reality intervention was examined in a dementia care education setting (e.g. nursing school, caregiver training). The literature search was conducted in six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, ERIC, and Inspec), including an additional hand search as well as backward and forward citation tracking of included studies. Charted data was narratively reported by clustering results according to study characteristics and impact of virtual reality.; Results: The review process resulted in the inclusion of six studies published between 2012 and 2017. Two of them are ongoing studies. Three studies had a one group pre-post-test design and in one study a post-test only design was applied. The samples consisted of caregivers of people with dementia as well as students and varied in size between seven and 126. Eight different outcomes were measured, e.g. empathy, competence, and stress. Interventions resulted in improvements of caregivers' and students' empathy and competences among other outcomes.; Conclusions: No studies with controlled design and group comparisons are available yet. There are some indications that virtual reality might be an effective intervention to train caregivers of persons with dementia. Little is known about the use and impact of virtual reality in dementia-related education. Since studies are rare and do not address effectiveness, the findings of this review can substantially contribute to guide further research on this topic.

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Toward Engaging Caregivers: Inclusion in Care and Receipt of Information and Training among Caregivers for Cancer Patients Who Have Been Hospitalized

Practice recommendations and policies (e.g., CARE Act) emphasize identifying and training a family caregiver during a patient's hospitalization, but engagement of caregivers is not standard in the USA. To inform caregiver engagement, we highlight (1) the frequency of cancer patient hospitalizations as well as (2) the caregiving characteristics and perceptions of inclusion in care and receipt of training among caregivers for patients who had been hospitalized. To further highlight this group of cancer caregivers, we compare to (1) cancer caregivers for patients who had not been hospitalized; (2) caregivers for patients with a primary condition other than cancer who had been hospitalized; and (3) caregivers for patients with a primary condition other than cancer who had not been hospitalized This secondary analysis is drawn from the National Alliance for Caregiving's (NAC)/AARP Caregiving in the US dataset of unpaid adult (i.e., age 18 and older) caregivers. A higher percentage of the cancer caregivers compared to non-cancer caregivers reported multiple hospitalizations for their care recipient over the previous year. Many cancer caregivers for patients who had been hospitalized reported high objective burden (68%) and that caregiving was highly stressful (49%). A majority of these caregivers (60%) indicated that a healthcare provider had asked them what they needed to assist the patient, while fewer (34%) were asked about their needs to take care of themselves, which, though low, was significantly higher compared to caregivers of patients with a primary condition other than cancer that had been hospitalized. The most frequently endorsed training method for the cancer caregivers of patients who had been hospitalized was "being shown how to do a skill by a qualified person" (67%) followed by "performing a skill while a qualified person watches" (57%). Findings suggest that the oncology context might be more advanced in terms of engaging and supporting caregivers, but that improvement is still needed. Furthermore, these findings identify preferred training methods among those who have been in the hospital context as a caregiver.

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A systematic review of online interventions for families of patients with severe mental disorders

Background: Several studies show the effectiveness of face-to-face interventions with families in improving the prognosis of patients with severe psychiatric disorders and their relatives; however, the effectiveness of online interventions is poorly understood. The current study aims to provide an overview of evidence for the effectiveness of online treatments (web/app) for patients with severe psychiatric disorders and their families.; Method: We performed a systematic review of online treatments for informal family caregivers of patients with a severe psychiatric disorder. The study psychological interventions had to have been administered in an exclusively online format (app, internet) and aimed at families of patients with severe mental disorder (at least one of first episode psychosis, schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar disorder, and psychotic disorder).; Results: Of a total of 1331 articles, we identified 9 viable studies; 4 randomized clinical trials, and 5 nonrandomized clinical studies. The present study is the first systematic review in this area. Online interventions were well accepted, with good adherence and satisfaction among the caregivers and patients and improved the symptoms of both caregivers and patients.; Limitations: Clinical and methodological diversity of the studies.; Conclusions: Burden improved, and perceived stress decreased in families. Moreover, the severity of positive symptoms decreased and fewer hospitalizations were recorded in patients than in the control group. Therefore, online interventions are a promising therapeutic approach for patients with severe mental disorder and their families. However, more studies-particularly randomized clinical trials-are needed in this area.

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Stress-related vulnerability and usefulness of healthcare education in Parkinson's disease: The perception of a group of family caregivers, a cross-sectional study

Parkinson's Disease is associated with a high assistive complexity, thus generating in caregivers a burden proportional to the intensity of the care provided. This study aims to evaluate whether the stress-related level of caregivers is related to their perception of the need for healthcare education. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 family caregivers that completed the Stress-related Vulnerability Scale (SVS scale) with a tool of proposed interventions stratified according to caregivers' need as “nothing”, “somewhat”, “moderately” and “extremely”. A direct association between the SVS scale and the perception of the usefulness of interventions was detected, and significant differences were observed for “Caregivers tele-support group” and “Peer-led support group” interventions, thus suggesting an important role for caregivers' emotional status in considering of training courses. Caregivers are split between low vulnerability, with minimal perception of training need, and high burden state with the acute necessity of support to manage patients.

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Raising the curtain on stigma associated with dementia: fostering a new cultural imaginary for a more inclusive society

Persons living with dementia and their carers experience stigma. Stigma intensifies social exclusion and threatens health and well-being. Decreasing stigma associated with dementia is a public health priority across national and international settings and is a key component of National Dementia Strategies. Research-based drama is an effective public health strategy for reducing stigma and enhancing well-being. In this article we focus on survey data from an evaluation of a research-based drama called Cracked: new light on dementia. Our analysis illustrates the effectiveness of Cracked in reducing stigma by: decreasing health care practitioners' and family carers' prejudice, fostering critical reflection about relational practices, and fostering a commitment to individual and collective action to address stigma. Cracked is well-positioned to respond to urgent calls for culture change, which include reducing societal misconceptions and stereotypes around dementia and promoting inclusive and meaningful engagement of persons living with dementia across all levels of society.

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Online training and support program (iSupport) for informal dementia caregivers: protocol for an intervention study in Portugal

Background: Informal caregivers (IC) of people with dementia (PwD) are at greater risk of developing physical and mental health problems when compared to the general population and to IC of people with other chronic diseases. Internet-based interventions have been explored for their potential to minimize the negative effects of caring, accounting for their ubiquitous nature, convenient delivery, potential scalability and presumed (cost) effectiveness. iSupport is a self-help online program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide education, skills training and support to IC of PwD. This paper describes the design of an intervention study aimed at determining the effectiveness of a Portuguese culturally adapted version of iSupport on mental health and other well-being outcomes.; Methods: The study follows an experimental parallel between-group design with two arms: access to the five modules and twenty-three lessons of "iSupport" for three months (intervention group); or access to an education-only e-book (comparison group). One hundred and eighty four participants will be recruited by referral from national associations. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years or older and provide e-consent; being a self-reported non-paid caregiver for at least six months; of a person with a formal diagnosis of dementia; being skilled to use internet; and experience a clinically relevant level of burden (≥ 21 on Zarit Burden Interview) or depression or anxiety symptoms (≥ 8 on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Data is collected online, resorting to self-administered instruments, at baseline, 3 and 6 months after baseline. The primary outcome is caregiver burden, measured by the Zarit Burden Interview. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, positive aspects of caregiving and general self-efficacy are secondary study outcomes. The data analysis will follow an Intention-to-treat (ITT) protocol.; Discussion: This protocol is an important resource for the many organizations in several countries aiming to replicate iSupport. Findings from this intervention study will offer evidence to bolster an informed decision making on scaling up iSupport as a new intervention program with minimal costs aimed at minimizing the psychological distress of IC of PwD in Portugal and elsewhere.; Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04104568. Registered 26 September 2019.;

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Namaste care in the home setting: developing initial realist explanatory theories and uncovering unintended outcomes

Introduction: The End-of-Life Namaste Care Program for People with Dementia, challenges the misconception that people with dementia are a 'shell'; it provides a holistic approach using the five senses, which can provide positive ways of communicating and emotional responses. It is proposed Namaste Care can improve communication and the relationships families and friends have with the person with dementia. Previously used in care homes, this study is the first to explore the pioneering use of Namaste Care in people's own homes.; Objective: To develop initial programme theories detailing if, how and under which circumstances Namaste Care works when implemented at home.; Design: A qualitative realist approach following the RAMESES II guidelines was employed to understand not only whether Namaste Care has positive outcomes, but also how these are generated, for whom they happen and in which circumstances.; Setting: A hospice in the North East of England, operating in the community, through volunteers.; Participants: Programme theories were developed from three focus groups with volunteers implementing Namaste Care (n=8; n=8; n=11) and eight interviews with family carers (n=8).; Results: Four refined explanatory theories are presented: increasing engagement, respite for family carers, importance of matched volunteers and increasing social interaction. It was identified that while Namaste Care achieved some of the same goals in the home setting as it does in the care home setting, it could also function in a different way that promoted socialisation.; Conclusions: Namaste Care provides holistic and personalised care to people with both moderate and advanced dementia, improving engagement and reducing social isolation. In the present study carers often chose to use Namaste Care sessions as respite. This was often linked to their frustration of the unavoidable dominance of task-focussed care in daily life. Individualised Namaste Care activities thus led to positive outcomes for both those with dementia and their carers.

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Multiple family group intervention for spinal cord injury: Quantitative and qualitative comparison with standard education

Objective: To evaluate a Multiple Family Group (MFG) education and support intervention for individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) and their primary caregivers. We hypothesized that MFG would be superior to an Education Control Group (EC) for improving patient activation and coping skills, social supports, and relationship functioning. Setting: A large free-standing inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants: Community dwelling adults with SCI and their caregivers living in the Northwest United States. Interventions/Methods: Nineteen individuals with SCI who had been discharged from inpatient rehabilitation within the previous three years, and their primary caregivers participated. Patient/caregiver pairs were randomized to the MFG intervention or an active SCI EC condition in a two-armed clinical trial design. Participants were assessed pre- and post-program and 6 months post-program. Qualitative and quantitative outcomes were evaluated. Focus groups were conducted with each group to determine benefits and recommendations for improvement. Results: Relative to EC, MFG reduced passive coping and increased subjective and overall social support in participants with SCI. Relative to EC, MFG also reduced passive coping in caregivers. Patient activation relative to EC was non-significantly increased. Content analysis identified four themes describing participants' experiences: enhanced sense of belonging, increased opportunities for engagement, knowledge, and team work; results that were generally congruent with quantitative measures of improved social support. Conclusions: Relative to EC, MFG assisted participants with SCI and their caregivers to manage the difficult, long-term, life adjustments by improving coping and strengthening social support.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02161913. Registered 10 June 2014.

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'Living Together With Dementia': preliminary results of a training programme for family caregivers

The aim of this article was to present the preliminary results of a training programme for family caregivers of people with dementia at an early to moderate stage living at home - 'Living Together With Dementia'. In this randomised controlled trial, 27 family caregivers who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient consultation clinic of a hospital in the north of Portugal and randomised into two groups (control and experimental) between October 2015 and March 2016. The programme 'Living Together With Dementia' was applied to the participants of the experimental group. The strategies used, overload, difficulties and satisfaction of the caregivers were assessed at three different stages (at the beginning and end of the intervention, as well as at follow-up). For the data analysis, quantitative parametric measures were applied. The Health Ethical Commission of the Hospital Centre approved the study, and its protocol and Helsinki Declaration ethical principles were considered throughout the process. In the final assessment, an improvement in the overload and difficulties was confirmed, as was an increase in the caregivers' satisfaction level and an improvement in coping/problem-solving strategies. In the follow-up stage, the results tended to revert towards those of the initial assessment. The programme 'Living Together With Dementia' appeared to be a major contribution enabling family caregivers of people with dementia, although there is a need to develop an efficacy study using a more substantial sample. The programme contributed to a reduction in the overload and difficulties borne by the family caregivers of people with dementia at an early to moderate stage living at home and to increased caregiver satisfaction.

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An Intervention to Improve Physical Function and Caregiver Perceptions in Family Caregivers of Persons With Heart Failure

Objective: This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether a 12-week home-based aerobic and resistance exercise program would improve physical function and caregiving perceptions among family caregivers (FCGs) of persons with heart failure. Method: Overall, 127 FCGs were randomized to one of three groups: usual care attention control (UCAC), psychoeducation only (PE), and psychoeducation plus exercise (PE + EX). Physical function measures (6-min walk test, handgrip, and upper and lower strength) and caregiving perceptions (Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale) were obtained at baseline and at 6 months. Results: FCGs in the PE + EX showed significant improvement in 6-min walk distance (p = .012), handgrip, and lower extremity strength compared with the PE and UCAC groups. The combined group had the greatest improvement in caregiver perceptions (p < .001). Conclusion: FCGs in the PE + EX group improved the most in physical function and caregiver perception outcomes. Directions for future research are provided.

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Increasing self-efficacy and knowledge in carer training: Hispanic versus Caucasian

Aim: Nurses are teachers to their patients and need to know best practices for diverse families living with dementia. Little is known about Hispanic beliefs around dementia knowledge and self-efficacy that may have an impact on the learning situation. Design: A pre-/postresearch design was used in this intervention study with a baseline assessment of dementia knowledge and caregiver self-efficacy and a reassessment at training completion. Methods: Investigation of education training with two caregiver groups caring for persons with dementia: Caucasian and Hispanic. Convenience sample consisted of 567 Caucasians and 104 Hispanic dementia caregivers. Groups received training in their primary language accompanied by a training book (Dealing with Dementia Guide) also in the primary language. Results: Dementia knowledge and caregiver self-efficacy increased in both groups with the Hispanic group demonstrating significantly greater increase in self-efficacy. The Caucasian group had a significantly greater increase in the dementia knowledge compared with the Hispanic group.

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Impact of simulation-based learning on family caregivers during the rehabilitation period of individuals with spinal cord injury

Study Design: Mixed-methods study.; Objective: Evaluate the knowledge that family caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injuries acquired through the use of a high-fidelity simulation-based learning (SBL) program.; Setting: The study was comprised of three phases: a previous qualitative research study detecting training needs, one in which clinical simulation scenarios were designed, and a final quasi-experimental phase in which ten caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injuries were trained in their care using simulations at the Toledo National Hospital for Paraplegics (Spain).; Methods: The competences acquired by the family were evaluated before and after the simulation training. A researcher-validated tool for each scenario was utilized for this evaluation.; Results: Four learning scenarios were designed based on the needs identified through the caregiver interviews. Following the training of the caregivers with SBL, an increase in their knowledge and skills was identified. For all the scenarios, the caregivers obtained a higher average score on the post test than on the pre test, and these differences were significant (p < 0.001).; Conclusions: Simulation training is a useful and efficient learning tool for caregivers of individuals with a spinal cord injury.

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How Do Military Family Caregivers Who Completed a Supportive Intervention Differ From Those Who Dropped Out?

Background. To create efficacious interventions for military family caregivers (MFCs), it is important to understand the characteristics and predictors of completers and dropouts of newly developed supportive interventions. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine completion patterns in MFCs enrolled in an educational intervention feasibility study. Method. Baseline data are presented from MFC completers (n = 64) and dropouts (n = 60) of a national feasibility study for an innovative intervention. Measures include depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), somatic symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief), relationship satisfaction (Relationship Assessment Scale), and military care recipient number of injuries. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between completers and dropouts and logistic regression was used to identify predictors of intervention completion. Results. Results indicated that MFCs with greater anxiety, χ2(3) = 10.33, p = .02; depression, χ2(1) = 8.18, p = .004; somatic symptoms, F(1, 106) = 6.26, p = .01; care recipient number of injuries, F(1, 118) = 16.31, p < .001; lower general satisfaction with treatment, F(1, 96) = 4.34, p = .04; and lower satisfaction with accessibility and convenience with treatment, F(1, 89) = 4.18, p = .04, were significantly more likely to complete the intervention. After multivariate analysis, the sole predictor of intervention completion was the number of care recipients' injuries, χ2(6) = 14.89, N = 77, p < .05. Conclusions. Overall, findings indicate that MFCs who were more "at risk" were more likely to complete the intervention. Findings present patterns of intervention completion and provide insight on areas in need of further investigation on intervention development supporting the needs of MFCs.

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Feasibility of Tele-Prompt: A tablet-based prompted voiding intervention to support informal caregivers of older adults with urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI) is a highly prevalent condition, burdening older adults and their informal caregivers. This study explored the development and feasibility of a 6-week evidence-based, educational/skill building program delivered via tablet-personal computer aimed at developing informal caregiver UI knowledge; and enhancing informal caregiver skill set in prompted voiding and toileting strategies. Caregivers also received individualized weekly coaching sessions from a nurse expert. Feasibility and preliminary efficacy were tested in three caregiver/care-recipient dyads. Recruitment of eligible participants through community-based resources was a challenge to feasibility. Most caregivers found the technology acceptable, but adherence to prompted voiding was inconsistent. All caregivers rated the intervention highly, reported improvements in their care-recipient's urine leakage, found access to a UI expert beneficial, and would recommend it to a friend. The results suggest that the tablet-facilitated intervention was feasible and acceptable to informal caregivers and showed promise for improving both caregiver and care recipient outcomes.

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Family-centred empowerment program for health literacy and self-efficacy in family caregivers of patients with multiple sclerosis

Background: With the obtained advancement in solving health problems, family caregivers are replaced with the care institutions. The accompanying and supporting patients during the disease treatment is very effective in the Iranian culture.; Aim: This study aims at determining the effect of health intervention based on family-centred empowerment model on health literacy and self-efficacy among caregivers of patients with multiple sclerosis.; Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 70 family caregivers were randomly assigned to the two control and experimental groups, who were evaluated using demographic TOFHLA health literacy and self-efficacy questionnaires. Then, based on training needs in the experimental group, intervention was conducted based on the family-centred empowerment model during one month. The control group received no intervention, and immediately after training and three months after implementing the program, the health literacy and self-efficacy in both the experimental and control groups were re-evaluated.; Results: Before intervention, mean of health literacy in the experimental group was 57.2 ± 9.15 and 3 months after intervention, it reached 62.45 ± 9.39, (p < 0.001). The self-efficacy score in the experimental group was 17.2 ± 3.48 before intervention and it reached to 19.34 ± 11.3 after intervention, which was also significant(p < 0.001).; Conclusion: interventions based on family-centred empowerment approach can improve the health literacy and self-efficacy of caregivers, assist them to provide specialised and efficient care and lead to improved quality of care in caregiving.

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Evaluating the Effect of Family-Centered Intervention Program on Care Burden and Self-Efficacy of Hemodialysis Patient Caregivers Based on Social Cognitive Theory: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

Background: Caregivers of hemodialysis patients spend a large amount of time providing care to these patients while tolerating fatigue and stress. This study evaluated a family-centered empowerment program on the care burden and self-efficacy of hemodialysis patient caregivers based on social cognitive theory.; Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 70 family caregivers of hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran, were selected and randomly allocated to intervention and control groups, in 2015-2016. Two questionnaires were used to collect the family caregivers' characteristics, care burden, and self-efficacy, and patients' negative and positive outcomes expectancies. Data were analyzed using SPSS before, immediately after, and 2 months after the intervention.; Results: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of care burden, positive outcomes expectancies, negative outcomes expectancies, and self-efficacy between the two groups before the intervention. However, there were significant differences in the post-test and follow-up data analyses (P<0.05).; Conclusion: Given the degenerative nature of chronic kidney disease, it can be considered as a source of long-term and chronic stress for caregivers. Therefore, by implementing an empowerment program, caregiving behaviors can be improved, positive outcomes expectancies can be increased, and negative outcomes expectancies can be reduced.

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Educational intervention for informal caregiver of person with dementia: A systematic review

The role of caregivers is very important in the management of person with dementia, where it is not uncommon for them to experience psychological distress. However, the level of distress can be managed and reduced through strategic educational intervention. A systematic review has been conducted through searching Medline, Science direct, Cochrane library and EMBASE databases to provide a narrative synthesis that elaborate on methods and outcomes of the educational intervention among informal caregiver of person with dementia. From a total of 5125 records, eight studies were selected and included in this review, where the results show that educational intervention can be implemented either as individual or group intervention. Group intervention methods mainly focus on training programs such as workshops and lectures, and also group-based discussions. While for individual intervention, most of the activities were implemented through self-learning using technology or computer-based systems. In conclusion, based on the outcome of the studies, both methods of implementations are found to be useful in reducing psychological distress of the informal caregiver. 

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Development of a Communication and Health Literacy Curriculum: Optimizing the Informal Cancer Caregiver Role

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop learning objectives and identify content for a core communication and health literacy curriculum designed to optimize the role of informal cancer caregivers (family or friends).; Methods: A three-step process was conducted: (a) two-round online Delphi method process with experts (n=9) in cancer caregiving to gain consensus on curriculum learning objectives; (b) online survey of oncology providers (n=32) to generate potential content and rate importance of domains; and (c) focus group of cancer caregivers (n=6) to explore caregiving experiences and curriculum content topics.; Results: Overall, 17 learning objectives and 53 topics were identified for a cancer caregiver communication and health literacy curriculum. Feedback from cancer caregivers did not produce any new topics yet confirmed topics generated by experts and providers. The curriculum identified as essential has been organized under the following headings: finding cancer information; assessing and integrating information; working with healthcare providers; getting help; talking with the care recipient; recognizing the care recipient's needs; and planning for caregiver self-care.; Conclusions: This theoretically-grounded study systematically identified seven curriculum topic areas and content unique to caregivers and included input from key stakeholders. The next step is to develop the program for dissemination and to test its impact on caregiver and patient outcomes.

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"Descubriendo Soluciones Juntos"-An argument for adapting problem-solving training for Latinx care partners after traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Purpose/objective: This commentary demonstrates the need for culturally adapted interventions to support informal caregivers (care partners) of adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), proposes and supports an evidence-based intervention, Problem-Solving Training (PST), uniquely suitable for cultural adaptation for Latinx care partners, and describes several considerations and concrete suggestions for initial cultural adaption of PST for Latinx care partners of adults with TBI.; Results: Caregiving among Latinxs is rooted in cultural values and norms that may facilitate or challenge family coping and adaptation after TBI in the United States. Evidence-based interventions to address emotional distress, health, and caregiver burden are needed for Latinx care partners, but must first be translated and adapted to address language and cultural values. Compared with other cognitive and behavioral evidence-based interventions, PST is ideal for cultural adaptation, as the problem-solving process is driven by, and therefore sensitive and responsive to, care partners and their individual values and situations.; Conclusions/implications: Adapting evidence-based problem-solving interventions like PST ("Descubriendo Soluciones Juntos") to be culturally tailored and culturally sensitive for Spanish-speaking Latinx care partners of adults with TBI could reduce existing health disparities and improve the health, well-being, and quality of life of these care partners.

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Clinical effectiveness of the START (STrAtegies for RelaTives) psychological intervention for family carers and the effects on the cost of care for people with dementia: 6-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

Background The START (STrAtegies for RelaTives) intervention reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms of family carers of relatives with dementia at home over 2 years and was cost-effective. Aims To assess the clinical effectiveness over 6 years and the impact on costs and care home admission. Method We conducted a randomised, parallel group, superiority trial recruiting from 4 November 2009 to 8 June 2011 with 6-year follow-up (trial registration: ISCTRN 70017938). A total of 260 self-identified family carers of people with dementia were randomised 2:1 to START, an eight-session manual-based coping intervention delivered by supervised psychology graduates, or to treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was affective symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, total score (HADS-T)). Secondary outcomes included patient and carer service costs and care home admission. Results In total, 222 (85.4%) of 173 carers randomised to START and 87 to TAU were included in the 6-year clinical efficacy analysis. Over 72 months, compared with TAU, the intervention group had improved scores on HADS-T (adjusted mean difference -2.00 points, 95% CI -3.38 to -0.63). Patient-related costs (START versus TAU, respectively: median 5759 pound v. 16 pound 964 in the final year; P = 0.07) and carer-related costs (median 377 pound v. 274 pound in the final year) were not significantly different between groups nor were group differences in time until care home (intensity ratio START:TAU was 0.88, 95% CI 0.58-1.35). Conclusions START is clinically effective and this effect lasts for 6 years without increasing costs. This is the first intervention with such a long-term clinical and possible economic benefit and has potential to make a difference to individual carers. Declarations of interest G.L., Z.W. and C.C. are supported by the UCLH National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre. G.L. and P.R. were in part supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) North Thames at Bart's Health NHS Trust. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Z.W. reports during the conduct of the study; personal fees from GE Healthcare, grants from GE Healthcare, grants from Lundbeck, other from GE Healthcare, outside the submitted work.

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Telephone-based behavioral activation intervention for dementia family caregivers: Outcomes and mediation effect of a randomized controlled trial

Objectives: The study examined the effects of a telephone-administered psycho-education with behavioral activation intervention (TBA) for family caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's dementia to reduce levels of depressive symptoms and burden and to enhance relationship satisfaction with the care-recipient METHODS: A double-blinded randomized trial compared TBA with telephone-based psycho-education with general monitoring (TGM). Ninety-six dementia caregivers were randomized. Both conditions received four weekly psycho-education sessions led by a social worker. TBA participants then received eight bi-weekly behavioral activation practice sessions delivered by paraprofessionals. TGM participants received eight bi-weekly monitoring sessions by paraprofessionals.; Results: As compared to TGM, TBA participants reported significantly larger reductions in depressive symptoms and burden and larger improvement in relationship satisfaction. Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts was found to have a partial meditation effect between TBA and the reduction of depressive symptoms. Qualitative feedback suggested that TBA participants expressed unique gains in awareness and developing new ways of reappraising the caregiving situation.; Conclusion: TBA was an effective intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and burden as well as to enhance relationship satisfaction in dementia caregivers.; Practice Implications: The use of telephone and trained paraprofessionals can enhance the accessibility and sustainability of behavioral activation intervention for dementia family caregivers.

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Stress Management Intervention to Prevent Post-Intensive Care Syndrome-Family in Patients' Spouses

Background: Post-intensive care syndrome-family (PICS-F) refers to acute and chronic psychological effects of critical care on family members of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Evidence suggests that increased distress during the ICU stay increases risk of PICS-F. Sensation Awareness Focused Training (SĀF-T) is a new, promising stress management intervention, but the feasibility of such training during the ICU stay for family caregivers who are acting as the surrogate decision-maker for patients who are undergoing mechanical ventilation is unknown.; Objectives: To assess feasibility and acceptability of SĀF-T to inform a future larger randomized controlled trial.; Methods: This randomized controlled trial of SĀF-T (n = 5) versus a control (n = 5) group was conducted at a level 1 trauma center. Participants assigned to SĀF-T completed 1 session daily for 3 days. Measures included enrollment rate, data completion rate, acceptability of SĀF-T, and symptoms of PICS-F. Scales used included Perceived Stress, Hospital Anxiety and Depression, Impact of Event, and National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery.; Results: Mean age was 58 (SD, 12) years; 70% of participants were female. Predetermined feasibility criteria were met in enrollment rate (67%), outcome measures completion rate (> 90%), and SĀF-T acceptability (100% of doses completed during the ICU stay) without adverse events. Stress scores after SĀF-T were significantly lower than scores before SĀF-T (z = -3.5, P = .01).; Conclusions: SĀF-T intervention during the ICU stay is feasible, acceptable, and may improve family caregivers' post-ICU outcomes. Larger clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of SĀF-T in preventing PICS-F seem warranted.

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The Influence of a Home-Based Education Intervention on Family Caregivers' Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Cancer Pain Management in Adult Patients Within a Resource-Limited Setting

Cancer-related pain is prevalent and has debilitating effects on patients and their family. The effects of cancer pain can be curtailed if the family members caring for the patient receive essential support to enhance their capabilities for cancer pain management. Little has been done to study the available support to family caregivers (FCGs) towards pain management in adult cancer patients (ACPs) living in resource-limited countries where the burden of cancer is on the rise. This study evaluated the influence of an education intervention delivered in the home setting on FCGs' knowledge and self-efficacy (SE) for pain management in ACPs. One-group pre-/post-test design was used in a sample of 54 FCGs who had been caring for ACPs suffering from pain for at least 1 month. Data were collected using the Family Pain Questionnaire and Caregiver Pain Management SE Scale. The FCGs' mean knowledge score post-intervention (26.69 ± 10) was higher than the baseline (45 ± 12.9), and the difference was statistically significant (t = 10.382, p = 0.000, CI = 17.12-25.43). Additionally, the FCGs' mean SE score post-intervention (1003.30 ± 191) was higher than the baseline (648.3 ± 273.4), and the difference was statistically significant (t = - 8.52, p = 0.000, CI = - 438.6-- 271.4). The home-based education intervention significantly and positively influenced the FCGs' knowledge and SE for pain management while at home. Cancer pain management educational interventions delivered at home should be considered as one of the strategies for enhancing cancer care in resource limited settings.

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A feasibility study comparing a web‐based intervention to a workshop intervention for caregivers of adults with eating disorders

Objective: To assess for the validity of a future trial, the current feasibility study aimed to compare the feasibility and efficacy of a web‐ and workshop‐based education intervention for caregivers of adults with eating disorders. Methods: Psychoeducation was provided to caregivers, who were randomly assigned to a web or workshop condition. Independent samples t tests were conducted to analyse the between‐group effect sizes for intervention condition with regard to change over time. A random selection of participants from each intervention provided qualitative feedback about their experiences. Results: Overall, participants reported positive experiences in both education interventions. From baseline to the end of intervention, small between‐group effect sizes were observed for changes in caregiver accommodation, problem‐solving abilities, the quality of psychological health, and the quality of social relationships, favouring the web‐based intervention, and changes in expressed emotion in the family context, caregiver burden, perceived stress, and the quality of the environment, supporting the workshop intervention. Conclusions: There was a difference in initial feasibility of the web intervention. A future large‐scale trial of these interventions is supported by the results of this feasibility study.

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Family Caregiver Skills Training to Improve Experiences of Care: a Randomized Clinical Trial

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Helping Invested Families Improve Veterans' Experiences Study (HI-FIVES), a skills training program for caregivers of persons with functional or cognitive impairments. Design: A two-arm RCT. Setting: Single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: Patients and their primary caregivers referred in the past 6 months to home and community-based services or geriatrics clinic. Intervention: All caregivers received usual care. Caregivers in HI-FIVES also received five training calls and four group training sessions. Main Measures: Cumulative patient days at home 12 months post-randomization, defined as days not in an emergency department, inpatient hospital, or post-acute facility. Secondary outcomes included patients' total VA health care costs, caregiver and patient rating of the patient's experience of VA health care, and caregiver depressive symptoms. Results: Of 241 dyads, caregivers' (patients') mean age was 61 (73) years, 54% (53%) Black and 89% (4%) female. HI-FIVES was associated with a not statistically significant 9% increase in the rate of days at home (95% CI 0.72, 1.65; mean difference 1 day over 12 months). No significant differences were observed in health care costs or caregiver depressive symptoms. Model-estimated mean baseline patient experience of VA care (scale of 0-10) was 8.43 (95% CI 8.16, 8.70); the modeled mean difference between HI-FIVES and controls at 3 months was 0.29 (p = .27), 0.31 (p = 0.26) at 6 months, and 0.48 (p = 0.03) at 12 months. For caregivers, it was 8.34 (95% CI 8.10, 8.57); the modeled mean difference at 3 months was 0.28 (p = .18), 0.53 (p < .01) at 6 months, and 0.46 (p = 0.054) at 12 months. Conclusions: HI-FIVES did not increase patients' days at home; it showed sustained improvements in caregivers' and patients' experience of VA care at clinically significant levels, nearly 0.5 points. The training holds promise in increasing an important metric of care quality-reported experience with care. 

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E-learning as valuable caregivers' support for people with dementia - A systematic review

Background: Present demographic trends show a considerable rise in elderly populations with aging disorders, such as dementia. The current article focused on the exploitation of e-learning as an informal support for caregivers of people with dementia and considered its benefits and limitations to provide proper and relevant care for this target group of people as well as maintain the quality of life of their caregivers.; Methods: The methodology of this study is based on a literature review of accessible peer-review articles from three recognized databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. The findings of the selected studies were compared and evaluated.; Results: The findings showed that e-learning educational programs/courses helped caregivers feel more confident about dementia care, reduced their perceived stress and enhanced their feelings of empathy, understanding and concern.; Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that the exploitation of e-learning as a support tool, especially for informal caregivers, in the management of dementia may be a promising method, but its implementation requires professional training of informal caregivers in the use of this technology. More evidence-based studies are needed on this topic.

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The effects of a dyadic strength-based empowerment program on the health outcomes of people with mild cognitive impairment and their family caregivers: a randomized controlled trial

Purpose: As an intermediate prodromal stage of dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) causes functional, emotional, and social challenges for both of the person with MCI (PwMCI) and their family caregiver. However, major attention has only been placed on the PwMCI's for cognitive training. This study evaluated a more comprehensive intervention, which integrated both strength-based and empowerment approaches, to address their complex needs in a dyadic fashion.; Patients and methods: This randomized controlled trial allocated 103 MCI patient-caregiver dyads to receive a 14-week dyadic strength-based empowerment program (D-StEP-MCI, n=52) or usual care (n=51). The D-StEP-MCI program consisted of group-based session to the PwMCI, home-based dyadic sessions, and telephone follow-up, with the activities supported the care dyads to navigate their own strengths and resources for integration, together with the trained skills, to optimize role and social engagement in everyday life. Dyadic health outcomes in terms of subjective and objective cognitive function, and neuro-psychiatric symptoms of PwMCI, stress in symptom management of their family caregivers, and depression of the dyads were evaluated at baseline, after the D-StEP-MCI and at 3 months thereafter.; Results: By using general estimating equation, the D-StEP-MCI significantly improved the cognitive function, subjective memory, and mood status of the PwMCI, and the positive changes were maintained at the 3-month endpoints. It also has significantly positive effects on caregivers' stress in symptom management and level of depression.; Conclusion: Our findings showed the health benefit of combining strength-based and empowerment approach in supporting the disease adaptation of PwMCI and caregiver in a dyadic fashion. This study also supports the use of a social interaction approach to optimize the everyday engagement of the PwMCI.

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Effectiveness of Resilience Education in the Mental Health of Family Caregivers of Elderly Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Background: Continuing care of an elderly patient with Alzheimer's disease may result in psychosocial and physical disorders in family caregivers, as well as limitations to providing complete care. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of resilience education in the mental health of family caregivers of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: This study followed a randomized, clinical trial design. The study population consisted of family caregivers of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease who referred to hospitals and neurologists' offices located in the western cities of Mazandaran province, Iran. Data were collected between 2016 and 2017. Fifty-four family caregivers were recruited through convenience sampling and randomized into control and intervention groups (27 in each group). Demographic characteristics, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and General Health Questionnaire were used for data collection. Resilience education was provided in eight sessions (45 min each) using PowerPoint presentations and educational pamphlets. The mental health scores were calculated using the indices including normality tests and analyzed using the independent and paired t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferroni test. Results: An independent t-test showed improvements in the mental health status of those who received the educational intervention (mean difference: 23.8±6.4; P < 0.001). The independent t-test also indicated statistically significant differences between the groups' anxiety/insomnia (8.8±2.3 versus -0.12±2.5), somatic symptoms (7.2±2.2 versus -0.9±1.03), social dysfunction (4.5±2.9 versus 0.2±1.3), and depression (3.2±2.2 versus -0.08±0.6; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Resilience education successfully improved the mental health of family caregivers. Therefore, it is suggested that healthcare providers, Alzheimer's associations, andNGOsprovide educational interventions to help promote the caregivers' mental health. 

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Effect of a Hospital-Initiated Program Combining Transitional Care and Long-term Self-management Support on Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Importance: Patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations have high rehospitalization rates and reduced quality of life.; Objective: To evaluate whether a hospital-initiated program that combined transition and long-term self-management support for patients hospitalized due to COPD and their family caregivers can improve outcomes.; Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-site randomized clinical trial conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, with 240 participants. Participants were patients hospitalized due to COPD, randomized to intervention or usual care, and followed up for 6 months after hospital discharge. Enrollment occurred from March 2015 to May 2016; follow-up ended in December 2016.; Interventions: The intervention (n = 120) involved a comprehensive 3-month program to help patients and their family caregivers with long-term self-management of COPD. It was delivered by nurses with special training on supporting patients with COPD using standardized tools. Usual care (n = 120) included transition support for 30 days after discharge to ensure adherence to discharge plan and connection to outpatient care.; Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was number of COPD-related acute care events (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) per participant at 6 months. The co-primary outcome was change in participants' health-related quality of life measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at 6 months after discharge (score, 0 [best] to 100 [worst]; 4-point difference is clinically meaningful).; Results: Among 240 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [9.8] years; 61.7% women), 203 (85%) completed the study. The mean (SD) baseline SGRQ score was 62.3 (18.8) in the intervention group and 63.6 (17.4) in the usual care group. The mean number of COPD-related acute care events per participant at 6 months was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.01-1.79) in the intervention group vs 0.72 (95% CI, 0.45-0.97) in the usual care group (difference, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.22-1.15]; P = .004). The mean change in participants' SGRQ total score at 6 months was 2.81 in the intervention group and -2.69 in the usual care group (adjusted difference, 5.18 [95% CI, -2.15 to 12.51]; P = .11). During the study period, there were 15 deaths (intervention: 8; usual care: 7) and 339 hospitalizations (intervention: 202; usual care: 137).; Conclusions and Relevance: In a single-site randomized clinical trial of patients hospitalized due to COPD, a 3-month program that combined transition and long-term self-management support resulted in significantly greater COPD-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits, without improvement in quality of life. Further research is needed to determine reasons for this unanticipated finding.; Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02036294.;

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Development of a dyadic sleep intervention for Alzheimer's disease patients and their caregivers

Purpose: This study aimed to refine a behavioral sleep intervention program targeting patients with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Methods: In this case series, key components of the sleep program were built upon previous intervention studies of patients with cognitive impairment/dementia. The intervention consisted of five weekly sessions covering sleep hygiene, sleep compression, stimulus control, daily walking/light exposure, relaxation/mindfulness, and caregiver training to manage patients' behavioral problems. The materials and structure were iteratively refined based on feedback from caregivers and sleep educators. Sleep diaries were used to evaluate sleep outcomes. Results: Five out of six enrolled dyads completed the sessions. Several revisions were made during testing: the last session was changed from telephone to in-person; some components (e.g., sleep scheduling, mindfulness) were rearranged within or across sessions; sleep educator guidelines for sleep scheduling, light exposure, and walking were revised. After the fifth dyad, no additional issues were identified by the caregiver or the sleep educator. Four patients and three caregivers had improved sleep at the last session. Conclusions: The iterative refinement process was successful in finalizing the intervention program, with evidence of sleep improvements. Formal pilot testing of the program will provide further information on feasibility and effectiveness. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Our dyadic behavioral sleep program can be tailored to various types of sleep problems among patients with Alzheimer's disease and their family caregivers, with the goal of improving daytime function by reducing sleep disturbances at night. Caregiver training and participation of both members of the dyad in sleep management may benefit the patients' sleep and other health outcomes, reduce caregiver stress and burden, and ultimately delay or prevent institutionalization of Alzheimer's disease patients.

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Building on Self-efficacy for Experienced Family Caregivers: The Savvy Advanced Program

Background and Objectives The Savvy Advanced psychoeducation program was designed for previously trained caregivers of persons living with dementia to refine their problem-solving and planning skills and enhance their sense of self-efficacy as dementia progressed for the care recipient. Implementation, feasibility, participant satisfaction, and perceived program benefits were also evaluated. Research Design and Methods A total of 100 dementia family caregivers participated in the 12-month evaluation of Savvy Advanced. A pragmatic quasi-experimental no control design was used to examine changes in caregiver self-efficacy, competence, personal gain, skill mastery, and symptoms of depression from baseline to 5 and 12 months postintervention. Implementation feasibility, and participant satisfaction and perceived program benefits, were also evaluated. Results Having previously participated in a psychoeducation intervention, caregivers were quickly engaged and interactive. Caregivers demonstrated significant improvement in competence, personal gain, self-efficacy, and symptoms of depression at 5 months postprogram. Gains were sustained for competence and personal gain at 12 months. Caregivers were highly satisfied with the program and supporting materials. Challenges to implementation included caregiver recruitment and trainer sustainability. Discussion and Implications Caregivers can benefit from episodic interventions as their situation changes and new challenges arise. Savvy Advanced is one means to address these needs. Evaluation in a randomized trial is required to establish efficacy; examination of alternative modes of delivery for caregivers unable to attend in person is warranted.

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330 Insights into Dementia- An Integrated Care Approach to Family Support

Background The increase in the number of people with dementia in the coming years will be significant and could be as high as 132,000 people by 2041. There is a growing need for enhanced post diagnostic supports for patients living with dementia and their families. We identified the need for a localised educational resource for families and supportive others attending our specialist memory service Methods Staff from the Integrated Care Team, Specialist Memory Service and Primary Care were trained by the Alzheimer's Society of Ireland to deliver a 6 week 'Insights Into Dementia' carers course. Tutors and dementia advisors from the Alzheimer's Society of Ireland provided in-depth training prior to course delivery and feedback to the facilitators on a weekly basis. The course included advice and education on Dementia; Changing Relationships, Communication; Responding to changes in behaviour; Nutrition; Engaging in activities; Assisting with personal care and Safety in the home. Families gained advice regarding their self-care needs and learned how to access information and support.  All services involved worked together to identify, refer and support families with dementia in the local area. The group took place in an accessible location at a time which accommodated families to attend. Each course attendee completed a questionnaire prior to and after commencing the group. Results The group has delivered education and support to 48 families to date. Feedback from participants was very positive with self-reported increase in confidence, knowledge and awareness about dementia. Waiting time to access support has significantly decreased. Every course has led to a support group who meet up on a regular basis in their community. Conclusion This novel collaboration has become a key part of the integrated care pathway we have developed to support people living with dementia and their supportive others in our catchment area. The Integrated Care approach has served to enrich the programme and allow for timely signposting to localised supports. 

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Caregiver outcomes of the REACH-HF multicentre randomized controlled trial of home-based rehabilitation for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Background: Caregivers frequently provide support to people living with long-term conditions. However, there is paucity of evidence of interventions that support caregivers in their role. Rehabilitation EnAblement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) is a novel home-based, health-professional-facilitated, self-management programme for patients with heart failure (HF) and their caregivers. Methods: Based on the random allocation of individual adult patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction <45% within the past five years, the caregiver of patients was allocated to receive the REACH-HF intervention over 12 weeks (REACH-HF group) or not (control group). Caregiver outcomes were generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), Family Caregiver Quality of Life Scale questionnaire (FamQol), Caregiver Burden Questionnaire HF (CBQ-HF), Caregiver Contribution to Self-care of HF Index questionnaire (CC-SCHFI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Outcomes were compared between groups at 4, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Twenty caregivers receiving REACH-HF were purposively selected for qualitative interviews at 4 and 12 months. Results: Compared with controls (44 caregivers), the REACH-HF group (53 caregivers) had a higher mean CC-SCHFI confidence score at 12 months (57.5 vs 62.8, adjusted mean difference: 9.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–16.8, p = 0.016). No significant between group differences were seen in other caregiver outcomes. Qualitative interviews showed that most caregivers who received the REACH-HF intervention made positive changes to how they supported the HF patient they were caring for, and perceived that they had increased their confidence in the caregiver role over time. Conclusion: Provision of the REACH-HF intervention for caregivers of HF patients improved their confidence of self-management and was perceived for some to be helpful in supporting their caregiver role.

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Patient Education: A Comparison of Teaching Strategies for Patients With Brain Neoplasms

Background: A diagnosis of cancer, specifically a brain neoplasm, can be daunting and confusing to patients and their family members. It is important to find ways to provide education about diagnosis, symptoms, medications, treatment, and side effects in a usable and retrievable format. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the following three teaching strategies on patients’ knowledge and understanding of their diagnosis: standard of care (SOC), which includes a generic folder of information (strategy 1); tailored paper binder (strategy 2); or SOC plus Technology Enhanced Active Learning (TEAL) (strategy 3). Methods: This was a prospective pre-/post-test pilot study including patients who had been diagnosed with brain neoplasms. Findings: Among 30 patients enrolled during a seven-month period, those who received strategy 3 had higher mean post-test knowledge scores compared to those who received strategy 1 or 2, but the difference was not statistically significant. The results suggest that TEAL-reinforced education is helpful for keeping appointments and may be associated with better knowledge retention regarding disease process and medications. In addition, fewer calls were made to the healthcare team in the strategy 3 group compared to the strategy 1 and 2 groups.

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The Capacity of Learning in the Quality of Life of the Informal Caregiver

Introduction The presence in the home of a dependent family member is a problematic situation for the whole family. By implementing training programs it is possible to achieve health gains and improve care management, as well as increase the capacity to seek information and take responsibility. Objectives To synthesize the effects of training programs of the informal caregiver in a home context in their quality of life. Methods Integrative review of the literature carried out during the month of March 2019, in the databases: Scielo, Mediclatina, Scopus, Cinahl and Medline, through the PICO methodology, whose guiding question was: “What are the effects caused on the quality of life by... [The remainder of the abstract is not freely accessible]

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Adaptation and Implementation of a Family Caregiver Skills Training Program: From Single Site RCT to Multisite Pragmatic Intervention

Purpose We describe an approach to rapidly adapt and implement an education and skills improvement intervention to address the needs of family caregivers of functionally impaired veterans-Helping Invested Families Improve Veterans' Experience Study (HI-FIVES). Design Prior to implementation in eight sites, a multidisciplinary study team made systematic adaptations to the curriculum content and delivery process using input from the original randomized controlled trial (RCT); a stakeholder advisory board comprised of national experts in caregiver education, nursing, and implementation; and a veteran/caregiver engagement panel. To address site-specific implementation barriers in diverse settings, we applied the Replicating Effective Programs implementation framework. Findings Adaptations to HI-FIVES content and delivery included identifying core/noncore curriculum components, reducing instruction time, and simplifying caregiver recruitment for clinical settings. To enhance curriculum flexibility and potential uptake, site personnel were able to choose which staff would deliver the intervention and whether to offer class sessions in person or remotely. Curriculum materials were standardized and packaged to reduce the time required for implementation and to promote fidelity to the intervention. Conclusions The emphasis on flexible intervention delivery and standardized materials has been identified as strengths of the adaptation process. Two key challenges have been identifying feasible impact measures and reaching eligible caregivers for intervention recruitment. Clinical Relevance This systematic implementation process can be used to rapidly adapt an intervention to diverse clinical sites and contexts. Nursing professionals play a significant role in educating and supporting caregivers and care recipients and can take a leading role to implement interventions that address skills and unmet needs for caregivers.

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Older Adult Factors Associated With Identified Need for Family Caregiver Assistance During Home Health Care

Family caregivers make important contributions to home health care for older adults, but knowledge of the specific roles they assume is lacking. We analyzed data from 1,758 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ receiving Medicare-funded home health care between 2011 and 2016, using linked National Health and Aging Trends Study and Outcomes and Assessment Information Set data. Most (86.7%) beneficiaries receiving home health care had an identified need for family caregiver assistance, and nearly 6 in 10 (57.9%) had identified need for caregiver assistance with five or more tasks. After examining significant associations between older adult characteristics and identified needs for caregiver assistance with specific tasks, we identified three profiles of older adults who demonstrate similar patterns of identified need for family caregiver assistance during home health. These profiles include: (1) older adults with greater functional impairment who more often had identified need for assistance with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, advocacy, or Activities of Daily Living; (2) older adults with cognitive impairment who more often had identified need for assistance with medication administration or supervision; and (3) older adults with greater clinical severity who more often had identified need for assistance with medical procedures and equipment. Findings support calls to develop training interventions and strengthen the partnership between home health providers and family caregivers. These three profiles present a potential framework for the development of family caregiver training programs.

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HOMESIDE: Home-based family caregiver-delivered music and reading interventions for people living with dementia: Protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Introduction Pharmacological interventions to address behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can have undesirable side effects, therefore non-pharmacological approaches to managing symptoms may be preferable. Past studies show that music therapy can reduce BPSD, and other studies have explored how formal caregivers use music in their caring roles. However, no randomised study has examined the effects on BPSD of music interventions delivered by informal caregivers (CGs) in the home setting. Our project aims to address the need for improved informal care by training cohabiting family CGs to implement music interventions that target BPSD, and the quality of life (QoL) and well-being of people with dementia (PwD) and CGs. Methods and analysis A large international three-arm parallel-group randomised controlled trial will recruit a sample of 495 dyads from Australia, Germany, UK, Poland and Norway. Dyads will be randomised equally to standard care (SC), a home-based music programme plus SC, or a home-based reading programme plus SC for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is BPSD of PwD (measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will examine relationship quality between CG and PwD, depression, resilience, competence, QoL for CG and QoL for PwD. Outcomes will be collected at baseline, at the end of the 12-week intervention and at 6 months post randomisation. Resource Utilisation in Dementia will be used to collect economic data across the life of the intervention and at 6-month follow-up. We hypothesise that the music programme plus SC will generate better results than SC alone (primary comparison) and the reading programme plus SC (secondary comparison). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for all countries. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in scientific journals and disseminated to consumer and caregiver representatives and the community. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12618001799246p; NCT03907748 

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The Support, Health, Activities, Resources, and Education program for early stage dementia: Results from a randomized controlled trial

Purpose: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the effectiveness of the Support, Health, Activities, Resources, and Education Program. This six-session psycho-educational program provides dyadic counseling for individuals in the early stages of dementia and their family caregivers. The goal is to prevent common problems in care that emerge during the course of dementia by (1) actively engaging the person with dementia in developing a balanced plan of future care with his/her caregiver, (2) increasing use of available services, (3) enhancing dyadic relationship functioning, (4) improving well-being, and (5) evoking satisfaction with components of the intervention. Design and methods: Persons with early stage dementia (n = 128) and their caregivers (n = 128) were randomly assigned either to Support, Health, Activities, Resources, and Education Program or a control condition. Intervention efficacy was evaluated for completion of a care plan, use of services, dyadic relationship functioning, participant well-being, and program satisfaction. Results: Dyads in the treatment condition were able to construct a balanced care plan and increased their use of services. Dyadic functioning improved for one dimension (decreased emotional disruptions). Compared to the control condition, satisfaction with the intervention was higher for caregivers enrolled in Support, Health, Activities, Resources, and Education Program on four of five dimensions and one dimension for persons with dementia. Implications: Support, Health, Activities, Resources, and Education Program is a promising prevention approach that takes advantage of the early stage of dementia when both members of the dyad can participate fully in making decisions about later care. 

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Vietnamese American Dementia Caregivers' Perceptions and Experiences of a Culturally Tailored, Evidence-Based Program to Reduce Stress and Depression

Vietnamese American dementia caregivers are at increased risk for adverse mental health compared to the general U.S. population given their sociodemographic and immigration experiences, yet programs that address their needs are lacking. The current article describes Vietnamese American dementia caregivers' perceptions and experiences of a culturally tailored, evidence-based intervention to reduce stress and depression. A convenience sample of caregivers was recruited from the San Francisco Bay area and randomly assigned to intervention (“Our Family Journey”; OFJ) (n = 30) or control (written dementia caregiving information) (n = 30) groups. All intervention and 76.7% of control caregivers reported that the OFJ or educational materials, respectively, were very/somewhat helpful. Three or more skills were refined/learned by 96.7% of OFJ and 36.6% of control participants. Qualitative findings indicated that the intervention had positive effects on well-being and taught new caregiving skills. This first U.S. study to address the mental health needs of Vietnamese American dementia caregivers shows positive perceptions/experiences and demonstrates a model to address a significant need in the community. 

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Caregiver Interventions for Adults Discharged from the Hospital: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence evaluating the effectiveness of informal caregiver interventions to facilitate the recovery of older people discharged from the hospital. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Hospital and community. METHODS: Published and unpublished randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of informal caregiver interventions to support the recovery of older people discharged from the hospital were identified (to March 2019). The primary outcome was patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Secondary outcomes included patient function, caregiver burden, caregiver HRQOL, psychological distress, adverse events, and health resource use. Studies were critically appraised and meta-analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who had been admitted to the hospital. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were eligible (4695 participants). The indication for hospital admission was stroke in 21 trials (91%). Interventions consisted of training and/or skills-based programs, with or without home visits/telephone follow-up. Caregiver interventions for patients following stroke may provide no benefit for patient HRQOL at 12 months (standardized mean difference =.29; 95% confidence interval = -.12 to.69; low-quality evidence). Caregiver interventions demonstrated benefit for caregiver burden and both patient and caregiver anxiety at 12 months. No consistent effect was found on functional outcomes, depression, HRQOL, adverse events, or health resource use measures. CONCLUSIONS: Informal caregivers who receive training to facilitate the recovery of older people discharged from the hospital following stroke may have a lower burden and reduced anxiety at 12 months compared with those who do not. However, the evidence was moderate to low quality. Further study is warranted to explore whether caregiver interventions can be modified for nonstroke populations such as those with hip fracture. 

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The effect of family teaching on depression, anxiety and stress in caregivers of patients received electroconvulsive therapy

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the planned pre-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) family teaching on depression, anxiety and stress of caregivers of patients with mental disorders receiving ECT. Design/methodology/approach In this quasi-experimental study, 130 participants were randomized allocated into intervention or control groups. The planned family teaching program consisted of four 90 min sessions held during four weeks. Assessments occurred at pre-intervention (one week before the first session), and post-intervention (one months after the four session). Data were collected using demographic questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Findings The mean scores of the depression, anxiety and stress levels in the intervention group were significantly reduced compared to the control group (p=0.001). Originality/value The family pre-ECT teaching intervention and counseling decreased the depression, anxiety and stress level of family caregivers of patients with mental disorders receiving ECT and the maintenance of other favorable conditions at baseline. These results suggest that even a short-term educational intervention for family members of patients received ECT can improve emotional outcomes of treatment in the family.

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Increasing Caregiver Access to Programming: A Qualitative Exploration of Caregivers' Experience of a Telehealth Powerful Tools for Caregivers Program

Family caregivers can benefit from education-based wellness programs, but many face barriers to attending such programs. The purpose of this research was to explore telehealth as a delivery format for an education-based caregiver wellness program. This qualitative research examined the caregiver experience of a specific program called Powerful Tools for Caregivers (PTC). The traditionally in-person program was delivered via telehealth in four states. Twelve caregivers participated in focus groups the week after completing the telehealth PTC program. Three major themes emerged from the focus groups: Knowledge Gained, Interrelatedness, and Technology Pros and Cons. All affirmed a positive experience of the telehealth delivered PTC program. Participants expressed gratitude for the opportunity to participate in the program and knowledge gained including relaxation techniques, communication skills, resources to support caregiving, and goal setting for self-care. Furthermore, participants were appreciative of the opportunity to connect with other caregivers from the comfort of their home.

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Health coaching to improve self-care of informal caregivers of adults with chronic heart failure – iCare4Me: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background: Persons with chronic heart failure are living longer. These patients typically live in the community and are cared for at home by informal caregivers. These caregivers are an understudied and stressed group. Methods: We are conducting a two-arm, randomized controlled trial of 250 caregivers of persons with chronic heart failure to evaluate the efficacy of a health coaching intervention. A consecutive sample of participants is being enrolled from both clinic and hospital settings at a single institution affiliated with a large medical center in the northeastern US. Both the intervention and control groups receive tablets programmed to provide standardized health information. In addition, the intervention group receives 10 live coaching sessions delivered virtually by health coaches using the tablets. The intervention is evaluated at 6-months, with self-care as the primary outcome. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated at 12-months. We are also enrolling heart failure patients (dyads) whenever possible to explore the effect of caregiver outcomes (self-care, stress, coping, health status) on heart failure patient outcomes (number of hospitalizations and days in the hospital) at 12-months. Discussion: We expect the proposed study to require 5 years for completion. If shown to be efficacious and cost-effective, our virtual health coaching intervention can easily be scaled to. support millions of caregivers worldwide.

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mHealth applications as an educational and supportive resource for family carers of people with dementia: An integrative review

Family carers encounter several challenges related to caring for people with dementia, and they need support in managing care recipients’ health needs. This study aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the existing evidence on the use of mHealth/smartphone applications as an educational and supportive resource for family carers of people with dementia. An integrative literature review approach was used. Seven databases were searched. The search generated 117 articles, with seven meeting the inclusion criteria. Three categories and their attendant sub-categories emerged from the literature. The categories are ‘carer support’, ‘evaluation strategies’ and ‘barriers and challenges’. mHealth applications appear to be a feasible intervention for family carers of people with dementia despite the limited available research and barriers for their development and implementation. Further research on mHealth applications with strong methodological rigour and more research on mHealth applications as an educational and supportive resource for carers of people with dementia are needed.

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iSupport: a WHO global online intervention for informal caregivers of people with dementia

The development of iSupport was funded by a grant from the Alzheimer Association US, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, and Alzheimer Disease International. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this letter and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated. The iSupport development team included E. Albanese, N. Batsch, U. Baruah, K. Edwards, K. Egan, D. Gallagher‐Thompson, M. Guerra, J. Holroyd‐Leduc, T. Kwok, K. Mehta, M. Prins, S. Loganathan, I. Rosier, P. Shivakumar, I. van Asch, M. Varghese, H. Wang, B. Willemse, M. Wortmann and L. Xiao. The WHO Secretariat included A. Brunier, K. Carswell, T. Dua, A.M. Pot, D. Rekve, K. Seeher, M. van Ommeren, S. Saxena and D. Zandi.

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Randomized controlled trial of a facilitated online positive emotion regulation intervention for dementia caregivers

Objective: To test the effects of Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers (LEAF), a 6-week positive emotion regulation intervention, on outcomes of positive emotion, depression, anxiety, and physical health as measured by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®). Method: A randomized controlled trial (N 170) comparing LEAF (N 86) to an emotion reporting/waitlist condition (N 84) in dementia caregivers. LEAF was individually delivered online by trained facilitators. Participants in the control condition completed daily online emotion reports and then crossed over into the intervention condition after 6 weeks. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials. gov (NCT01825681) and funded by R01NR014435. Results: Analyses of difference in change from baseline to 6 weeks demonstrated significantly greater decreases in PROMIS® depression (d <.25; p.02) and Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (NeuroQOL) anxiety (d <.33; p-.01), as well as improvements in PROMIS® physical health (d.24; p.02) in the intervention condition compared to the emotion reporting/waitlist control. The intervention also showed greater improvements in positive emotion (d.58; p-.01) and positive aspects of caregiving (d.36; p-.01). Increases in positive emotion significantly mediated the effect of LEAF on depression over time. Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial of the online-facilitated positive emotion regulation intervention in dementia caregivers demonstrated small to medium effect sizes on caregiver well-being and shows promise for remotely delivered programs to improve psychological well-being in caregivers of people with dementia and other chronic illnesses. 

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Building Better Caregivers: A Pragmatic 12-Month Trial of a Community-Based Workshop for Caregivers of Cognitively Impaired Adults

Building Better Caregivers (BBC), a community 6-week, peer-led intervention, targets family caregivers of those with cognitive impairments. BBC was implemented in four geographically scattered areas. Self-report data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. Primary outcome were caregiver strain and depression. Secondary outcomes included caregiver burden, stress, fatigue, pain, sleep, self-rated health, exercise, self-efficacy, and caregiver and care partner health care utilization. Paired t tests examined 6 month and 1-year improvements. General linear models examined associations between baseline and 6-month changes in self-efficacy and 12-month primary outcomes. Eighty-three participants (75% of eligible) completed 12-month data. Caregiver strain and depression improved significantly (Effect Sizes =.30 and.41). All secondary outcomes except exercise and caregiver health care utilization improved significantly. Baseline and 6-month improvements in self-efficacy were associated with improvements in caregiver strain and depression. In this pilot pragmatic study, BBC appears to assist caregivers while reducing care partner health care utilization. Self-efficacy appears to moderate these outcomes. 

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Effects on stress reduction of a modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for family caregivers of those with dementia: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background: Caring for people with dementia (PWD) is stressful and poses many life challenges for the family caregivers. Interventions targeting the stress and psychological well-being of the caregivers have been proposed but the sustainable effects and efficacies of these interventions vary considerably. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to be effective at reducing stress in several populations. However, limited research on the effects of MBCT in family caregivers of PWD has been conducted. This study protocol aims to examine the effects on stress reduction of a modified MBCT for family caregivers of PWD. Methods: A prospective, single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial will be adopted. A convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling family caregivers of PWD will be randomized to either the modified MBCT or the control groups. The modified MBCT group will receive a 10-week, seven-session, group-based modified MBCT whereas the control group will receive a social interaction and routine education (SIRE) on dementia care program at a frequency and timing similar to those in the intervention group. The primary outcomes (stress) and secondary outcomes (depression, anxiety, burden, health-related quality of life, and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of the care recipient) will be measured immediately post-intervention (T1) and at 6-month follow-up (T2), which will be compared with the baseline (T0). Discussion: Reducing the stress of caregiving can promote the well-being of the family caregivers and maintain their sustainability in providing daily care for their family members with dementia. MBCT is found to be effective for stress reduction in other populations, and the results of this study are able to provide us with evidence for using MBCT as a standard supportive intervention for the family caregivers of PWD. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03354819. Registered on 28 November 2017. 

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Effects of a modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for family caregivers of people with dementia: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Background: Caregivers of people with dementia experience high stress levels. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in reducing stress and improving the psychological well-being of several populations. Objective: To explore the feasibility and preliminary effects of a modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for family caregivers of people with dementia. Methods: In a single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 36 caregivers of people with dementia were randomized to either the intervention group, receiving the 7-session modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in 10 weeks; or the control group, receiving the usual family care and brief education on dementia care. The brief education sessions were similar in frequency and duration to the intervention group. Various psychological outcomes of caregivers were assessed and compared at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up. A focus group with eight participants from the intervention group was conducted to identify the strengths, limitations, and difficulties of the intervention. Results: Intervention feasibility was established with a high completion rate of 83% (completing ≥5 out of the 7 sessions) and a low attrition rate of 11.1%. The duration of the average weekly home-based mindfulness practice of the caregivers was 180 minutes (S.D. = 283.8). The intervention group experienced a statistically significant decrease in stress levels (Z = -1.98, p = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.7) and depressive symptoms (Z = -2.25, p = 0.02, Cohen's d = 0.8) at the post-test; and a decrease in stress (Z = -2.58, p = 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.9), depressive symptoms (Z = -2.20, p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.7), and burden (Z = - 2.74, p = 0.006, Cohen's d = 1.0), and improved quality of life (physical) (Z = -1.68, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.6) at the 3-month follow-up compared to the controls. A focus group conducted immediately after the intervention revealed three major themes: Impacts on the family caregivers, Impacts on the people with dementia, and Difficulty in practicing mindfulness. Conclusion: The findings support the feasibility and preliminary effects of the modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on reducing the stress of caregivers and improving their psychological well-being. Some potential effects on people with dementia (e.g., improvements in behavioral problems) were reported by the caregivers. A future study with a larger and more diverse sample is proposed to evaluate the longer-term effects and generalizability of the modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the impacts on people with dementia. 

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An Italian pilot study of a psycho-social intervention to support family caregivers' engagement in taking care of patients with complex care needs: The Engage-in-Caring project

Background: The raising of disability and chronic illness burden among European population is calling for a new paradigm of care, focused on primary health care interventions. Engage-In-Caring is a novel multicomponent intervention clearly dedicated to improve family caregiver engagement in the care of patients with complex care needs, by supporting them to develop a stronger consciousness of their role, needs and skills. Method: Engage-In-Caring intervention's efficacy and feasibility have been evaluated through a single arm pre-post observational pilot study settled in Rome. A qualitative phase, consisting of literature analysis of caregivers' unmet needs and a final revision from an experts' group, led to the structuration of the intervention, following the Caregiver Health Engagement Model (CHE-Model). Afterwards, a quantitative phase allowed understanding the feasibility of the intervention through Kruskal-Wallis test on a sample of 47 caregivers. Results: Results showed a reduction of the physical burden (Chi Squared = 6,483; p =.01) perceived by the caregivers and increase of the health literacy (Chi Squared = 3,560; p =.059) after the intervention. Conclusions: Feasibility tests on caregivers of patients with complex care needs are promising: this pilot study suggests a first effectiveness evidence, particularly concerning aspects related to burden perception and improvements in health literacy. Randomised controlled trials on larger samples are needed.

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Efficacy of a psychoeducational intervention in caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial (EDUCA-IV trial)

Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually cared for by their own parents, families or informal caregivers. Caring for a person with ID can have a negative impact on caregivers' mental health (burden, depression, anxiety). The main aim of the EDUCA-IV trial was testing the efficacy of a psychoeducational intervention program (PIP) versus standard practice and to see whether the PIP intervention would reduce the caregiver's burden at post-intervention (4 months) and at follow-up (8 months). Method: This was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial including 194 caregivers (96 randomised to PIP, 98 to control condition). PIP intervention consists of 12 weekly group sessions. The control group received treatment as usual. Primary outcomes measured included the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Secondary outcomes were caregivers' mental health (GHQ-28), anxiety (STAI) and depression (CES-D). Results: The decrease of ZBI scores was not significant at 4 months. There was significant decrease in the GHQ scores at 4 and 8 months. CES-D showed relevant results at follow-up. Intention to treat analyses showed similar results. Conclusions: The PIP intervention seems not to be effective reducing burden, but appears to have a positive result on general mental health. The program was well received and valued by caregivers. 

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Predictors of Symptoms Remission Among Family Caregivers of Individuals With Dementia Receiving REACH VA

Resources for Enhancing All Caregivers Health (REACH VA) is a behavioral intervention for caregivers of individuals with dementia disseminated in the VA. Although shown to improve caregiver and care recipient outcomes, some caregivers continue to experience depression or caregiver burden following the intervention. Factors that predict symptom remission following REACH VA are unknown. The present study investigated attachment, social support, and psychopathology as predictors of symptom remission for family caregivers who completed REACH VA. Caregivers who do not remit perceive lower levels of social support from loved ones, endorse poorer attachment quality, and have more personality disorder characteristics, particularly affective instability. These factors that impair caregivers’ abilities to be effectively attuned to the needs of their care recipients and to reap benefits from a brief and focused behavioral intervention such as REACH VA. Interventions that target caregiver interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation skills may be helpful to those who do not respond to REACH VA. 

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Comprehensive Family Caregiver Support and Caregiver Well-Being: Preliminary Evidence From a Pre-post-survey Study With a Non-equivalent Control Group

Introduction: In May 2010, the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010, was signed into law in the United States, establishing the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC) provided through the VA Caregiver Support Program (CSP). Prior to this program, over half of family caregivers reported being untrained for the tasks they needed to provide. The training through PCAFC represents the largest effort to train family caregivers in the U.S., and the features of the program, specifically a monthly stipend to caregivers and access to a Caregiver Support Coordinator at each VA medical center nationally, make it the most comprehensive caregiver support program ever enacted in the U.S. Methods: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between PCAFC participation and caregiver well-being following enrollment, comparing participating PCAFC caregivers to caregivers who applied to but were not approved for PCAFC participation (non-participants). Well-being is defined using three diverse but related outcomes: depressive symptoms, perceived financial strain, and perceived quality of the Veteran's health care. Additional well-being measures also examined include the Zarit Burden Inventory and positive aspects of caregiving. Results: The survey sample comprised of 92 caregivers approved for PCAFC and 66 caregivers not approved. The mean age of responding caregivers was 45; over 90% of caregivers were female; and over 80% of caregivers were married in both groups. We find promising trends in well-being associated with PCAFC participation. First, the perception of financial strain declined among participants compared to non-participants. Second, while depressive symptoms did not improve for the PCAFC caregivers, depressive symptoms increased among non-participants. Third, perceived quality of the Veteran's VA healthcare was no different between participants and non-participants. However, the 158 returned surveys reflect only a 5% response rate; hence this evidence is preliminary. Conclusion: Despite cautioning that results be interpreted as preliminary, this study provides unique descriptive information about young caregivers of U.S. post-9/11 Veterans, and offers a first step in filling the evidence gap about how comprehensive caregiver support in the U.S. may affect caregiver well-being. These preliminary findings should be explored and validated in a larger sample.

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Improving family caregiver and patient outcomes in lung cancer surgery: Study protocol for a randomized trial of the multimedia self-management (MSM) intervention

Objective: To describe the study protocol of the Multimedia Self-Management (MSM) intervention to prepare patients and family caregivers (FCGs) for lung cancer surgery.; Design: The study is a five-year, single site, randomized controlled trial of 160 lung cancer surgery FCG and patient dyads (320 total participants), comparing intervention and attention control arms.; Setting: One National Cancer-Institute (NCI) designated comprehensive cancer center in Southern California.; Participants: Patients who are scheduled to undergo lung cancer surgery and their FCGs are enrolled as dyads only.; Intervention: Based on the Chronic Care Self-Management Model (CCM), the intervention is a nurse-led, caregiver-based, multimedia care program for lung cancer surgery. Its primary focus is to help FCGs develop self-management skills related to their caregiving role through goal setting, proactive planning, building problem-solving skills, and accessing family support services. The intervention also supports dyads to prepare for surgery and post-operative recovery at home. It includes videos, print, web-based, and post-discharge telephone support.; Main Outcome Measures: FCG and patient psychological distress and QOL; FCG burden and preparedness for caregiving; FCG and patient healthcare resource use (in-home nursing care, urgent care/ER visits, readmissions).; Analysis: Repeated measures ANCOVA statistical design will be used, removing variances prior to examining mean squares for the group by occasion interactions, and co-varying the baseline scores. In addition, structured equation modeling (SEM) will assess whether mediating and moderating factors are associated with outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03686007.

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Active involvement of family members in postoperative care after esophageal or pancreatic resection: A feasibility study

Background: Active involvement of relatives has the potential to improve postoperative patient outcomes by prevention of complications sensitive to basic care and unplanned readmissions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a program in which relatives participated in postoperative care.; Methods: A pragmatic feasibility trial conducted at the surgical ward of a University hospital in the Netherlands. Patients undergoing esophageal or pancreatic resection with a relative who was willing and able to participate formed the intervention group (n = 20). A control group (n = 20) received usual postoperative care. The program consisted of the following: (1) information; (2) shared goal setting; (3) task-oriented training; (4) participation in basic care, focusing on mobilization, breathing exercises, cognitive activities and oral hygiene; (5) presence of relatives during ward rounds; and (6) rooming-in. Feasibility criteria were adherence to basic care, caregiver burden, and satisfaction of patients, family, and healthcare professionals.; Results: All participants completed the program. Patients in the intervention group mobilized more (estimated difference for walking 170 meters per day, P = .037, and for sitting 109 minutes per day, P < .001), and showed more adherence to breathing exercises (estimated difference per day 1.4, P = .003), oral hygiene (estimated difference 1.52, P = .001), and cognitive activities (estimated difference 2.6, P < .001). Relatives'Care-Related Quality of Life instrument score did not deteriorate over time (P = .64); 96% of relatives would recommend the program and 92% felt better prepared for discharge. Patients in the intervention group were more satisfied with hospital admission. Healthcare professionals valued the program positively.; Conclusion: This program is feasible and is positively appreciated by patients, family, and healthcare professionals. Patients following the program showed more adherence to basic care activities.

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Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on the Knowledge about Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients among Caregivers in a Selected Hospital, Kolkata, India

Introduction: Stroke is a major global health problem and second leading cause of death worldwide. In India, the incidence of stroke rate has increased from 56/100,000 person to 117/100,000 person. Stroke rehabilitation is an active process and begins during acute hospitalisation. Stroke survivors may return to an active and productive lifestyle through rehabilitation. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme (STP) on the knowledge about rehabilitation of stroke patients among caregivers. Materials and Methods: A pre-experimental pre-test, posttest research design was used to conduct this study. Purposive sampling was the sampling method used to collect data from family caregivers of stroke survivors on the basis of semistructured interview schedule. After collecting pre-test data, STP was organised for intervention of stroke rehabilitation to samples. Seven days were provided to the samples for utilising STP which was organised for 45-50 minutes through lecture, discussion and planned Audio-Visual (AV) aids. Posttest information was gathered after seven days from the day of teaching intervention. Seven days was assigned after getting expert opinions as well as to give time for implication of knowledge through practice of stroke rehabilitation. The sample characteristics were described by frequency, percentage and t-test was used to describe the difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge score. Chi-square test was also used to find out the association between knowledge of caregivers regarding stroke rehabilitations and selected demographic variables. Results: The mean pre-test knowledge score was 9.76 and mean post-test knowledge score was 14.7. There was a statistically significant improvement in the level of knowledge regarding stroke rehabilitations among caregivers (t0.001,29=3.659) and no association was found between pre-test knowledge level and selected demographic variables. Conclusion: The demand of stroke rehabilitation by involving family caregivers is increasing as it will help stroke patient to improve activity of daily livings as well as decrease disability and prevent complications. 

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Caregiver-guided pain coping skills training for patients with advanced cancer: Background, design, and challenges for the CaringPals study

Background/Aims: Pain is a major concern of patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers. There is strong evidence that pain coping skills training interventions based on cognitive-behavioral principles can reduce pain severity and pain interference. However, few such interventions have been tested for patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers. This study aims to test the efficacy of a caregiver-guided pain coping skills training protocol on patient and caregiver outcomes. Methods: A total of 214 patients age ≥18 with Stage III–Stage IV cancer and moderate to severe pain, along with their family caregivers, are being identified and randomized with a 1:1 allocation to the caregiver-guided pain coping skills training intervention or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Dyads in both conditions receive educational resources on pain management, and the caregiver-guided pain coping skills training intervention includes three weekly 60-min sessions conducted with the patient–caregiver dyad via videoconference. Measures of caregiver outcomes (self-efficacy for helping the patient manage pain, caregiver strain, caregiving satisfaction, psychological distress) and patient outcomes (self-efficacy for pain management, pain intensity and interference, psychological distress) are collected at baseline and post-intervention. Caregiver outcomes are also collected 3 and 6 months following the patient's death. The study is enrolling patients from four tertiary care academic medical centers and one free-standing hospice and palliative care organization. The primary outcome is caregiver self-efficacy for helping the patient manage pain. Results: This article describes challenges in the design and implementation of the CaringPals trial. Key issues for trial design include the identification and recruitment of patients with advanced cancer and pain, and the follow-up and collection of data from caregivers following the patient's death. Conclusion: The CaringPals trial addresses a gap in research in pain coping skills training interventions by addressing the unique needs of patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers. Findings from this study may lead to advances in the clinical care of patients with advanced cancer and pain, as well as a better understanding of the effects of training family caregivers to help patients cope with pain.

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Improving access to a multi-component intervention for caregivers and people with dementia

Due to the increasing social and economic costs of dementia, there are urgent calls to develop accessible and sustainable care for people with dementia and their caregivers. Multi-component non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) appear effective in improving or maintaining daily functioning and well-being, but are typically labour-intensive for health care professionals, thus hindering access. The current study aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a novel approach to widen access to NPI by involving caregivers to present part of the intervention and with staff from local support organizations instructed to train the caregivers. Trainers and caregivers were shown to comply with training instructions and the direct intervention costs were low. Feedback from trainers and caregivers was positive and well-being ratings from people with dementia and caregivers remained stable over time and caregivers’ sense of competence improved. The findings suggest that involving caregivers and trained non-professionals to provide the intervention is feasible and acceptable and could be a cost-effective solution to improve access to care.

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Pilot Study of a Transitional Intervention for Family Caregivers of Older Adults

Objective : To conduct a formative evaluation of a transitional intervention for family caregivers, with assessment of feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and potential benefits. Methods : The intervention aimed to provide emotional support, information on community resources, and information and support for development of coping skills for the caregivers of patients aged 65 and older who were to be discharged home from an acute medical hospital admission. We used a one-group, pre- and three-month post-test study design. Results: Ninety-one patient-caregiver dyads were recruited. Of these, 63 caregivers (69%) received all five planned intervention sessions, while 60 (66%) completed the post-test. There were significant reductions in caregiver anxiety and depression following the intervention, and high rates of satisfaction. Discussion: This transitional intervention should be further evaluated, preferably with a control group, either as a stand-alone intervention or as one component of a comprehensive transitional intervention for older patients and their caregivers.

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Building Family Caregiver Skills Using a Simulation-Based Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Trial

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and fidelity of a psychoeducational intervention to improve family caregiver technical and communication skills using structured simulations. SAMPLE & SETTING: 18 family caregivers of adult patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer at University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio. METHODS & VARIABLES: A two-group, randomized pilot trial design was used. The intervention consisted of four one-on-one sessions between the caregiver and nurse interventionist during the patient's first, second, fourth, and sixth week of radiation treatment. Participants completed measures of self-efficacy for caregiving, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life at baseline, during the fifth week of radiation therapy, and four weeks after radiation therapy. RESULTS: 4 of the 9 caregiver participants completed the intervention. Improvements in scores for the intervention group were noted for self-efficacy, global mental health, anxiety, and depression. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Refinement of the intervention is needed to improve feasibility. Although a caregiver intervention that incorporates simulation for skills training is acceptable and safe, flexibility in protocol is needed.

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Brief interactive psychoeducation for caregivers of patients with early phase psychosis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Aim: Brief psychoeducation for families of psychotic patients has been shown to significantly increase family members' knowledge of the disorder. This increase is associated with reductions in relapse and rehospitalization. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of brief psychoeducation about schizophrenia to caregivers of patients in early phases of psychotic disorders in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.; Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized trial with 2 parallel groups. Subjects were patients in the early phase of psychotic disorders and their respective caregivers. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or delusional disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups by means of paired simple randomization. A brief psychoeducation was conducted for both the patients and caregivers. The interventions were conducted in 4 interactive sessions, once per week. Effectiveness was measured using standardized instruments before the intervention, and at 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Assessment instruments included the Knowledge of Psychosis (KOP), the Compliance and Relapse Assessment, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia scale.; Results: Interventions improved KOP scores significantly in the intervention group. The intervention group had increased regularity of follow-up with health providers and improved compliance. No statistically significant difference in relapses/rehospitalization was observed.; Conclusions: This study demonstrated that brief psychoeducation with caregivers of patients with early phase psychosis was feasible in our setting, significantly improved caregivers' knowledge, and resulted in improved regularity of contact with health providers and compliance with pharmacotherapy.

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Training family to assist with physiotherapy for older people transitioning from hospital to the community: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Objective: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of augmenting physiotherapy with family-assisted therapy, to inform a future, fully powered trial.; Design: Parallel pilot randomized controlled trial.; Setting: Transition Care Program.; Participants: Thirty-five older adults with multimorbidity, recently hospitalized, with a mean age of 84.1 years (SD = 6.1 years) and mean Modified Barthel Index of 67.8 units (SD = 19.2 units), and 40 family members.; Interventions: The control group ( n = 18) received usual physiotherapy care. The experimental group ( n = 17) received usual physiotherapy care and family-assisted therapy from a family member trained by a physiotherapist.; Main Measures: Primary outcomes were falls-related self-efficacy measured by the Short Falls Efficacy Scale - International and falls during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included daily steps, EQ-5D-3L (three-level version of the EuroQoL five-dimensional health-related quality of life questionnaire) and ICECAP-O (ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people), Modified Barthel Index and Modified Caregiver Strain Index.; Results: There were no between-group differences for falls-related self-efficacy. Relative to the control group, the experimental group was observed to have a reduced risk of falling (relative risk = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.09-1.60) and a reduced falls rate (incidence rate ratio = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.04-1.20) was of borderline statistical significance. The experimental group walked a mean of 944 daily steps more than the control group (95% CI = 139-1748) and had a significant reduction in activity limitation. There were no between-group differences for quality of life or caregiver strain.; Conclusion: Augmenting physiotherapy with family-assisted therapy is feasible for older people transitioning from hospital to the community. A fully powered randomized controlled trial is indicated.

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Family Caregiving for Cancer Patients: the State of the Literature and a Direction for Research to Link the Informal and Formal Care Systems to improve Quality and Outcomes

Objectives: Based on recent shifts in reimbursement for cancer treatment from fee-for-service to bundled and value-based payment, this concluding article summarizes data from these papers and the large body of literature on caregiving to suggest how caregiving research might be redirected to link the formal with the informal systems to achieve higher-quality and lower-cost care. Caregiver dyads, the tasks of care, and strategies for training are presented.; Data Sources: Articles in this issue of Seminars in Oncology Nursing, the larger body of caregiving literature, and the Oncology Care Model driving bundled payments and value-based care.; Conclusion: Research on informal caregiving for cancer patients should begin to reframe the rich body of evidence available toward a focus on caregivers reactions to the tasks of care, the training necessary for caregivers to perform them, and how each contributes to quality care at lower costs and appropriate outcomes given patients' stage of disease and goals of treatment.; Implications For Nursing Practice: Oncology systems must take a more active role in including patients and their families as partners to manage treatments and side effects to achieve the best possible patient outcomes. They must be able to evaluate the patient and the caregiver to determine what tasks they will be able to perform, and then make sure they have the training and resources to carry out those tasks. Training could be done by social media and through communication using patient portals that could be expanded through the electronic medical records to include caregiver portals, enabling caregiver questions and reports of patients' conditions.

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Embedding caregiver support in community-based services for older adults: A multi-site randomized trial to test the Adult Day Service Plus Program (ADS Plus)

There are over five million people in the United States living with dementia. Most live at home and are cared for by family. These family caregivers often assume care responsibilities without education about the disease, skills training, or support, and in turn become at risk for depression, burden, and adverse health outcomes when compared to non-dementia caregivers. Despite over 200 caregiver interventions with proven benefits, many caregivers lack access to these programs. One approach to enhance access is to embed evidence-based caregiver support programs in existing community-based services for people with dementia such as adult day services (ADS). Here we describe the protocol for an embedded pragmatic trial designed to augment standard ADS known as ADS Plus. ADS Plus provides family caregivers with support via education, referrals, and problem solving techniques over 12 months, and is delivered on-site by existing ADS staff. Embedding a program in ADS requires an understanding of outcomes and implementation processes in that specific context. Thus, we deploy a hybrid design involving a cluster randomized two-group trial to evaluate treatment effects on caregiver wellbeing, ADS utilization, as well as nursing home placement. We describe implementation practices in 30 geographically and racially/ethnically diverse participating sites. Clinical trial registration #: NCT02927821.

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Factors Associated with Receipt of Training Among Caregivers of Older Adults

This study uses data from the 2015 National Health and Aging Trends Survey to investigate whether family and unpaid caregiver characteristics are associated with the receipt of caregiver training.

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A forgotten Army: Coping as a carer

Unpaid carers are the backbone of our society who often go unrecognised for their dedication and compassion. They face a range of challenges as they attempt to juggle their work-life-care responsibilities. That’s why we decided to commission YouGov to conduct a UK-wide research project focused on identifying gaps in support and sought to understand the views of unpaid carers.

Key findings

The impacts of loneliness, poor mental and physical health, financial worries and a lack of flexibility to learn or train are placing unpaid carers under increasing strain.

  • Two thirds (64%) of carers were most likely to feel the effect of caring on their social life, causing loneliness, which most commonly manifested as a result of having less time to themselves (48%), socialising less (47%) and generally having less contact with others (41%).
  • The next most common impact was mental ill health (49%). This included increased stress (42%), anxiety (33%) and depression (27%).
  • Almost half (45%) mentioned impacts that caring had on their family life, most notably spending less time with family.
  • Two in five carers reported an impact of caring on their physical health, most often mentioning tiredness (35%), trouble in sleeping (28%) and reduced fitness (20%).
  • More than two in five (44%) unpaid carers noted the impact of caring on their financial situation. The qualitative phase of the research also revealed many hidden costs of caring, including paying for medical supplies and transport to and from appointments.
  • Three in ten unpaid carers aged 16-34 said that their education or training had been affected.

When carers were asked about their support needs, a sizable majority (74%) of carers felt that further support in some form would be useful to them, with a common desire for emotional support (33%). Carers also sought information and advice about the support available, respite care, and finances. Our report also found that there was a need for advice about maintaining good mental and emotional health, shining a light on the often unexpected levels of stress, isolation and despondency felt by unpaid carers.

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Effect of family education program on cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in persons who have had a stroke: A randomized, controlled study

People who have had a stroke face high risks of cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. Health education for family members contributes to better outcomes in various diseases, but the effects of health education on family members of people who have had a stroke are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the family member education program (FMEP) on cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in persons who have had a stroke. In total, 144 persons who experienced a stroke were randomly allocated to the FMEP group or control group (1:1 ratio). In the FMEP group, the FMEP and conventional treatment were provided, while in control group only conventional treatment was provided. The increase in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) score from baseline to 12 months (M12 – baseline) in the FMEP group was higher compared with the control group, and the FMEP led to a decreased cognitive impairment rate (MOCA score ≤26) after 12 months compared to the control group. Changes in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression score (M12 – baseline) decreased in the FMEP group compared with the control group. Fewer participants with depression and a lower depression grade were observed in the FMEP group compared with the control group. The FMEP could reduce cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in persons who have had a stroke.

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The Effect of a Family-Based Training Program on the Care Burden of Family Caregivers of Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Background: The family caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis are faced with multiple physical, psychological, social, economic, and spiritual problems that increase their care burden. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of a family-based training program on the care burden of family caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis.; Materials and Methods: The present controlled, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 70 caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Ali Asghar and Zahray-e Marzieh hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, in 2017. After conducting convenient sampling, 70 participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups (35 in each group). The experimental group received the family-based training program and the control group received usual care plan. Data were collected using the Zarit Burden Scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention and were then analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) repeated measure.; Results: The results showed that both groups were homogeneous in terms of their demographic data and showed no significant differences. The main effect of group was significant, indicating a significant decrease in care burden in the experimental group after the intervention (F1,67 = 1089, p < 0.001). However, the interaction of time and group was not significant, indicating insignificant difference in burden 1 month after intervention (p > 0.05).; Conclusions: Since the family-based training program successfully reduced the burden of care immediately after intervention, similar family-based training programs are recommended to be designed and developed. However, insignificant time effect suggests further researches of long time effects of such program.

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A controlled study of the Collaborative Care Skills Workshops versus Psycho‐educational Workshops among Spanish caregivers of relatives with an eating disorder

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a negative reaction to the illness would be reduced through the "Collaborative Care Skills Workshops" programme among Spanish caregivers of relatives with an eating disorder. Caregivers were randomly allocated to either the skill‐based workshops (n = 32) or psycho‐educational workshops (n = 31), and assessments were carried out over time (T0 vs. T1 vs. T2). There were no significant differences between interventions on primary or secondary caregiver outcomes or among the patients themselves. However, caregivers in both interventions showed greater improvement at T2 on accommodating and enabling behaviours and an improvement at T1 in terms of psychological distress and appraisals towards the caregiving experience. Eating pathology, psychological distress, and some indices of psychosocial adjustment were significantly lower among the patients following both interventions (T1). Overall, both interventions may be able to help caregivers and patients to decrease their psychological distress. Highlights: Involvement of family members in the treatment could be the best resource for aiding in their relative's recovery.This is the first controlled study to test the effectiveness of the Collaborative Care Skills Workshops in Spanish caregivers.Both interventions could be implemented as both help Spanish caregivers and patients.

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Mindfulness for people with long-term conditions and their family caregivers: A systematic review

This review systematically reviewed the therapeutic effects for people with LTCs and their family caregivers learning MBIs [Mindfulness-based interventions] together in a partnership. The review asked what changes in psychological wellbeing or interpersonal factors do people with LTC and their family caregivers experience when learning MBI together in a partnership.

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Cognitively-Based Compassion Training versus cancer health education to improve health-related quality of life in survivors of solid tumor cancers and their informal caregivers: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial

Background: Cancer survivors and their informal caregivers (family members, close friends) often experience significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), including disruptions in psychological, physical, social, and spiritual well-being both during and after primary cancer treatment. The purpose of this in-progress pilot trial is to determine acceptability and preliminary efficacy (as reflected by effect sizes) of CBCT® (Cognitively-Based Compassion Training) compared with a cancer health education (CHE) attention control to improve the primary outcome of depressive symptoms and secondary outcomes of other HRQOL domains (e.g., anxiety, fatigue), biomarkers of inflammation and diurnal cortisol rhythm, and healthcare utilization-related outcomes in both cancer survivors and informal caregivers. Methods: Forty dyads consisting of solid tumor survivors who have completed primary treatments (chemotherapy, radiation, surgery) and their informal caregivers, with at least one dyad member with ≥ mild depressive symptoms or anxiety, will be recruited from Tucson, Arizona, USA. Survivor-caregiver dyads will be randomized together to complete either CBCT or CHE. CBCT is a manualized, 8-week, group meditation-based intervention that starts with attention and mindfulness and builds to contemplative practices aimed at cultivating compassion to the self and others. The goal of CBCT is to challenge unexamined assumptions about feelings and behaviors, with a focus on generating spontaneous self-compassion and increased empathic responsiveness and compassion for others. CHE is an 8-week, manualized group intervention that provides cancer-specific education on various topics (e.g., cancer advocacy, survivorship wellness). Patient-reported HRQOL outcomes will be assessed before, immediately after (week 9), and 1 month after CBCT or CHE (week 13). At the same time points, stress-related biomarkers of inflammation (e.g., plasma interleukin-6) and saliva cortisol relevant for survivor and informal caregiver wellness and healthcare utilization will be measured. Discussion: If CBCT shows acceptability, a larger trial will be warranted and appropriately powered to formally test the efficacy of this dyadic intervention. Interventions such as CBCT directed toward both survivors and caregivers may eventually fill a gap in supportive oncology care programs to improve HRQOL and healthcare utilization in both dyad members. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03459781 . Prospectively registered on 9 March 2018.

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A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of a Manualized Intervention for Caregivers of Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury in Inpatient Rehabilitation

Objective Investigate effectiveness of a 5-session manualized intervention for addressing needs of caregivers of persons in acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation. Design Prospective, pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit, level 1 trauma center. Participants Patients (N=93) with moderate-to-severe TBI and their family members were enrolled in the study with 42 randomized to the treatment group, 51 to the control group. Intervention Five-session manualized caregiver intervention with educational, stress and anxiety self-management, coping, and emotional support components. Main Outcome Measures Family Needs Questionnaire-Revised, knowledge assessment, Zarit Family Burden Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results Treatment group caregivers showed an increase in met needs for emotional, instrumental, and professional support, and brain injury knowledge from baseline to posttreatment, whereas controls did not. Between-group differences were significant for only emotional support needs. Treatment effects were not sustained at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Caregivers of persons undergoing acute TBI rehabilitation may benefit from interventions that target their unique needs. Caregivers may require additional and longer-term supports to sustain treatment benefits.

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Do interventions that include education on dementia progression improve knowledge, mental health and burden of family carers? A systematic review

Background and Aim: The European Association of Palliative Care recommends that family carers need education on the progression of dementia. This systematic review aimed to explore whether interventions incorporating education regarding the progressive nature of dementia increased carers' understanding of dementia and improved mental health and burden.; Method: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched to April 2018. Randomised controlled trials with samples of family carers of someone with dementia were eligible. Included interventions involved a component aimed to increase the carer's understanding of the progression of dementia. Outcomes of interest included: knowledge of dementia, depression, burden and pre-death grief.; Results: Searches identified 3221 unique citations of which 11 studies were eligible for review. Interventions ranged from 4 to 16 sessions of which 1 to 3 sessions focused on the progression of dementia. Knowledge: Two studies evaluated carers' knowledge of dementia. One found no difference between the trial arms immediately after the intervention or three months later. The second found a significant intervention effect at the end of the intervention but not at three-month follow-up. Depression: Seven studies evaluated intervention effects on depression. Meta-analysis of three trials showed significant differences in mean follow-up scores favouring intervention over control. The remaining four studies did not show differences in depression between intervention and control groups. Burden: Nine studies evaluated burden and were examined in two meta-analyses (mean scores at follow-up and mean change scores from baseline to follow-up), neither of which found a benefit for intervention over control. Using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system, we judged the quality of evidence to be very low for depression and low for burden, knowledge and pre-death grief, reducing our confidence in any of the effect estimates.; Conclusion: The evidence was not sufficient to support or refute the effectiveness of education on progression of dementia on carers' knowledge and mental health.

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Impact of self-instruction manual-based training of family caregivers of neurosurgery patients on their knowledge and care practices - A randomized controlled trial

Background: Family caregivers of operated neurosurgery patients function as informal extensions of the health system. But they are untrained and unprepared for their new role. It has been felt that their problems related to care provision can be resolved by appropriate training.; Aim: This study aimed to compare the impact of self-instruction manual-based training of family caregivers of operated neurosurgery patients on their knowledge regarding care provision and care practices.; Setting: Tertiary care hospital setting located in North India.; Design: Randomized controlled trial.; Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was done among the operated neurosurgery patients and their caregiver dyads (n = 90). They were randomly allocated to receive either self-instruction manual and one-to-one training (TP1) or self-instruction manual only (TP2). Block randomization method was used. Sequentially numbered sealed envelope was used for allocation concealment. Monthly follow-up was done for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was knowledge gain of the caregivers.; Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Student's t-test, paired t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance, and Bonferroni's correction were used.; Results: The attrition rate was 15.5%. Intention-to-treat analysis was followed. Caregivers in the TP1 group had significant knowledge gain (95% confidence interval of mean difference 9.4-14.5, P < 0.05). The number of caregivers who had followed correct caregiving practices was significantly more in the TP1 group.; Conclusion: Training of caregivers by providing information along with one-to-one training is an effective strategy for improving the knowledge and skills of caregivers regarding care provision of the operated neurosurgery patients.

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The effect of patient care education on burden of care and the quality of life of caregivers of stroke patients

Background: Care for stroke patients at home is a very complicated and tough activity.; Objective: The study was conducted to examine the effect of patient care education on burden of care and quality of life of caregivers of stroke patients.; Materials and methods: The study was an educational trial conducted on 100 caregivers of the stroke patients in Al-Zahra educational hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The intervention group received some training to empower caregivers in family-oriented care in form of an educational counseling program. Data were collected and analyzed using the questionnaires, including demographic, quality of life Short Form-36, and Zarit burden of care questionnaires.; Results: The mean ages of caregivers were 48.52 years in the intervention and 45.14 years in the control groups. The results indicated significant differences in mean of quality of life and burden of care in the caregivers of the intervention group after intervention (P<0.01), which was insignificant in the control group. The average burden on the caregivers of both groups was significantly associated with health status, economic status, marital status, the number of children, care hours, care days, and familial relationship of the caregivers with the patients (P<0.01) before intervention. In addition, quality of life of both groups was significantly related to their health status (P<0.01) before intervention.; Conclusion: Patient care education reduced the burden of care and improved quality of life of the caregivers of stroke patients. Thus, to reduce the complications of caring for stroke patients, family education should be the priority of nursing and discharging procedures.

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Efficacy of Internet-Delivered Mindfulness for Improving Depression in Caregivers of People With Spinal Cord Injuries and Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial

Objectives: To explore the feasibility and efficacy of web-based mindfulness training for carers of people with spinal cord injury (SCI).; Design: Randomized controlled feasibility study with 3-month follow-up.; Setting: Community setting.; Participants: Spouses or family caregivers (N=55) of people with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain were recruited via the direct care team and advertisements. Participants were older than 18 years (no upper age limit), with Internet access for the duration of the study. Participants were randomly allocated to an 8-week online mindfulness training intervention (n=28), or to receive 8 weeks of psychoeducational materials on SCI and chronic pain (n=27).; Interventions: An established web-based, mindfulness training course was delivered over 8 weeks. Participants completed 10 minutes of mindfulness practices, twice per day, 6 days per week, totaling 960 minutes. The control group received a weekly e-mail with psychoeducational materials (based on the established elements) on SCI and pain for 8 weeks.; Main Outcome Measure: Depression severity.; Results: Mindfulness reduced depression severity more than psychoeducation at T2 (mean difference= -.891; 95% confidence interval,-1.48 to -.30) and T3 (mean difference=-1.96; 95% confidence interval, -2.94 to -.97). Mindfulness training also reduced anxiety at T2 (mean difference=-.888; 95% confidence interval, -1.40 to -.38) and T3 (mean difference=-2.44; 95% confidence interval, -3.20 to -1.69).; Conclusions: Results indicate that Internet-delivered mindfulness training offers unique benefits and is viable for caregivers of people with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain. Further work should explore the feasibility of combined education and mindfulness training incorporating both patient and caregiver, for optimum benefit.

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Self-Care System for Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients Using Resonant Breathing with a Portable Home Device: A Randomized Open-Label Study

Background: Self-care systems for early-stage specialist palliative care for cancer patients and their family caregivers have received much attention recently. Resonant breathing is an established method for maximizing heart rate variability (HRV), but it has not been implemented for home self-care. Objective: We aimed to examine the usefulness and ease of implementation for family caregivers to administer resonant breathing using a portable device at home. Design: We divided caregivers into two groups—a home self-care group and a control group—and we conducted a randomized open-label study, with rate of change in HRV being the primary outcome. Setting/Subjects: We administered HRV biofeedback (HRV-BF) using resonant breathing to 54 family caregivers who felt burdened by their nursing care responsibilities. Results: Among the self-care group, 92.6% of participants completed the study in their homes; 28 days after intervention initiation, the resonant breathing implementation rate at home was 86.1%. There was an interaction between time course and grouping in our HRV comparisons: the change rate in the home self-care group was higher during HRV-BF than before HRV-BF. Conclusions: Because family caregivers in our study learned to quickly administer resonant breathing using a portable device at home, resonant breathing improved rapidly, along with autonomic nerve function and quality of life.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Psychoeducation for Carers of Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder

Carers of persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience high burden. Treatment guidelines advocate involving carers in comprehensive therapy approaches. This study is a randomized controlled trial of group psychoeducation, compared to waitlist. Group psychoeducation involved 6–8 carers per group and focused on improving relationship patterns between carers and relatives with BPD, psychoeducation about the disorder, peer support and self-care, and skills to reduce burden. Carers were randomized into intervention (N = 33) or waitlist (N = 35). After 10 weeks, those in the intervention reported improvements in dyadic adjustment with their relative, greater family empowerment, and reduced expressed emotion, sustained after 12 months. There were also improvements in carers' perceptions of being able to play a more active role, such as interacting with service providers. This study demonstrates that providing structured group programs for carers can be an effective way of extending interventions to a group experiencing high burden. 

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Including and Training Family Caregivers of Older Adults in Hospital Care: Facilitators and Barriers

Background: Despite the role caregivers play in the delivery of care, the interactions and training methods used with caregivers during an inpatient stay are not clear.; Purpose: The purpose was to examine interactions and training methods used with caregivers during hospital care.; Methods: A mixed-methods case study was conducted. Observations were summarized and interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis.; Results: The frequency of caregiver engagement varied at different points in the care process but was highest among observations during the stay care point. Providers were most commonly using written and verbal instructions to train caregivers. Three themes emerged from the interviews and were described to be both facilitators and barriers to caregiver involvement: experience, time, and relationship.; Conclusions: High-quality person and family-centered care depends upon coordinated efforts among health care systems, providers, patients, and caregivers. Future caregiver initiatives should aim to decrease disengagement, increase assessment, and broaden the use of training methods.

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A Problem-Solving Intervention for Hospice Family Caregivers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Objectives: Family caregivers of hospice patients have multiple needs as they try to cope during a stressful time. Translatable interventions effective in improving caregiver outcomes are greatly needed. Our objective was to assess the impact of a problem-solving intervention (called Problem-Solving Intervention to Support Caregivers in End-of-Life Care Settings [PISCES]) to support hospice caregivers on caregiver quality of life and anxiety, and compare its effectiveness delivered face to face and via videoconferencing.; Design: In this 4-year randomized clinical trial, caregivers were randomly assigned to a group receiving standard care with added "friendly calls" (attention control [AC] group), a group receiving standard care and PISCES delivered face to face (F2F), or a group receiving standard care and PISCES delivered via videoconferencing (VC).; Setting: Home hospice.; Participants: A total of 514 caregivers participated (172 in AC, 171 in F2F, and 171 in VC). Caregivers were predominantly female (75%); mean age was 60.3 years.; Intervention: PISCES includes a structured curriculum delivered in three sessions and motivates caregivers to adopt a positive attitude, define problems by obtaining facts, set goals, and generate and evaluate solutions.; Measurements: Quality of life was measured by the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Revised; anxiety was measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item. Other measures included the Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale, demographic data, and an exit interview.; Results: Compared with AC, caregivers in the F2F condition had postintervention reduced anxiety (-1.31 [95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.11 to .50]; p = .004) and improved social (.57 [95% CI = .19-.95]; p = .01), financial (.57 [95% CI = .21-.93]; p = .004), and physical quality of life (.53 [95% CI = .19-.87]; p = .01). There were no differences in caregivers in the VC condition compared with the AC condition.; Conclusion: The PISCES intervention improves caregiver outcomes and is effective when delivered in person. How to integrate technology to reduce the intervention delivery cost warrants further investigation.

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The Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Support Groups for Women With Breast Cancer and Their Caregivers: A Mixed Methods Study

Background: Previous studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in oncology mainly used quantitative measures and no study was conducted with regard to both caregivers and patients. Aim: This study evaluates the effectiveness of psychoeducational support groups, both for women with breast cancer, and for their informal caregivers through the use of quantitative and qualitative measures. Methods: A longitudinal design was used comparing two psychoeducational support groups with other two groups in a standard care control condition. Participants were 28 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer in the care of a hospital in Northern Italy, and 21 family caregivers. The quantitative data were collected by Cognitive Behavioral Assessment for Outcome Evaluation (CBA-OE) and the qualitative data through the use of semi-structured interviews. Results: The statistical analysis showed a significant change attributable to the psychological intervention that proves the effectiveness of such an intervention in the patients' and caregivers' group. The qualitative analysis allowed us to interpret the behavioral and psychological profile emerging from CBA-OE, by considering the subjective experience of the treatment groups. The group experience offered affective, relational and informative support, and allowed participants to create a network and to feel understood and reassured. Conclusion: The results suggest the usefulness of psychoeducational support groups for women with breast cancer and for their caregivers. The value of this kind of intervention is not only at an individual level but also at a systems level, and family involvement ensures the best positive outcomes.

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Is training for informal caregivers and their older persons helpful? A systematic review

Background: The steady increase in the number of people suffering from chronic diseases and increasing life expectancy raises new demands on health care. At the same time, the need for informal caregivers is increasing. This study aims to perform a systematic review of the methodologies used to identify effect of different types of training on informal caregivers and their older persons.; Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL and Ovid were searched from December 2016 and April 2017. The following keywords were used; "informal caregiver", "training" "elderly", older persons". Identified publications were screened by using the following inclusion criteria; systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and multicentre studies, English language full text journals, samples or interventions that included caregivers of older persons and published in last 10 years.; Results: Twenty four studies (12 randomised control trials, 8 intervention studies and 4 systematic reviews) were included. Most of the randomized controlled trials involved both caregivers and elderly. Pretests and post-tests were used in intervention studies (5 out of the 8 studies). ICT-based, psychosocial interventions on family caregivers' education program for caregivers were applied. Caregivers following a supportive educative learning had a significantly better quality of life.; Conclusions: The findings of this systematic review suggest that support interventions for caregivers can be effective in reducing caregivers' stress, with a consequent improvement of the quality of care. However, results are based on relatively small studies, reporting somewhat controversial findings supporting the need to perform further research in this field.

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Family-led rehabilitation in India (ATTEND)—Findings from the process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial

Background: Training family carers to provide evidence-based rehabilitation to stroke patients could address the recognized deficiency of access to stroke rehabilitation in low-resource settings. However, our randomized controlled trial in India (ATTEND) found that this model of care was not superior to usual care alone. Aims: This process evaluation aimed to better understand trial outcomes through assessing trial implementation and exploring patients’, carers’, and providers’ perspectives. Methods: Our mixed methods study included process, healthcare use data and patient demographics from all sites; observations and semi-structured interviews with participants (22 patients, 22 carers, and 28 health providers) from six sampled sites. Results: Intervention fidelity and adherence to the trial protocol was high across the 14 sites; however, early supported discharge (an intervention component) was not implemented. Within both randomized groups, some form of rehabilitation was widely accessed. ATTEND stroke coordinators provided counseling and perceived that sustaining patients’ motivation to continue with rehabilitation in the face of significant emotional and financial stress as a key challenge. The intervention was perceived as an acceptable community-based package with education as an important component in raising the poor awareness of stroke. Many participants viewed family-led rehabilitation as a necessary model of care for poor and rural populations who could not access rehabilitation. Conclusion: Difficulty in sustaining patient and carer motivation for rehabilitation without ongoing support, and greater than anticipated access to routine rehabilitation may explain the lack of benefit in the trial. Nonetheless, family-led rehabilitation was seen as a concept worthy of further development.

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Study of an Educational Programme in Dementia Care for Family Carers in Taiwan

Currently there is a lack of understanding of dementia by the general public in Taiwan, and more importantly, those who care for dementia suffers. The aim of the current Educational Programme (EP) was to help the participants increase their knowledge of dementia, and thus to strengthen their caring skills for dealing with the Older Adults with Dementia (OAwD). The programme involved 282 participants and took 15 months to complete. All those participated were non-professional, private carers who looked after their family members that suffer from dementia. It was demonstrated that such a programme was greatly beneficial to participants in gaining knowledge about dementia, learning more caring skills, and other valuable information included in the educational programme curriculum. It was evident that after completion of the programme, the participants became more aware of the available community resources and more likely to access those additional support. All participants showed strong interest in repeating the educational programme to further enhance their caring skills.

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Meta-Analysis of Caregiver-Directed Psychosocial Interventions for Schizophrenia

With the recent movement toward a personal-recovery paradigm to treat schizophrenia, the locus of mental health care delivery has shifted toward community-based care. Family caregivers comprise a substantial component of that community, and are often providing care for longer periods, but often have no formal training or support. Caregiver-directed psychosocial interventions (CDPI) have been developed to train and assist caregivers in their efforts to maximize the odds of treatment success for those in their care. This meta-analysis compared CDPI versus treatment as usual (TAU) on outcomes such as hospitalization, relapse, non-compliance, and “other outcomes” (emergency services utilization, suicide attempt, and death). A systematic literature search (2005–2015) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of outpatient administered CDPI versus TAU to treat adult patients recovering from schizophrenia. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals derived via random effects meta-analysis were calculated to compare CDPI versus TAU on the aforementioned outcomes. Eighteen of the 693 citations were retained for analysis. Overall RR for CDPI versus TAU suggested improved outcomes associated with CDPI: hospitalization [0.62 (0.46, 0.84) p < 0.00001], relapse [0.58 (0.47, 0.73) p < 0.00001] and other outcomes [0.70 (0.19, 2.57) p = 0.59]. CDPI was associated with significantly better compliance with medication and clinical activities combined [0.38 (0.19, 0.74) p = 0.005]. Medication compliance alone favored CDPI but was non-significant. Compliance with clinical activities alone favored CDPI significantly [0.22 (0.11, 0.47) p < 0.00001]. CDPI is associated with reductions in hospitalization, relapse, and treatment non-compliance.

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Expanding Knowledge: From workshops to educational materials, PVA Education Foundation grants help improve the lives of those with SCI/D, their families and caregivers

The article reports on the number of grants given by the Education Foundation of the Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA) that will deliver knowledge through person-to-person interactions at conferences and symposia. It outlines the six categories in which education grants can be awarded. It notes that the next Education Foundation grant cycle will be open on September 1, 2018.

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Improving health care communication for caregivers: A pilot study

With the growing older adult population, there will also be more informal caregivers assisting friends and family with their health care. With the increasing complexity of health care, improved caregiver communication skills have the potential to reduce caregiver burden and frustration and improve care recipient health. The primary goal of this project was to develop and refine the content and teaching methods of a small-group behavioral change program to improve communication between caregivers of older adults and health care professionals. The authors developed the Care Talks program for improving communication between caregivers and health care professionals. They conducted a prospective cohort feasibility study of the intervention to assess caregiver communication confidence at baseline and one month postintervention. Six participants were enrolled. Of the 15 participants who answered the question, 15 (100%) would recommend this program to a friend. There was significant improvement in a 10-question composite of communication confidence pre/post scores from 74.1 to 79.6 p = .03. This small-group behavioral change intervention significantly improved communication confidence for this sample of caregivers. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects of this program on caregivers and care recipients.

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Modifying illness beliefs in recent onset psychosis carers: Evaluating the impact of a cognitively focused brief group intervention in a routine service

Aims: At first-episode psychosis (FEP), many patients will be routed within familial networks and supported by informal carers who are predominately close family members such as parents. Carer burden, distress and poorer coping styles are associated with different illness beliefs. The current study sought to examine the impact and acceptability of a 3 session, cognitively informed, group intervention targeting illness beliefs previously linked to distress and poorer caregiving experiences in FEP carers.; Methods: Carers attending a routine FEP service were invited to attend the group intervention and completed a measure of illness beliefs at baseline and post intervention.; Results: Data on 68 carers with complete datasets are presented. Carers were predominately females (64.2%). Group attendance was linked to positive improvements in carer baseline beliefs about the negative consequences of the illness for the patient and themselves, attributions of blame about the illness to the patient and themselves and their overall understanding about the illness. Significant improvements in their understanding of the illness timeline and course, and confidence in dealing with difficulties were also identified.; Conclusions: A cognitively informed group approach to targeting the less adaptive illness beliefs reported by FEP carers may offer an effective and acceptable pathway to facilitate their understanding of the illness and adjustment. Further studies using controlled designs are required.

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A cluster randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a family dementia caregiver intervention in Vietnam: The REACH VN study protocol

Background: Resources for Enhancing All Caregivers Health in the Department of Veterans Affairs (REACH VA) is an evidence-based intervention supporting family dementia caregivers that has been shown to improve caregiver outcomes for culturally diverse populations in the United States. However, this model has not been tested in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including Vietnam, where community-based psychosocial interventions are urgently needed. The objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of the Resources for Enhancing All Caregivers Health in Vietnam (REACH VN).; Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted over a 6-month period in Soc Son district located in Hanoi. An expected sample of 10 to 12 communes, representing approximately 50 dementia primary caregivers, will be randomized to either the REACH VN intervention or an enhanced control condition. Inclusion criteria for the caregiver include age ≥18, family member who provides the most day-to-day care for person with dementia, and a total score for the brief (4 item) Zarit Burden Scale of ≥6. Over the course of 2 to 3 months, each participant in the intervention group will receive the REACH VN intervention comprised of 4 core sessions on problem solving, mood management/cognitive restructuring, stress management, and communication, and up to 2 additional sessions based on caregiver's needs. The enhanced control group will receive a single session that provides verbal and written information on dementia. Caregiver outcomes will be assessed at baseline (i.e., time of enrolment) and 3 months. The feasibility will be assessed with regard to recruitment, retention, treatment adherence, treatment fidelity, and assessment processes. For preliminary effectiveness, we will examine caregiver burden as the primary outcome and changes in caregiver depressive symptoms and in Alzheimer disease knowledge as secondary outcomes.; Discussion: This is the first study to test community-based family dementia caregiver intervention in Vietnam. Results from this study will provide the foundation for a larger effectiveness trial and broader dissemination in Vietnam and may help inform efforts to develop similar community-based family dementia caregiver support programs in other LMICs.; Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03587974. 

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An Evaluation of the Family Informal Caregiver Stroke Self-Management Program

Background: Caregivers are often unprepared and overwhelmed with the responsibilities of providing care to stroke survivors, which can lead to negative physical and psychological effects.; Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the Family Informal Caregiver Stroke Self-Management (FICSS) program on burden and life changes resulting from providing care among family caregivers of stroke survivors.; Methods: A prospective pre-test and post-test design using quantitative and qualitative data was used to evaluate the program with a convenience sample of 42 caregivers. The four-module facilitated program consisted of small group-guided discussion. Quantitative evaluations were completed at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months (post-intervention), and qualitative data were collected at 2 weeks and 6 months. Life changes and burden were measured using the Bakas Caregiving Outcome Scale (BCOS) and the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS), respectively.; Results: The BCOS scores increased consistently over time, showing significant differences at 6 months compared with 2 weeks (mean difference: 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-10.28, p=0.04) and baseline (mean difference: 7.58, 95% CI: 2.92-12.23, p=0.001). The OCBS time scores decreased consistently over time, showing a significant difference at 6 months compared with baseline (mean difference: -5.20, 95% CI: -0.96 to -9.44, p=0.02). The OCBS difficulty scores fluctuated over time, resulting in no overall difference from baseline to 6 months. Qualitative themes were consistent with the positive quantitative findings.; Conclusion: Study results suggest that the FICSS program may result in reduced caregiver burden and improved life changes resulting from providing care.

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Impact of Penny Brohn UK's Living Well Course on Informal Caregivers of People with Cancer

Objectives: This study evaluated the change in the concerns, wellbeing, and lifestyle behaviors of informal caregivers of people with cancer attending Penny Brohn UK's Living Well Course (LWC), a self-management education intervention. Design: A pre–postcourse design collected self-reported quantitative and qualitative data from informal caregivers attending a LWC. Setting/Location: Penny Brohn UK is a United Kingdom-based charity (not-for-profit) providing specialist integrative, whole person support, free of charge, to people affected by cancer. Subjects: Informal caregivers taking part in a Penny Brohn UK LWC between June 2014 and May 2016 attending alongside the person with cancer. Intervention: The LWC is a structured 15 h, multimodal group self-management educational course, designed to help people affected by cancer learn tools and techniques to help build resilience. Trained facilitators deliver LWCs to around 12 people with various types and stages of cancer and their informal caregivers. Outcome measures: Measure Yourself Concern and Wellbeing (MYCaW) completed precourse and at 6 weeks postcourse; and bespoke 6-week follow-up Patient Reported Experience Measure. Results: Four hundred eighty informal caregivers attended a LWC June 2014 to May 2016. One hundred eighteen completed a 6-week follow-up MYCaW: MYCaW Concerns 1 and 2 showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.0001), there was no significant improvement in wellbeing. Informal caregivers' most reported concerns relating to themselves were psychological and emotional issues (59%). The primary concern of the caregiver for the care recipient was related to the physical health of the person with cancer (40%). Eighty-seven percent of responding informal caregivers stated that the LWC enabled health self-management. Conclusions: The LWC was followed by an improvement in informal caregivers' concerns, and increased self-management of their own health needs. More studies, with larger sample size, are needed to explore if better self-management by informal caregivers may also lead to improvements in patients' health and wellbeing. 

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Development and validation of assessment of psycho-education of carers questionnaire: An early experience

Background and Objective: Psycho-education is an intervention integrating psychotherapeutic and educational strategies. Whilst carer psycho-education is known to aid in psychiatric disorders, at present there is no known tool to assess the degree to which this is routinely provided by mental health professionals. Our objective was to develop and validate a tool, in English, which assesses psycho-education of carers of psychiatric patients in Pakistan. Methods: A questionnaire was generated in English. It was pretested on twenty male and female carers and was refined to attain a more reliable version. Sixty bilingual male and female primary carers, who were fluent in English, and had been in a care-giving role for more than three months were requested to complete the developed Questionnaire for the Assessment of Psycho-Education of Carers (APEC) at Fatima Memorial Hospital Psychiatry Out-patient department within a period of four months from December, 2017 to April, 2018. Carers were identified via patients presenting to a psychiatric OPD. Responses were analyzed for reliability and test retest consistency using Cronbach's alpha analysis, Intraclass correlation coefficients, factor analysis and Paired t-test. Results: APEC was found to be easily understandable and capable of adequately assessing aspects of psycho-education. A high degree of internal consistency was demonstrated on cronbach's alpha analysis. Cronbach's α coefficient for various domains was sufficiently high ranging from 0.76 to 0.960. Similarly, domains of (APEC) were highly correlated. Test-retest reliability was assessed by computing the correlation between Visits 1 and 2 scores. Conclusion: The developed questionnaire can adequately assess psycho-education of primary carers in mental health settings. 

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The effects of a multidisciplinary education course on the burden, health literacy and needs of family caregivers

Chronic diseases are mostly managed by family caregivers that often face the "caregiver burden". This study aimed to understand whether a multidisciplinary theoretical-practical training course could influence the burden, health literacy and needs of caregivers. Seventy-six familial caregivers were asked to complete the Caregiver Burden Inventory-CBI, Caregiver Needs Assessment-CNA, and Health Literacy Questionnaire-HLQ, before and after the course. A significant decrease in CBI and an increase of CNA were observed. However, a significantly higher rate of CBI decrease and a lower increase of CNA were detected in the neurological compared to the oncological group (p = 0.001). Moreover, the ability of the participants to look for and find health information significantly improved. The course contrasted caregivers' burden, increased their search for health information, and revealed their requiring of training and emotional and social support. Caregiver education plays a pivotal role in the management of chronic patients, enhancing the quality of life of both patients and caregivers. Highlights • Caregivers' ability to care for chronic patients can affect patients' outcomes. • Caregivers' needs assessment and education are often neglected in healthcare. • A training course positively influenced caregivers' burden, health literacy and needs. • Caregivers' education is fundamental for the management of chronic patients.

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Improving Coping Styles in Family Caregivers of Psychiatric Inpatients Using Planned Behavior Problem-Solving Training

Background: The consequences and high costs of psychiatric disorders impact family caregivers greatly. Health services should identify and provide accessible support programs to facilitate effective caregiver coping.; Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based problem-solving training program on the coping styles of family caregivers of psychiatric inpatients.; Methods: In this two-group, randomized control trial, 72 family caregivers were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving standard care or an intervention group receiving a training program (eight sessions over 4 weeks). Demographic information was recorded at baseline, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to both groups at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 1-month follow-up.; Results: Immediately after the intervention, the intervention group earned significantly higher task-oriented coping style scores (mean difference = 5.03, p = .015) than the control group, but no significant difference was detected between the two groups for either emotion- or avoidance-oriented coping style scores. At 1-month follow-up, the intervention group earned significantly higher scores than the control group for task-oriented (mean difference = 8.56, p < .001) and emotion-oriented (mean difference = 7.14, p = .002) coping styles. No improvement in avoidance-oriented coping style at the postintervention or follow-up time points was detected.; Conclusions: Implementation by nurses and other health professionals of problem-solving training programs that are based on the theory of planned behavior is recommended to strengthen the use of task- and emotion-oriented approaches that help family caregivers of psychiatric patients better cope with stress.

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Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing grief experienced by family carers of people with dementia: A systematic review

Background Family carers of people living and dying with dementia experience grief. The prevalence, predictors and associated factors of grief in this population have been identified, and psychosocial interventions to decrease grief symptoms have been implemented. However, the effect of psychosocial interventions on family carers’ grief, loss or bereavement has not been examined. Objective To synthesize the existing evidence regarding the impact of psychosocial interventions to assist adjustment to grief, pre- and post-bereavement, for family carers of people with dementia. Inclusion criteria Types of participants Family carers of older persons with dementia (>65 years). Types of interventions Psychosocial interventions in health and social care facilities, and community settings designed to assist family carers adjust to grief during the dementia trajectory and/or following death. Comparisons No treatment, standard care or treatment as usual, or an alternative intervention. Types of studies Experimental and epidemiological study designs. Outcomes Grief in family carers including anticipatory, complicated and prolonged grief disorder measured with validated instruments. Search strategy A three-step strategy sought to identify both published and unpublished studies from 1995. Methodological quality Assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Data extraction The standardized data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI was used by two reviewers independently. Data synthesis Statistical pooling of results was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the interventions and the outcome measures. Results Data were extracted from three studies. Study designs were a randomized controlled trial; a pre-test, multiple posttest quasi-experimental; and a single group, repeated measures. The interventions were multi-component, had durations of nine to 26 weeks and were delivered while care recipients were alive. All studies were undertaken in the United States. There were 327 family carers, of which 197 received a psychosocial intervention. Family carers were predominantly female (84.7%), Caucasian (73.4%) and caring for their spouse (44.3%). All care recipients had dementia; 68.5% had Alzheimer’s disease. Two studies measured anticipatory grief, and the third study reported normal and complicated grief. Moderate benefits to anticipatory grief were evident upon completion of the “Easing the Way” intervention (effect size -0.43, P = 0.03). After controlling for research design and control variables, for every hour increase in the interventions focusing on family carers’ cognitive skills, there were associated decreases in carers’ normal grief (parameter estimate [PE]= -0.81, P = 0.02) and complicated grief (PE=-0.87, P = 0.03). For every hour increase in the interventions focusing on carer behavior, there was an associated decrease in carers’ complicated grief (PE = -1.32, P = 0.04). For every hour increase in the interventions focusing on care recipient behavior, there was an associated decrease in carers’ complicated grief (PE = -2.91, P = 0.04). Conclusion There is little evidence upon which to base practice with regard to interventions to reduce any aspects of grief. Findings suggest that different pre-death interventions might be warranted depending upon a family carer’s unique clinical presentation and combination of risk factors. Cognitive skills training provided while the care recipient is alive may positively impact normal and complicated grief following the death of the care recipient. When the cognitive skills training is provided in conjunction with behaviorally oriented interventions that improve the wellbeing of the carer and care recipient, carers’ complicated grief symptoms may be reduced. 

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Fulfilling the psychological and information need of the family members of critically ill patients using interactive mobile technology: A randomised controlled trial

Background Intensive care nurses may have an important role in empowering families by providing psychological support and fulfilling the family's pivotal need for information. Aim To determine whether ‘education of families by tab’ about the patient’s condition was more associated with improved anxiety, stress, and depression levels than the ‘education of families by routine’. Research design A randomized control trial of 74 main family caregivers (intervention: 39; control: 35). Setting An adult intensive care unit. Main outcome measures Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and Communication and Physical Comfort Scale. Results Although information need satisfaction was not significantly different between intervention and control groups, the former reported significantly better depression score on Depression Anxiety Stress Scale comparing to the control group (p<0.01;η2=0.09) with a medium effect size. Reduction of anxiety in the intervention group were clinically significant. Conclusion The results suggest that use of ‘education of family by tab’ is promising for intensive care nurses to provide psychological support for family members. More studies are needed to investigate this aspect of family care for better psychological support and information need satisfaction that contributes to the evidence-based practice of intensive care nursing.

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A Community Based Program for Family Caregivers for Post Stroke Survivors in Thailand

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the post-stroke care program within the community setting in Thailand. Methods This quasi-experimental study was a nonequivalent control group pre-test and post-test design. A total of 62 pairs of post-stroke patients and their family caregivers were recruited to the study (31 pairs per group). The intervention consisted of a four-week program that included distributing pertinent information, providing skill practice during post-stroke care sessions and utilizing strategies to enhance motivation and behavioral skills of family caregivers based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. The family caregivers' post-stroke care skills were evaluated. The patients' activities of daily living (ADLs) and complications were evaluated at baseline and immediately and 2-month post-intervention. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test, and two-way repeated measures' analysis of variance. Results After participating in the program, family caregivers in the experimental group significantly improved their post-stroke care knowledge and skills as compared to those in the control group (F = 585.81,p< .001). ADLs among post-stroke patients in the experimental group significantly increased over time and were higher than those in the control group (F = 46.01,p< .001). Moreover, complications among patients in the experimental group were less than those in the control group. Conclusions The post-stroke care program improved family caregivers' post-stroke care skills which resulted in improved functional status and decreased complications among post-stroke patients.

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Communication Empowerment Framework: An integrative framework to support effective communication and interaction between carers and people living with dementia

Objectives: To demonstrate the power of integrating three theoretical perspectives (Mentalization Theory, Perceptual Control Theory and the Communicative Impact model), which jointly illuminate the communication challenges and opportunities faced by family carers of people with dementia. To point the way to how this framework informs the design and delivery of carer communication and interaction training. Method: Conceptual synthesis based on a narrative review of relevant literature, supported by examples of family carers. Results: We use the conceptual models to show how the capacity to mentalize (“holding mind in mind”) offers a greater sense of control over internal and external conflicts, with the result that they can be deescalated in pursuit of mutual goals. Conclusions: The integrative conceptual framework presented here highlights specific psychological and relational mechanisms that can be targeted through carer training to enhance communication with a person living with dementia. 

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Disseminating START: training clinical psychologists and admiral nurses as trainers in a psychosocial intervention for carers of people with dementia’s depressive and anxiety symptoms

OBJECTIVES: To put into practice and to evaluate an initial dissemination programme for the Strategies for Relatives (START), a clinically and cost-effective manualised intervention for family carers of people with dementia. SETTING: We offered three-hour 'train-the-trainer' sessions through the British Psychological Society and Dementia UK. PARTICIPANTS: Clinical psychologists and admiral nurses across the UK. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: After the training session, attendees completed an evaluation. Attendees were asked how they had implemented START six and twelve months later, and to participate in telephone interviews about their experiences of what helps or hinders implementation oneyear after training. RESULTS: We trained 134 clinical psychologists and 39 admiral nurses through 14 training sessions between October 2014 and September 2015 in nine UK locations and made materials available online. The 40 survey respondents had trained 75 other staff. By this time, 136 carers had received START across eleven service areas. Findings from 13 qualitative interviews indicated that some clinical psychologists had begun to implement START, facilitated by buy-in from colleagues, existing skills in delivering this type of intervention, availability of other staff to deliver the intervention and support from the research team. Admiral nurses did not supervise other staff and were unable to cascade the intervention. Where START has not been used, common barriers included lack of staff to deliver the intervention and family carer support not being a service priority. Participants wanted the training to be longer. CONCLUSIONS: We trained clinical psychologists and admiral nurses to deliver and implement START locally. Results from survey respondents show that it was cascaded further and used in practice in some areas, but we do not know whether START was implemented by non-respondents. Future dissemination requires management buy-in, availability of practitioners and supervisors and consideration of other ways of delivery. 

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The Effect of Problem Oriented Coping Strategies Training on Quality of Life of Family Caregivers of Elderly with Alzheimer

Elderly with Alzheimer requires care to continue their lives and such care is given mostly by families. Care of elderly with Alzheimer is a stressful process and it has negative consequences on physical and mental health of caregivers and reduces their quality of life. The present research aims to determine the effect of problem oriented coping strategies training on quality of life of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer. In this randomized clinical trial 72 caregivers were chosen by purposeful sampling and were divided randomly into control and experimental groups. Before the intervention, participants' quality of life was assessed by SF36 quality of life questionnaire. Eight sessions of educational intervention were held for the experimental group. The educational contents were included subjects such as problem solving, anger management and making an affective relationship. Two weeks after the intervention, information was recollected. Finding indicated that in intervention group, caregivers' quality of life significantly increased after the educational intervention (P= 0.001). After the intervention, caregivers' quality of life in experimental group was more than control group but such difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.112). Problem-oriented coping strategies training can enhance most dimensions of quality of life of caregivers and such education can be effective on their lives.

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Evaluation of a co-delivered training package for community mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning

Background There is limited evidence for the acceptability of training for mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Aim To investigate the acceptability of a co-delivered, two-day training intervention on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Methods Community mental health professionals were invited to complete the Training Acceptability Rating Scale post-training. Responses to the quantitative items were summarized using descriptive statistics (Miles, ), and qualitative responses were coded using content analysis (Weber, ). Results Of 350 trainees, 310 completed the questionnaire. The trainees rated the training favourably (median overall TARS scores = 56/63; median 'acceptability' score = 34/36; median 'perceived impact' score = 22/27). There were six qualitative themes: the value of the co-production model; time to reflect on practice; delivery preferences; comprehensiveness of content; need to consider organizational context; and emotional response. Discussion The training was found to be acceptable and comprehensive with participants valuing the co-production model. Individual differences were apparent in terms of delivery preferences and emotional reactions. There may be a need to further address the organizational context of care planning in future training. Implications for practice Mental health nurses should use co-production models of continuing professional development training that involve service users and carers as co-facilitators.

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Building on the recovery approach: the development of a conceptual model of service design for carers in mental health

Carers' views about their role in recovery are under-researched, and studies investigating their needs are underdeveloped. In this study, participatory action research was used; I was supported by a steering group of eight stakeholders to co-produce a training programme on recovery and data collection methods to explore the meaning of recovery for carers. The programme was delivered by me, an expert-by-experience with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and a carer of her son with a similar diagnosis, to a group of eleven participants. Mainly qualitative data was collected together with supplementary quantitative socio-demographic data from the participants. Selected findings based on the carers' discussions are presented which focus on how the relationship between carers and professionals can most effectively facilitate service user recovery. Issues of information exchange between carers and professionals and the impact of patient confidentiality are highlighted, the nature of recovery practice is considered, and the participants' need to be regarded as 'experts' is addressed. A conceptual model of service design based on a recovery-oriented 'triangle of care' is presented. The potential implementation of this model in the current UK mental health service context is considered with the need for co-production between all stakeholders to ensure its development. 

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Family Caregiver Training Program (FCTP): A Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Family Caregiver Training Program (FCTP) for caregivers of people with dementia.METHOD. A random assignment control group research design with a 3-mo follow-up was implemented.RESULTS. Thirty-six family caregivers of people with dementia demonstrated an increase in activity of daily living (ADL) knowledge (p < .001) and maintenance of that knowledge 3 mo posttest. Caregiver confidence, regardless of group assignment, improved; however, it was not maintained. Burden, depression, and occupational performance and satisfaction remained unchanged for the intervention group; however, physical health as it pertained to quality of life improved 3 mo posttest (p < .001).CONCLUSION. Findings demonstrate that the FCTP can effectively provide knowledge to family caregivers on how to assist people with dementia with ADLs. Even when standard care was provided, there was limited information on ADLs that family caregivers faced daily.

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A virtual reality intervention to improve the understanding and empathy for people with dementia in informal caregivers: results of a pilot study

Objective: Informal caregivers often experience psychological distress due to the changing functioning of the person with dementia they care for. Improved understanding of the person with dementia reduces psychological distress. To enhance understanding and empathy in caregivers, an innovative technology virtual reality intervention Through the D'mentia Lens (TDL) was developed to experience dementia, consisting of a virtual reality simulation movie and e-course. A pilot study of TDL was conducted. Methods: A pre-test–post-test design was used. Informal caregivers filled out questionnaires assessing person-centeredness, empathy, perceived pressure from informal care, perceived competence and quality of the relationship. At post-test, additional questions about TDL's feasibility were asked. Results: Thirty-five caregivers completed the pre-test and post-test. Most participants were satisfied with TDL and stated that TDL gave more insight in the perception of the person with dementia. The simulation movie was graded 8.03 out of 10 and the e-course 7.66. Participants significantly improved in empathy, confidence in caring for the person with dementia, and positive interactions with the person with dementia. Conclusion: TDL is feasible for informal caregivers and seems to lead to understanding of and insight in the experience of people with dementia. Therefore, TDL could support informal caregivers in their caregiving role.

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Caregiver Appraisal Model: understanding and treating behaviours that challenge

Practice example of a model developed to support carers in understanding and dealing with challenging behaviours. The Caregiver appraisal model is a prospective model of caregiver stress which has been developed by Northumberland County Behaviour Support Service. The model was developed from work with seven family caregivers over 12 months and provides a framework for managing their distress based on their appraisals of the situations confronting them. It is a cognitive behavioural model. The article describes how the model was developed, how it works and points of practice. Interventions directed at the person with dementia need to address unmet need. Interventions focusing on the caregiver cover three areas: psychoeducation, behavioural interventions and cognitive interventions. The authors conclude that the approach has been positively received by carers, although the sample size of cases is currently small and wider testing is required to validate its efficacy.

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Correlates of caregiver participation in a brief, community-based dementia care management program

Purpose of the Study: The evidence base for dementia care management interventions for informal caregivers (CGs) is strong, yet enrolment and sustained engagement in academic and community-based research trials is low. This study sought to examine rates and correlates of participation in a community-based, telephone-delivered dementia care management programme designed to address logistic and practical barriers to participation in CG trials and services. Design and Methods: Participants included 290 CGs of older, community-dwelling, low-income care recipients (CRs) who met criteria for enrolment in a collaborative dementia care management programme that provides assessment, psychosocial support and education, and connection to community resources via telephone. Cross-sectional analyses examined the association between CG-related (e.g., financial status, relationship to CR, caregiving burden) and CR-related (e.g., functional limitations, symptom severity) factors and CG enrolment and engagement. Results: The majority of CGs were non-Hispanic White, female, financially stable, and adult children of the CRs. Over half of CGs lived with the CR and provided 20 or more hours of care per week. Roughly half of CGs refused care management services. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that perceived caregiving burden and financial status were related to initial enrolment and engagement in services once enrolled, respectively. Implications: A significant proportion of CGs refuse free, convenient, evidence-based dementia care management services, underscoring the need for further examination of correlates of programme acceptance. Nonetheless, community-based programmes that address barriers may improve enrolment and engagement rates among CGs, including those who are especially vulnerable to negative CG and CR outcomes.

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Disciplinary power and the process of training informal carers on stroke units

This article examines the process of training informal carers on stroke units using the lens of power. Care is usually assumed as a kinship obligation but the state has long had an interest in framing the carer and caring work. Training carers in healthcare settings raises questions about the power of the state and healthcare professionals as its agents to shape expectations and practices related to the caring role. Drawing on Foucault's notion of disciplinary power, we show how disciplinary forms of power exercised in interactions between healthcare professionals and carers shape the engagement and resistance of carers in the process of training. Interview and observational field note extracts are drawn from a multi-sited study of a training programme on stroke units targeting family carers of people with stroke to consider the consequences of subjecting caring to this intervention. We found that the process of training informal carers on stroke units was not simply a matter of transferring skills from professional to lay person, but entailed disciplinary forms of power intended to shape the conduct of the carer. We interrogate the extent to which a specific kind of carer is produced through such an approach, and the wider implications for the participation of carers in training in healthcare settings and the empowerment of carers.

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Implementation of a multidisciplinary psychoeducational intervention for Parkinson's disease patients and carers in the community: study protocol

Background Parkinson’s disease progressively limits patients at different levels and as a result family members play a key role in their care. However, studies show lack of an integrative approach in Primary Care to respond to the difficulties and psychosocial changes experienced by them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary psychoeducational intervention focusing on improving coping skills, the psychosocial adjustment to Parkinson’s disease and the quality of life in patients and family carers in a Primary Care setting. Methods This quasi-experimental study with control group and mixed methods was designed to evaluate a multidisciplinary psychoeducational intervention. Based on the study power calculations, 100 people with Parkinson’s disease and 100 family carers will be recruited and assigned to two groups. The intervention group will receive the ReNACE psychoeducational intervention. The control group will be given a general educational programme. The study will be carried out in six community-based health centres. The results obtained from the two groups will be collected for evaluation at three time points: at baseline, immediately after the intervention and at 6 months post-intervention. The results will be measured with these instruments: the Quality of Life Scale PDQ-39 for patients and the Scale of Quality of Life of Care-givers SQLC for family carers, and for all participants the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness scale and the Brief COPE Inventory. Focus groups will be organised with some patients and family carers who will have received the ReNACE psychoeducational intervention and also with the healthcare professionals involved in its development. Discussion An important gap exists in the knowledge and application of interventions with a psychosocial approach for people with PD and family carers as a whole. This study will promote this comprehensive approach in Primary Care, which will clearly contribute in the existing knowledge and could reduce the burden of PD for patients and family carers, and also in other long-term conditions. Trial registration NCT03129425 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Retrospectively registered on April 26, 2017.

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Communication training interventions for family and professional carers of people living with dementia: a systematic review of effectiveness, acceptability and conceptual basis

Objectives: To update previous reviews and provide a more detailed overview of the effectiveness, acceptability and conceptual basis of communication training-interventions for carers of people living with dementia. Method: We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE and PsycINFO using a specific search and extraction protocol, and PRISMA guidelines. Two authors conducted searches and extracted studies that reported effectiveness, efficacy or acceptability data regarding a communication training-intervention for carers of people living with dementia. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Quality of qualitative studies was also systematically assessed. Results: Searches identified 450 studies (after de-duplication). Thirty-eight studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Twenty-two studies focused on professional carers; 16 studies focused mainly on family carers. Training-interventions were found to improve communication and knowledge. Overall training-interventions were not found to significantly improve behaviour that challenges and caregiver burden. Acceptability levels were high overall, but satisfaction ratings were found to be higher for family carers than professional carers. Although many interventions were not supported by a clear conceptual framework, person-centred care was the most common framework described. Conclusion: This review indicated that training-interventions were effective in improving carer knowledge and communication skills. Effective interventions involved active participation by carers and were generally skills based (including practicing skills and discussion). However, improvements to quality of life and psychological wellbeing of carers and people living with dementia may require more targeted interventions.

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Feasibility of a multidisciplinary caregiving training protocol for young caregivers in families with ALS

Feasibility of a multidisciplinary caregiving training protocol for young caregivers in families with ALS. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of a multidisciplinary young caregiver group training protocol for children and youth who provide care to a family member with ALS. Method: Peer group experiential young caregiver model based on theories of self-management and self-efficacy. Training conducted by a multidisciplinary team of therapists in ALS (PT, OT, Speech and social work), as well as assistive device vendors. Demographic data, caregiving tasks and evaluations were collected. Results: The model is feasible for both youth and therapists. Youth found benefit, skill acquisition, and mastery by asking questions, teaching back skills to the group and engaging with peers. Conclusion: This project demonstrates young caregivers will participate in training, and engage with “like” peer group. Future projects will focus on developing a structured survey and observation, testing efficacy in larger groups.

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A collaborative care skills workshop for carers: Can it be delivered in 1 day?

Carers of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) report high levels of burden and distress and describe a number of unmet needs. As a result, a number of interventions have been designed to support carers, including the “Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care skills workshops,” which comprise six 2‐hr workshops delivered over 3 months for parents and carers of people with EDs. The current study aimed to test a proof‐of‐concept that this workshop could be effectively delivered in 1 day. An additional aim was to assess whether the workshop had direct effects on carer skills. A nonexperimental repeated measures research design was employed, giving measures before and after a 1‐day workshop. Results suggested significant increases in carer self‐efficacy and carer skills, with moderate to large effect sizes. Qualitative analyses supported these results whilst also generating ideas to improve the 1‐day workshop.

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Reflections on developing a blended learning recovery programme for family carers of people who have mental ill-health

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the development of a recovery-oriented training programme for mental health care-givers. It also considers the effectiveness of using participatory research methods that promote involvement of people with diverse expertise to co-produce this programme. It presents a rationale for developing recovery-oriented training, which employs blended learning, comprising face-to-face and e-learning. Design/methodology/approach A small advisory group consisting of professionals, experts-by-experience (service users) and -by-caring (care-givers) and an academic developed a blended learning programme about the recovery approach for mental health carer-givers. This paper details the participatory approach supported by an action research cycle that contributed to the design of the programme, and the specific impact of experiential knowledge on its development. Findings Reflections on the advisory group process are described that led to the co-production of the course. This leads to consideration of the value of using this research approach to develop a carer-focused programme. The content of the recovery-oriented training programme is presented which adopts blended learning. This leads to discussion of potential of this format to improve carers’ access to training. Originality/value It is proposed that this recovery-oriented course, building on a previous study, has the potential to positively influence outcomes for the training programme participants (the care-givers) and the person they support. It is suggested that blended learning may in part overcome some of the barriers carers experience to accessing and participating in traditional interventions. Reflections on the process of co-production underline the value of participatory research in designing this recovery-oriented course for carers. 

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Effectiveness of a strength-oriented psychoeducation on caregiving competence, problem-solving abilities, psychosocial outcomes and physical health among family caregiver of stroke survivors: A randomised controlled trial

Background: Family caregivers provide the foundation for long-term home care of stroke survivors. The overwhelming stress associated with caregiving hinders the ability of family caregivers to utilise their internal and external resources to cope with this situation, thereby placing their own health at risk. We conducted a randomised controlled trial of a strength-oriented psychoeducational programme on conventional stroke rehabilitation for family caregivers. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a strength-oriented psychoeducational programme on the caregiving competence, problem-solving coping abilities, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiving burden and resources (family functioning, social support) and physical health (such as caregiving-related injury), as well as potential placement of stroke survivors. Design: A prospective multi-centre and single-blinded randomised controlled trial stratified by survivors’ history of stroke. Setting and participants: Adult stroke patients and their family caregivers were recruited from the medical wards of a regional acute and two rehabilitation hospitals in the Eastern New Territories of Hong Kong. Methods: The design of the trial was based on the relational/problem-solving model. Family caregivers of stroke survivors who had been admitted to the study hospitals completed a set of questionnaires before randomisation, immediately, one- and three-months post-intervention. The control group received usual care, whereas the intervention group received an additional 26-week strength-oriented psychoeducational programme (two structured individual face-to-face pre-discharge education sessions on stroke and its associated caregiving skills and six biweekly post-discharge telephone-based problem-solving coping skills training sessions). Data were analysed using the generalized estimating equation and multiple regression models and chi-square tests. Results: We recruited 128 caregiver–survivor dyads. The intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvements throughout the study (p < 0.01) in terms of caregiving competence, problem-solving coping abilities and social support satisfaction. This group also displayed significantly greater improvements in terms of family functioning (p < 0.05) at one-month post-intervention, an increased number of social support (p < 0.001) and a lower level of burden at three-month post-intervention. However, there was no significant effect on enabling stroke survivors to remain in their home. Post-hoc analysis showed a significant and indirect effect of problem-solving coping abilities, which suggested its mediating effect on caregiving competence of stroke caregivers. Conclusions: Findings suggest that incorporating a strength-oriented psychoeducational programme into the existing stroke rehabilitation protocol can foster a healthy transition to caregiving among family members of stroke survivors.

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The Effect of a Brief Cognitive Behavioural Stress Management Programme on Mental Status, Coping with Stress Attitude and Caregiver Burden While Caring for Schizophrenic Patients

This experimental study was carried out using a pre-test/post-test control group model to evaluate the effect of a "Brief Cognitive Behavioural Stress Management Programme" (BCBSMP) on mental status, coping with stress attitude, and caregiver burden while caring for patients with schizophrenia. A total of 61 caregivers who provided care for schizophrenia patients at a community mental health centre were included in the study. Caregivers were matched according to gender and scale scores and were assigned to either the study or the control group. Before and after the programme, caregivers in both groups were given the "Demografic Data Form", "Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale", "Coping Attitude Evaluation Scale", "Stress Indicators Scale", and the "General Health Survey-28". Caregivers in the study group were taken to a BCSMP one session per week (each session lasted 120min) for seven weeks. We determined that the stress indicators, the risk of developing a psychological disorder, and caregiver burden decreased and skills related to both the problem-oriented and emotion-oriented aspects of stress increased in the study group after the programme.

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Randomized controlled trial of family-based education for patients with heart failure and their carers

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate a heart failure education programme developed for patients and carers in Thailand. Background. Heart failure is major health problem. This is the first trial of a family-based education programme for heart failure patients and carers residing in rural Thailand. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. One hundred patient-carer dyads attending cardiac clinics in southern Thailand from April 2014 - March 2015 were randomized to usual care (n = 50) or a family-based education programme (n = 50) comprising face-to-face counselling, a heart failure manual and DVD and telephone support. Assessments of heart failure knowledge, health-related quality of life, self-care behaviours and perceived control were conducted at baseline, three and six months. Results. Linear mixed-effects model revealed that patients and carers who received the education programme had higher knowledge scores at three and six months than those who received usual care. Among those who received the education programme, when compared with those who received usual care, patients had better self-care maintenance and confidence, and health-related quality of life scores at three and six months, and better self-care management scores at six months, whereas carers had higher perceived control scores at three months. Conclusion. Addressing a significant service gap in rural Thailand, this family-based heart failure programme improved patient knowledge, self-care behaviours and health-related quality of life and carer knowledge and perceived control. 

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A randomized controlled trial of a home-based training programme to decrease depression in family caregivers of persons with dementia

Aims. The aim of this study was to explore distinct trajectories of caregivers' depressive symptoms and the effects of a training programme on these trajectories over 18 months after the programme. Background. Overall effects of caregiver-training programmes on family caregivers' depressive symptoms have been reported, but few studies explored distinct courses of changes in caregivers' depressive symptoms and followed up intervention effects on these distinct courses. Design. Randomized clinical trial. Methods. Family caregivers (n = 116) were randomly assigned into experimental (n = 57) and control (n = 59) groups. The experimental group received the training programme with telephone consultation and the control group received written educational materials and social telephone follow-ups. Caregivers' depressive symptoms were assessed from June 2009 - March 2012 by selfcompleted questionnaires before, at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the intervention. Groups of individual trajectories were distinguished using groupbased trajectory modelling. Results. Caregivers' depressive symptoms fell into three stable trajectories: nondepressed, mildly blue and depressed. After controlling for covariates, caregivers who received the caregiver-training programme were less likely than those who did not experience persistent depressive symptoms (b = -1.92, odds ratio = 0.15, P < 0.05). Conclusion. Depressive symptoms of family caregivers of persons with dementia were relatively stable and followed three distinct courses: non-depressed, mildly blue and depressed. Therefore, caregivers' depressive symptoms should be assessed as early as possible. Caregivers in the experimental group had a lower probability of persistent depressive symptoms than caregivers in the control group. Therefore, this training programme can be used by healthcare providers for persons with dementia and their caregivers. Trial registration number: NCT02667951. References

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Changes in Families' Caregiving Experiences through Involvement as Participants then Facilitators in a Family Peer-Education Program for Mental Disorders in Japan

A family peer-education program for mental disorders was developed in Japan, similar to existing programs in the United States and Hong Kong. Families that serve as facilitators in such programs may enhance their caregiving processes and, thereby, their well-being. This study's aim was to describe how families' caregiving experiences change, beginning with the onset of a family member's mental illness, through their involvement in a family group or peer-education program as participants then facilitators. Thus, this study was conducted in a family peer-education program for mental disorders in Japan. Group interviews were conducted with 27 facilitators from seven program sites about their experiences before, during, and after becoming facilitators. Interview data were coded and categorized into five stages of caregiving processes: (1) withdrawing and suppressing negative experiences with difficulty and regret (2) finding comfort through being listened to about negative experiences (3) supporting participants' sharing as facilitators (4) understanding and affirming oneself through repeated sharing of experiences and (5) finding value and social roles in one's experiences. The third, fourth, and fifth stages were experienced by the facilitators. The value that the facilitators placed on their caregiving experiences changed from negative to positive, which participants regarded as helpful and supportive. We conclude that serving as facilitators may improve families' caregiving processes.

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Psychosocial intervention for carers of people with dementia: What components are most effective and when? A systematic review of systematic reviews

Background: Psychosocial interventions for carers of people with dementia are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in dementia care. We aim to systematically review the evidence from existing systematic reviews of psychosocial interventions for informal carers of people with dementia. Methods: Thirty-one systematic reviews were identified; following quality appraisal, data from 13 reviews, rated as high or moderate quality, were extracted. Results: Well-designed, clearly structured multi-component interventions can help maintain the psychological health of carers of people with dementia and delay institutionalization of the latter. To be most effective, such interventions should include both an educational and a therapeutic component; delivery through a support group format may further enhance their effectiveness. Conclusions: Successful translation of evidence into practice in this area remains a challenge. Future research should focus on determining the most cost-effective means of delivering effective multi-component interventions in real-world settings; the cost-effective potential of technology-based interventions is considerable.

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An evaluation of involving family caregivers in the self-care of heart failure patients on hospital readmission: Randomised controlled trial (the FAMILY study)

Background: The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in Lebanon but to date there is no systematic evaluation of a disease management intervention. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of involving family caregivers in the self-care of patients with heart failure on the risk of hospital readmission. Design: A multi-site, block randomised controlled trial. Settings The study was conducted over a 13-month period in three tertiary medical centres in Beirut and Mount Lebanon, Lebanon. Participants: Adult patients presenting for an exacerbation of heart failure to one of the study centres were included. Patients with limited life expectancy or physical functionality, planned cardiac bypass or valve replacement surgery, living alone or in nursing homes, or aged less than 18 years were excluded. Methods: Patients allocated to the intervention group and their family caregivers were provided with a comprehensive, culturally appropriate, educational session on self-care maintenance and symptom management along with self-care resources. The usual care group received the self-care resources only. Follow-up phone calls were conducted 30 days following discharge by a research assistant blinded to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was hospital readmission and the secondary outcomes were self-care, quality of life, major vascular events and healthcare utilization. Results: The final sample included 256 patients hospitalized for heart failure randomised into control (130 patients) and intervention (126 patients) groups. The mean age was 67 (SD = 8) years, and the majority (55%) were male. Readmission at 30 days was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group (n = 10, 9% vs. n = 20, 19% respectively, OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.10, p = 0.02). Self-care scores improved in both groups at 30 days, with a significantly larger improvement in the intervention group than the control group in the maintenance and confidence sub-scales, but not in the self-care management sub-scale. No differences were seen in quality of life scores or emergency department presentations between the groups. More patients in the control group than in the intervention group visited health care facilities (n = 24, 23% vs. n = 12, 11% respectively, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.83, p = 0.01). Conclusion: The trial results confirmed the potential of the family-centred self-care educational intervention under evaluation to reduce the risk of readmission in Lebanese patients suffering from exacerbated heart failure. Further research is needed to validate these findings with longer periods of follow-up and to identify the intervention components and intensity required to induce sustained benefits on patients' self-care management and quality of life.

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"Family matters": A systematic review of the evidence for family psychoeducation for major depressive disorder

The first aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for family psychoeducation (FPE) interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD). A second aim was to compare the efficacy of different modes of delivering face-to-face FPE interventions. Ten studies (based on nine distinct samples) were identified comprising four single-family studies, four multifamily studies, one single versus multifamily comparative study, and one peer-led, mixed-diagnosis study. Seven studies measured patient functioning and six reported positive outcomes. Six studies measured carer's well-being and four reported positive outcomes. Results provide preliminary evidence that FPE leads to improved outcomes for patient functioning and family-carer's well-being for persons with depression. The implications for future development and delivery ofFPE interventions for MDD are discussed.

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Health economic evaluations of non-pharmacological interventions for persons with dementia and their informal caregivers: a systematic review

Background: This systematic review aims to review the literature on trial-based economic evaluations of non-pharmacological interventions directly targeted at persons with dementia as well as persons with mild cognitive impairment and their respective caregivers.; Methods: A systematic literature research was conducted for the timeframe from 2010 to 2016 in the following databases: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EconLit, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed. Study quality was assessed according to the Drummond criteria.; Results: In total sixteen publications were identified. Health economic evaluations indicated the cost-effectiveness of physical exercise interventions and occupational therapy. There was also evidence to suggest that psychological and behavioral therapies are cost-effective. Health economic studies investigating psychosocial interventions mainly targeted towards informal caregivers showed inconsistent results.; Conclusions: Due to the increasing prevalence of dementia non-pharmacological interventions and their health economic impact are of increasing importance for health care decision-makers and HTA agencies.

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Testing Tele-Savvy: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Many informal caregivers of persons with dementia suffer adverse health consequences. Although established psychoeducation programs are known to benefit caregivers, attending in-person programs is challenging for them. To address this challenge, the Savvy Caregiver Program, an evidence-based psychoeducation program with demonstrated effectiveness for caregiving and disease-related outcomes, was transformed into an on-line program, Tele-Savvy. This article describes the rationale for and design of a prospective longitudinal randomized controlled trial (targeted N = 215), currently underway. The trial aims to establish Tele-Savvy's efficacy in (i) reducing the negative effects of caregiving on caregivers; (ii) promoting care recipients' quality of life; (iii) improving caregiver mastery; and to explore (iv) Tele-Savvy's efficacy among caregivers of different races/ethnicities. The mediating role of mastery will be assessed. Participants are randomized to the active condition (immediate Tele-Savvy participation), attention control, or usual care. Participants in the two latter conditions will complete Tele-Savvy 6 months post-baseline. Multilevel mixed effects models will be used to examine changes in outcomes and to model group by time (months since baseline) interactions. The exploratory aim will be addressed using analysis of covariance and qualitative analysis. This trial's results may be used by healthcare and community organizations to implement Tele-Savvy in dementia care, increasing caregivers' access to this evidence-based intervention.

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Comparison of Two Intervention Strategies on Prevention of Bedsores among the Bedridden Patients: A Quasi Experimental Community-based Trial

Background: More than 80% of bedridden patients develop bedsores in home care settings. Training of informal caregivers can significantly affect the quality of care to these patients.; Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two caregiver training strategies on prevention of bedsores among bedridden patients.; Methods: The study was carried out in Chandigarh. The study center was at PGIMER, Chandigarh. Seventy-eight bedridden patients being taken care in their homes were identified. These were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received Prevention Package I, i.e., self-instruction Manual (SIM), training, and counseling. Group B received Prevention Package 2, i.e., only SIM. All these patients were followed up periodically for 1 year. During each follow-up, patients were observed for bedsore development. Braden scale was used to assess the risk factors of bedsores. Katz scale was used to evaluate the level of functional dependence of patients. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data.; Results: The percentage reduction of number of patients at risk of bedsore development as per various domains of Braden Scale was more in Group A as compared to Group B on each successive visit. There was 100% improvement in mobility level in the patients who were totally dependent in both the groups. However, in moderately dependant patients, the improvement in mobility level was more (87%) in Group A as compared to Group B (75%). All the caregivers complied fully with instructions postintervention.; Conclusion: Training of caregivers for the prevention of bedsores among the bedridden patients was effective in improving the practices of the caregivers and also in reducing the risk factors of bedsores. One-to-one training with SIM distribution yielded better results than the use of only SIM.

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Determining the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a stroke instructional and educational DVD in a multinational context: a randomized controlled pilot study

Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of an instructional and educational stroke DVD and determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this intervention in a multinational context.; Design: Non-funded, pilot randomized controlled trial of intervention versus usual care.; Setting: International, multicentre, community-based.; Participants: Community-living adults up to three years post stroke with moderate to severe disability and their nominated informal caregivers.; Interventions: Intervention patients viewed and practised rehabilitation techniques demonstrated in the DVD over six weeks.; Main Measures: Trial feasibility by number of active recruitment sites, recruitment efficiency, randomization and follow-up. Intervention feasibility by patient and caregiver impressions. Preliminary efficacy by the quality of life - 5-level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) health status measure, General Health Questionnaire and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression at two months.; Results: In total, 14 recruitment sites were established across eight countries. Recruitment was achieved at nine (64%) sites. Over 16 months, 66 participants were recruited (mean (SD) age = 63.5 (12.47) years) and randomized to intervention ( n = 34) and control ( n = 32) groups. In total, 54 (82%) completed a follow-up assessment. Patient and/or caregiver comments about the benefits and barriers to accessing the intervention were mixed. There were no significant between-group differences in outcomes at two months ( P > 0.05).; Conclusion: Conducting a multinational trial of a stroke DVD requires full funding. The intervention was acceptable to some patients and their caregivers, yet a generalized education approach did not fully meet their needs and/or expectations. A more individualized method may be required to meet peoples' changing needs during stroke recovery.

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Distance education methods are useful for delivering education to palliative caregivers: A single-arm trial of an education package (PalliativE Caregivers Education Package)

Background: Face-to-face/group education for palliative caregivers is successful, but relies on caregivers travelling, being absent from the patient, and rigid timings. This presents inequities for those in rural locations. Aim: To design and test an innovative distance-learning educational package (PrECEPt: PalliativE Caregivers Education Package). Design: Single-arm mixed-method feasibility proof-of-concept trial (ACTRN12616000601437). The primary outcome was carer self-efficacy, with secondary outcomes focused on caregiver preparedness and carer tasks/needs. Analysis focused on three outcome measures (taken at baseline and 6 weeks) and feasibility/acceptability qualitative data. Setting and participants: A single specialist palliative care service. Eligible informal caregivers were those of patients registered with the outpatient or community service, where the patient had a prognosis of ≥12 weeks, supporting someone with nutrition/hydration and/or pain management needs, proficient in English and no major mental health diagnosis. Results: Two modules were developed and tested (nutrition/hydration and pain management) with 18 caregivers. The materials did not have a statistically significant impact on carer self-efficacy. However, statistically significant improvements were observed on the two subsidiary measures of (1) caregiving tasks, consequences and needs (p = 0.03, confidence interval: 0.72, 9.4) and (2) caregiver preparedness (p = 0.001, confidence interval: -1.22, -0.46). The study determined that distance learning is acceptable and feasible for both caregivers and healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Distance education improves caregiver preparedness and is a feasible and acceptable approach. A two-arm trial would determine whether the materials benefitted caregivers and patients compared to a control group not receiving the materials. Additional modules could be fruitfully developed and offered. 

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Training informal caregivers to care for older people after stroke: A quasi-experimental study

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating whether training on practical skills involved in providing care reduces the burden experienced by informal caregivers and improves their general health condition.; Background: A substantial number of informal caregivers lack skills to deliver poststroke assistance to older people after hospital discharge, which leads to burden situations as well as mental and physical health deterioration of the former.; Design: A quasi-experimental design.; Methods: This study involved 174 informal caregivers of older people who overcame a stroke. The control group (N = 89) received the usual type of care delivered in healthcare units. The experimental group (N = 85) adopted the InCARE programme for 1 week (T0), 1 month (T1) and 3 (T2) months and received telephone support by counselling caregivers on the subsequent 3rd, 6th, 8th and 10th weeks to hospital discharge. It aimed at facilitating the caregiver's adjustment to the demands of a poststroke stage and at increasing knowledge and practical skills to support the decision-making. Data collection occurred between February-December 2014 at the Community Home Care Services in northern Portugal.; Results: The experimental group obtained significantly better results regarding practical skills as well as lower burden levels and a better general mental health condition when compared with the control group 1 (T1) and 3 (T2) months after intervention.; Conclusion: Findings suggest that our programme improved practical skills, helped reduce burden levels with better scores and improvement regarding general mental health condition of informal caregivers.

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The role of medical/nursing skills training in caregiver confidence and burden: A CanCORS study

Background: Informal cancer caregivers provide essential support to cancer patients, including performing direct medical/nursing tasks, assisting with activities of daily living, and offering social support. This study examined associations between the receipt of medical/nursing skills training and the caregiver burden as well as the mediation of caregiving confidence on this relationship in a sample of caregivers of lung and colorectal cancer patients.; Methods: Caregivers who had been identified by cancer patients in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance consortium completed a questionnaire assessing the care provided, the type of medical/nursing skills training received, the burden (measured with the modified short-form Zarit Burden Interview), and the confidence in caring for their patient's physical needs. Regression models that had been adjusted for sociodemographic, caregiver, and care recipient characteristics assessed the relationship between training received and burden, and a mediation analysis assessed the role of confidence in this relationship.; Results: Six hundred forty-one caregivers performed some type of medical/nursing task, with 59% (n = 377) reporting that they did not receive training for all the care provided. Caregivers reported moderate levels of burden (mean summary score, 32.07; standard deviation, 12.66; possible range, 14-70), and a lack of receipt of training was associated with greater levels of burden (b = 2.60; standard error, 0.98; P = .01). Confidence partially mediated the relation between training and burden (Sobel's t = 1.90; P = 0.03).; Conclusions: As the number of cancer patients and caregivers increases, understanding how best to reduce the caregiver burden is necessary. Skills training is a potential area for interventions, but research on how best to provide training for caregivers (ie, the content, mode of delivery, and timing) is needed. 

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Communication Coaching

BACKGROUND: Problematic communication among providers, patients, and their family members can affect the quality of patient care, causing stress to all parties involved and decreased opportunities for collaborative decision making. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to present one case from a pilot study of a family caregiver intervention focused on communication. METHODS: The nurse-delivered communication intervention includes a written communication guide for family caregivers, as well as a one-time nurse communication coaching call. The call is aimed at identifying caregiver communication concerns, providing communication education, and role playing problematic communication. FINDINGS: Psychological distress and caregiver confidence in communication were improved for the caregiver. Data presented from the case study demonstrate the need for family caregiver communication supportand training and the potential benefits of such training. 

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Gathering tips from carers to support people with dementia: an adaptation of the TOP 5 program for community use

Aim: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are often managed inappropriately with antipsychotic medicines. The TOP 5 program, which involves recording up to five relevant and meaningful tips that assist in personalizing care for the person with dementia, has been tested in the hospital setting and transitions of care in Australia, and has been found to be useful. Our study aimed to adapt the TOP 5 program as a strategy to support people with dementia in a primary care setting and to test the acceptability of our adapted TOP 5 program materials. Methods: The adapted TOP 5 program materials were delivered as part of a larger intervention by the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affair's Veterans' Medicines Advice & Therapeutic Education Services program to reduce inappropriate antipsychotic use in veterans with dementia. This study focuses on the acceptability of our adapted TOP 5 program materials for ascertaining carer or family members' advice about what actions might help to calm their relative when she or he is agitated. Educational materials relating to the resources for implementing the adapted TOP 5 program together with the one-page survey response to evaluate acceptability of our adapted TOP 5 program materials were mailed to 4827 general practitioners (GPs), 8381 accredited pharmacists, and 2510 Residential Aged Care Facilities. Results: We received survey response forms from 350 (7%) GPs, 366 (4%) pharmacists, and 196 (8%) residential aged care facilities. Although the response rate was low, 90% of respondents in all groups indicated they were very likely or moderately likely to assist family members and carers of patients with dementia to identify their top tips to personalize care. GPs who found the information useful more frequently indicated that they were likely to assist family members and carers in identifying their top tips. Approximately one-third of respondents reported they had received positive feedback from families regarding the helpfulness of sharing their practical tips for care of their loved one. Pharmacists indicated having the tips would assist them when undertaking medicines reviews. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the TOP 5 program, or an adaptation of the TOP 5 program, such as ours, has potential to improve the health and care of people with dementia and their carers by using patient centerd nonpharmacological approaches and avoiding the unnecessary use of antipsychotics for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Longer-term follow-up would help to establish whether the apparent benefits persist. 

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The Effectiveness of a Knowledge Translation Cognitive-Educational Intervention for Family Members of Persons Coping with Severe Mental Illness

Keshet, a course for family members of persons’ coping with mental illness, was developed to enhance positive family cognitive communication skills. Improving communication with the use of mediation techniques, primarily used by therapists, creates a learning environment viewed as a strategy of Knowledge Translation. To examine the effectiveness of Keshet in improving attitudes, problem solving, communication skills and attenuation of burden a quasi-experimental research design was applied with study and control condition. The same group of participants (N = 38) completed questionnaires at different stages: 3 months prior to course, initiation and completion. Following participation, significant changes were observed in attitudes regarding knowledge of how to cope and interact with family member. A correlation was found between improved knowledge and decline in burden. Implementing interventions which provide caregivers with professional “know-how” leads to lessened burden, thus contributing to maintaining well-being of family caregiver population. 

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Prioritizing problems in and solutions to homecare safety of people with dementia: supporting carers, streamlining care

Background: Dementia care is predominantly provided by carers in home settings. We aimed to identify the priorities for homecare safety of people with dementia according to dementia health and social care professionals using a novel priority-setting method.; Methods: The project steering group determined the scope, the context and the criteria for prioritization. We then invited 185 North-West London clinicians via an open-ended questionnaire to identify three main problems and solutions relating to homecare safety of people with dementia. 76 clinicians submitted their suggestions which were thematically synthesized into a composite list of 27 distinct problems and 30 solutions. A group of 49 clinicians arbitrarily selected from the initial cohort ranked the composite list of suggestions using predetermined criteria.; Results: Inadequate education of carers of people with dementia (both family and professional) is seen as a key problem that needs addressing in addition to challenges of self-neglect, social isolation, medication nonadherence. Seven out of top 10 problems related to patients and/or carers signalling clearly where help and support are needed. The top ranked solutions focused on involvement and education of family carers, their supervision and continuing support. Several suggestions highlighted a need for improvement of recruitment, oversight and working conditions of professional carers and for different home safety-proofing strategies.; Conclusions: Clinicians identified a range of suggestions for improving homecare safety of people with dementia. Better equipping carers was seen as fundamental for ensuring homecare safety. Many of the identified suggestions are highly challenging and not easily changeable, yet there are also many that are feasible, affordable and could contribute to substantial improvements to dementia homecare safety.;

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eHealth interventions for family carers of people with long term illness: A promising approach?

Family carers of people who have long term illness often experience physical and mental health morbidities, and burden. While there is good evidence to suggest that carers benefit from psychosocial interventions, these have primarily been delivered via face-to-face individual or group-formats. eHealth interventions offer a novel, accessible and self-paced approach to care delivery. Whether these are effective for carers' wellbeing has been little explored. This paper reports the first comprehensive systematic review in this area. A total of 78 studies, describing 62 discrete interventions, were identified. Interventions commonly aimed to promote carers' knowledge, self-efficacy, caregiving appraisal, and reduce global health morbidities. Interventions were offered to carers of people with a wide range of long term illness; dementia has been the most researched area, as reported in 40% of studies. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity in interventions precluded meta-analyses, and so data were analysed narratively. The most popular approach has comprised psychoeducational interventions delivered via an enriched online environment with supplementary modes of communication, such as network support with professionals and peers. Overall, carers appreciate the flexibility and self-paced nature of eHealth interventions, with high rates of satisfaction and acceptability. More studies using robust designs are needed to extend the evidence base.

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The Effect of Support and Training for Family Members on Access to Outpatient Services for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The VA Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC) provides landmark support for family caregivers of post-9/11 veterans. This study examines PCAFC support for veterans with and without PTSD and assesses whether program effect differs by PTSD status using a pre-post, non-equivalent, propensity score weighted comparison group design (n = 24,280). Veterans with and without PTSD in PCAFC accessed more mental health, primary, and specialty care services than weighted comparisons. PCAFC participation had stronger effects on access to primary care for veterans with PTSD than for veterans without PTSD. For veterans with PTSD, PCAFC support might enhance health service use. 

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Effectiveness of a Coaching Program for Family Caregivers of Persons with Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Basic knowledge regarding schizophrenia, having positive attitudes towards it, and possessing the necessary care skills are crucial aspects for caregivers have in order to provide sustainable care for a relative with schizophrenia. Coaching can facilitate successful caregiving through the understanding of a caregiver's knowledge, attitudes, and skills. This study examined the effectiveness of a coaching program in enhancing family caregivers' knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to caring for persons with schizophrenia. 100 primary family caregivers were randomly recruited. Of these, 50 participated in a coaching program, which lasted 7 weeks and employed implementation methods such as discussion, watching videos, providing information, training, observation, demonstration, role-plays, and telephone follow-ups. The coaching group participants showed significantly higher knowledge levels (F = 85.77, p < 0.001), lower levels of negative attitudes towards schizophrenia (F = 13.22, p < 0.001), and higher skill levels (F = 22.94, p < 0.001) than those in the routine care group. The results also discovered significant improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and caregiving skills on follow-ups at week 2 and 1 month after the completion of the program in the coaching group, as compared to those in the routine care group (p <0.001). The coaching program examined in this study clearly indicated positive effects on caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and caregiving skills when compared with routine care.

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Factors influencing confabulation in Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease

Background: Confabulations are often observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can increase family caregivers’ burdens. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between confabulation and cognitive ability. However, few studies have investigated the association between confabulation and familial factors. Here, we aimed to examine whether confabulation relates to familial factors, such as the level of family caregivers’ expressed emotion or the level of functioning of the family. Methods: Twenty‐seven outpatients with AD and their family caregivers participated in this study. We examined confabulations about episodic memory, semantic memory, and future planning using the Modified Confabulation Battery (MCB). We investigated correlations between scores on the MCB and scores on the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Family Attitude Scale (FAS), and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale. Multiple regression analyses were performed using the total scores on the MCB and domain‐specific scores on the MCB as dependent variables, and the scores on the MMSE, GDS, and FAS as independent variables. Results: MCB scores were positively related to FAS scores (P < 0.01) and negatively to GDS scores (P < 0.05), but not to MMSE scores. Regarding the three domains the MCB measured, confabulation about episodic memory and future planning showed a positive relationship with FAS scores. Conclusions: Family attitude was the factor most related to confabulation in our study. Patients with AD may attempt to avoid confronting family caregivers’ high emotional expression through confabulation, or confabulation itself might result in high emotional expression among family caregivers. Psychoeducational or therapeutic approaches for family caregivers might reduce confabulation in patients with AD. 

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Shared decision-making in dementia care planning: barriers and facilitators in two European countries

Background: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a means of allowing people with dementia to take part in making choices, be autonomous and participate in social activities. Involving them in SDM is an important way of promoting social health. However, including families and dementia residents in decision-making can be challenging for care staff working in nursing homes. The objective of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators regarding the implementation of an SDM framework for care planning in two nursing homes, one in Italy and one in the Netherlands. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals who, after being trained, applied the SDM framework. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results:Six months after the feasibility trial, focus group interviews with healthcare professionals (n= 10 in Italy;n= 9 in the Netherlands) were held. We found 6 themes and 15 categories. Within these themes, facilitators and barriers were identified. The categories of team collaboration, communication skills and nursing home policy were found to be facilitators to the implementation process, whereas regulations, lack of funding and of involvement of family caregivers were the main barriers. Family attitudes towards SDM could be both. The main difference between countries concerned the residents’ cognitive status that influenced their degree of involvement. Conclusion: Communication skills training for professionals, training of family caregivers, and involvement of the management in the implementation process seem to be crucial factors in successfully implementing SDM in nursing homes, and increasing the involvement of families and dementia residents in decision-making. 

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Enhancing the quality of life for palliative care cancer patients in Indonesia through family caregivers: a pilot study of basic skills training

Background: Palliative care in Indonesia is problematic because of cultural and socio-economic factors. Family in Indonesia is an integral part of caregiving process in inpatient and outpatient settings. However, most families are not adequately prepared to deliver basic care for their sick family member. This research is a pilot project aiming to evaluate how basic skills training (BST) given to family caregivers could enhance the quality of life (QoL) of palliative care cancer patients in Indonesia.; Methods: The study is a prospective quantitative with pre and post-test design. Thirty family caregivers of cancer patients were trained in basic skills including showering, washing hair, assisting for fecal and urinary elimination and oral care, as well as feeding at bedside. Patients' QoL were measured at baseline and 4 weeks after training using EORTC QLQ C30. Hypothesis testing was done using related samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank. A paired t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to check in which subgroups was the intervention more significant.; Results: The intervention showed a significant change in patients' global health status/QoL, emotional and social functioning, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation and financial hardship of the patients. Male patient's had a significant effect on global health status (qol) (p = 0.030); female patients had a significant effect on dyspnea (p = 0.050) and constipation (p = 0.038). Younger patients had a significant effect in global health status/QoL (p = 0.002). Patients between 45 and 54 years old had significant effect on financial issue (p = 0.039). Caregivers between 45 and 54 years old had significant effect on patients' dyspnea (p = 0.031).; Conclusions: Basic skills training for family caregivers provided some changes in some aspects of QoL of palliative cancer patients. The intervention showed promises in maintaining the QoL of cancer patients considering socio-economic and cultural challenges in the provision of palliative care in Indonesia.;

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Discussion Paper 8: Difficult Relationships and Family Caring

This is the eighth paper in the Care Alliance Ireland Discussion Paper series. The papers in this series are not intended to present a definitive account of a particular topic, but to introduce a less-discussed, sensitive or perhaps controversial topic for discussion within the wider community of practitioners, policy makers, researchers and other interested parties. This often takes the form of a literature review (where possible), along with a discussion of views which have been shared with a member of the Care Alliance team either by our member organisations or Family Carers themselves. In some cases this will be a topic which has been raised and shared in the media or social spaces online.

Caring for a “loved one” has long been acknowledged as having real implications for Family Carers’ physical and mental health, along with economic, employment and other impacts.  Not all of these impacts, however, are negative. The positive impact of providing care – often significant levels of care – has been well researched.

However, much of this research presupposes that the person being cared for is, indeed, a “loved one”. What happens when the person being cared for isn’t particularly well-loved? How do Family Carers who perhaps do not even like the person they are providing care for deal with the effects of this negative, maybe even toxic, relationship?

This paper focuses on three particular “scenarios” in which Family Carers may need to manage difficult, negative and even toxic relationships while providing care to a family member or friend. These are:

  • Caring for a family member (generally a parent) who abused or neglected them in childhood
  • Caring for a spouse/partner where the relationship had significant difficulties prior to the care situation arising
  • Conflict in family/sibling relationships where one party provides significant care and others do not.
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The ELMI online course - an important tool for caregivers in management of Alzheimer's disease patient in Romania

Alzheimer's disease burdens not only the patient, but also the older person's informal (family) caregiver. This burden has been linked to negative health effects for caregivers. The online course could be an important tool for caregivers in management of Alzheimer's disease Patients in Romania. The study evaluate the impact of burden in caregiving and the improvement of quality of life for caregiver after ELMI course. ELMI online course is the first online course in Romania designed to decrease the impact of informal (family) caregiver burden and to improve the quality of life for caregivers and also the care of persons with AD patients through the educational program especially designed to face the social, psychological and economic pressures. 

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Preparing Family Caregivers to Recognize Delirium Symptoms in Older Adults After Elective Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

Objectives: To test the feasibility of a telephone-based intervention that prepares family caregivers to recognize delirium symptoms and how to communicate their observations to healthcare providers.; Design: Mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental design.; Setting: A Midwest Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a nonprofit health system.; Participants: Forty-one family caregiver-older adult dyads provided consent; 34 completed the intervention.; Intervention: Four telephone-based education modules using vignettes were completed during the 3 weeks before the older adult's hospital admission for elective hip or knee replacement. Each module required 20 to 30 minutes.; Measurements: Interviews were conducted before the intervention and 2 weeks and 2 months after the older adult's hospitalization. A researcher completed the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and a family caregiver completed the Family Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (FAM-CAM) 2 days after surgery to assess the older adults for delirium symptoms.; Results: Family caregivers' knowledge of delirium symptoms improved significantly from before the intervention to 2 weeks after the intervention and was maintained after the older adult's hospitalization. They also were able to recognize the presence and absence of delirium symptoms in the vignettes included in the intervention and in the older adult after surgery. In 94% of the cases, the family caregiver rating on the FAM-CAM approximately 2 days after the older adult's surgery agreed with the researcher rating on the CAM. Family caregivers expressed satisfaction with the intervention and stated that the information was helpful.; Conclusion: Delivery of a telephone-based intervention appears feasible. All family caregivers who began the program completed the four education modules. Future studies evaluating the effectiveness of the educational program should include a control group.

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Supporting the Supporters: What Family Caregivers Need to Care for a Loved One With Cancer

Patients with cancer who live at home often require help with activities of daily living, basic medical care (eg, injections), social needs, and patient advocacy. Most of that support comes from intimate caregivers, typically members of the patient's family. These family caregivers themselves require support so that they can be effective and maintain their own well-being while caring for the patient with cancer. Research shows that support for caregivers contributes to achieving these goals. We propose a four-part framework for supporting family caregivers: (1) assess caregivers' needs using formal measures, just as the cancer patient's own needs are assessed, (2) educate caregivers for their caregiving roles, most notably, with training in the low-level medical support that cancer patients require at home, (3) empower caregivers to become full-fledged members of the patient's cancer team, all working toward common goals, and (4) assist caregivers proactively in their duties, so that they retain a sense of control and self-efficacy rather than having to react to imminent medical crises without sufficient resources at their disposal. Funding support for family caregivers requires refocusing on the overall well-being of the patient-caregiver dyad rather than just on the patient. It will necessitate a paradigm shift in reimbursement that recognizes the need for holistic cancer care. 

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A pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized and cognitive behavioural communication intervention for informal carers of people with dementia: The Talking Sense programme

Background: People with dementia and family carers often experience difficulties communicating together. These difficulties are considered to contribute significantly to the depression, anxiety and negative feelings such as guilt often reported by dementia family carers. Aims: To develop and contribute to the theory and evidence base for single‐component, psychosocial interventions that address these difficulties by evaluating the effectiveness of the Talking Sense programme which was designed to reflect existing best evidence. Methods & Procedures: Talking Sense was delivered as an individualized, one to one, cognitive behavioural approach for developing knowledge, skills, thinking and behaviour of dementia family carers in managing communication difficulties. In this study, a randomized controlled trial compared 27 carers who completed three one‐to‐one individualized sessions using Talking Sense with 25 carers who received a single, knowledge‐only, control discussion. Outcomes & Results: There were no significant differences for the primary outcome measure of carer anxiety and depression as well as carer quality of life and general self‐efficacy. Statistically significant results suggested carers receiving the Talking Sense intervention had fewer communication difficulties happening (p = 0.046) and felt more valued by their relatives (p = 0.046). A score close to significance (p = 0.052) suggested they perceived their relatives to be more communicatively competent. Conclusions & Implications: The intervention and research design were shown to be effective with low attrition and high adherence to treatment. A non‐significant finding for the primary outcome measure does not support the potential for this intervention to effect carer anxiety and depression. The potential for perceived change in the person with dementia, with statistically fewer communication difficulties happening and the carer feeling more valued by their relative, was the most significant finding from this programme of research. Recommendations for further research are made. 

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Educational preparation and training of the family caregivers of elderly patients with stroke in the pre-discharge period: A proposed innovation

Introduction: Stroke causes disability that affects the life of patients, their relatives and the society in general. Global healthcare policies, suggest the sooner possible discharge of stroke patients from hospitals, but the transition to home is a stressful experience for family caregivers who are suddenly faced with the responsibility of homecare provision. Sufficient international evidence suggest that a pre-discharge educational program for preparing family caregivers could lead to better care, less complications and better quality of life, but Cyprus still do not provide such a program. Objectives: To challenge the current healthcare practices regarding the care of elderly patients with stroke and to propose an innovative training program that will be provided by the nurses during the pre-discharge period to family caregivers. Methodology: The proposed innovation is discussed around an overview of the international literature regarding the family caregivers' education in the improvement reforms that are being pursued with the new national health system of Cyprus. Additionally, it is suggested that the Ministry of Health should create discharge services of elderly stroke patients in each hospital with the creation of a Discharge Coordinator role, who could coordinate the proposed innovation, while he/she could also inform staff on how to provide the training program to family caregivers.discharge planning and the Lewin's change theory, since the development and implementation of the innovation as a whole is based on this theory. Results: International literature highlights that family caregivers have a diversity of responsibilities at home but also unmet training needs. If these needs are not met, they may cause burden to caregivers, thus impeding their capacity to provide safe homecare to patients. Considering the significance of post-discharge homecare to the elderly patients with stroke, a proposed training program was designed for family caregivers, in an effort to motivate nurses in Cyprus to provide this preparation. Conclusions and recommendations: An attempt should be made as for the proposed innovation to be included in the future planning of the care of stroke patients as part of the  improvement reforms that are being pursued with the new national health system of Cyprus. Additionally, it is suggested that the Ministry of Health should create discharge services of elderly stroke patients in each hospital with the creation of a Discharge Coordinator role, who could coordinate the proposed innovation, while he/she could also inform staff on how to provide the training program to family caregivers. 

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The implementation of mindfulness‐based interventions and educational interventions to support family caregivers of patients with cancer: A systematic review

Purpose: This review aims to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness‐based interventions (MBIs) and educational interventions (EIs) as supportive care for family caregivers (FCs) of patients with cancer. Design and Methods: Review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. The search protocol was performed using EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Science Direct for the studies published between 2007 and 2017. Findings: Little evidence is available on the usefulness of MBIs among FCs of patients with cancer. However, the available evidence supports that MBIs have the potential to enhance overall well‐being and reduce the burden for FCs. EIs have shown positive outcomes on some aspects of well‐being and reducing the burden. Practice Implications: The findings provide preliminary support for effectiveness of MBIs and EIs as a supportive care for FCs. 

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Teaching Family Caregivers to Assist Safely with Mobility

This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series explain principles for promoting safe mobility that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage the caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.

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Role of domiciliary and family carers in individualised nutrition support for older adults living in the community

Protein-energy malnutrition is common amongst people aged 65 years and older, has a multifactorial aetiology, and numerous negative outcomes. Domiciliary carers (non-clinical paid carers) and family carers (including family, friends and neighbours) are required to support the increasing demand for in-home assistance with activities of daily living due to the ageing population. This review provides insight into the role of both domiciliary and family carers in providing individualised nutrition support for older, community-dwelling adults with malnutrition. Four electronic databases were searched for intervention studies from database inception to December 2016. Both domiciliary and family carers are well placed to monitor the dietary intake and nutritional status of older adults; to assist with many food-related tasks such as the sourcing and preparation of meals, and assisting with feeding when necessary; and to act as a conduit between the care recipient and formal nutrition professionals such as dietitians. There is moderate evidence to support the role of domiciliary carers in implementing nutrition screening and referral pathways, and emerging evidence suggests they may have a role in malnutrition interventions when supported by health professionals. Moderate evidence also supports the engagement of family carers as part of the nutrition care team for older adults with malnutrition. Interventions such as group education, skill-development workshops and telehealth demonstrate promise and have significantly improved outcomes in older adults with dementia. Further interventional and translational research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of engaging with domiciliary and family carers of older adults in the general community.; Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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The experiences of people with dementia and their carers participating in individual cognitive stimulation therapy

Background: The carer-delivered individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) was developed to improve cognition and quality of life of people with dementia. This study aims to explore people with dementia and family carers' concepts of mental stimulation and experiences of participating in the iCST intervention.; Methods: A sub-sample of 23 dyads of people with dementia and their family carers who completed the iCST intervention took part in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using framework analysis.; Results: Three main themes emerged, 'Concepts of mental stimulation', 'Experiencing changes in everyday life as a result of participating in iCST' and 'Carer adherence to the intervention' along with 10 sub-themes. The overall experience of participating in iCST was described as having opportunities to engage in enjoyable mentally stimulating activities, motivation to stay active and bringing people with dementia and their carers 'together'. Family carers mentioned that finding time to do the sessions and their relatives being reluctant to engage in the activities could hinder their participation in the intervention.; Conclusions: People with dementia and their family carers found iCST stimulating and enjoyable, but many had difficulty delivering all the sessions as planned. Family carers suggested that providing extra support by involving other people in delivering the intervention may help to improve adherence to the intervention. iCST may be a useful tool to encourage people with dementia and their carers to communicate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Ostomy Care at Home

This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series provide simple and useful instructions that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers who perform wound care tasks. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.

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Teaching Wound Care to Family Caregivers

This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series provide simple and useful instructions that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers who perform wound care tasks. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.

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A randomized trial of a web-based platform to help families manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms: The WeCareAdvisor™

Dementia-related behavioral symptoms are challenging clinical features occurring across etiologies and disease progression. They are associated with increased healthcare utilization, nursing home placement, family upset and burden. Families typically manage behavioral symptoms without requisite knowledge, skills and guidance. We designed WeCareAdvisor™ as an easy-to-use, evidence-informed web-based platform. It provides families knowledge about dementia, daily tips, and a systematic approach to describe behaviors, investigate modifiable contributors, create treatment plans (WeCareAdvisor™ Prescription) consisting of management tips tailored to symptom presentation, and evaluate effectiveness. WeCareAdvisor™ is being tested in a randomized trial to assess acceptability, usability and immediate impact on caregiver confidence managing and upset with behavioral symptoms, and secondarily, frequency of behavioral occurrences. Fifty-seven caregivers will be enrolled from communities and medical clinics at two sites (University of Michigan; Johns Hopkins University). Families reporting behavioral symptoms in a telephone screen are consented and interviewed at home. Following the interview, an envelope is opened by interviewers to reveal group assignment (immediate vs one-month delayed treatment group). Those receiving WeCareAdvisor™ immediately are provided an iPad and instruction in its use; those in the delayed treatment group are informed of next study steps. All caregivers are reassessed at home one month from baseline. The delayed treatment group then receives iPad instructions and are re-interviewed one month thereafter. During treatment phase, participants receive 3 weekly check-in calls to encourage tool use and troubleshoot. Key outcomes include number of times using WeCareAdvisor™ and for which behaviors, self-efficacy and upset managing behavioral symptoms, and frequency of behavioral occurrences. Clinical trial registration #: NCT02420535.; Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Better Respiratory Education and Treatment Help Empower (BREATHE) study: Methodology and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing a transitional care program to improve patient-centered care delivery among chronic obstructive pulm

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of hospitalizations. Interventional studies focusing on the hospital-to-home transition for COPD patients are few. In the BREATHE (Better Respiratory Education and Treatment Help Empower) study, we developed and tested a patient and family-centered transitional care program that helps prepare hospitalized COPD patients and their family caregivers to manage COPD at home.; Methods: In the study's initial phase, we co-developed the BREATHE transitional care program with COPD patients, family-caregivers, and stakeholders. The program offers tailored services to address individual patients' needs and priorities at the hospital and for 3 months post discharge. We tested the program in a single-blinded RCT with 240 COPD patients who were randomized to receive the program or 'usual care'. Program participants were offered the opportunity to invite a family caregiver, if available, to enroll with them into the study. The primary outcomes were the combined number of COPD-related hospitalizations and Emergency Department (ED) visits per participant at 6 months post discharge, and the change in health-related quality of life over the 6months study period. Other measures include 'all cause' hospitalizations and ED visits; patient activation; self-efficacy; and, self-care behaviors. Discussion: Unlike 1-month transitional care programs that focus on patients' post-acute care needs, the BREATHE program helps hospitalized COPD patients manage the post discharge period as well as prepare them for long term self-management of COPD. If proven effective, this program may offer a timely solution for hospitals in their attempts to reduce COPD rehospitalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Understanding differences between caregivers and non-caregivers in completer rates of Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

Objectives: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) was developed to advance participants' self-care of chronic illness and may be offered to both individuals with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Previous studies of CDSMP have identified multiple resulting health benefits for participants as well as factors associated with participants' completion rates. This study investigated differences on these issues between caregiving and non-caregiving participants.; Study Design: Secondary analysis using regression analysis to predict the outcome.; Methods: Baseline data were collected directly from adult (over 18 years) participants of CDSMP workshops in New York State from 2012 to 2015 (n = 2685). Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to compare the difference on completion of workshops (attended four or more of sessions) and contributing factors with the independent variable of whether participants provided care/assistance to a family member or friends with long-term illness or disability. Additional individual-level variables controlled for in the model were age, gender, race/ethnicity, living arrangement, education, the number of chronic conditions and disabilities; as were workshop-level characteristics of class size, language used, workshop leader experience, location urbanity and delivery site type.; Results: Participants who provided care to family or friends were 28% more likely to complete the workshop compared with those who did not (odds ratio = 1.279, P < 0.05). Different factors influenced the completion of CDSMP workshop for caregivers and non-caregivers.; Conclusions: People who provide care to others appeared to have stronger motivation to complete the workshops with greater benefits. Agencies offering CDSMP should encourage caregivers to attend.; Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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Discharge Planning and Teaching

This article is the fifth in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The fifth video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A79

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Administration of Subcutaneous Injections

This article is the second in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The second video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A75

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Preventing Falls and Fall-Related Injuries at Home

This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series explain principles for promoting safe mobility that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage the caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses

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Teaching Caregivers to Administer Eye Drops, Transdermal Patches, and Suppositories

This article is the third in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The third video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A76 

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Medication Management for People with Dementia

This article is the fourth in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The fourth video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A78 .

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Managing Complex Medication Regimens

This article is the first in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The first video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A74.

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Six key topics informal carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease want to learn about and why: MRC phase I study to inform an educational intervention

Introduction: Breathlessness is a common symptom of advanced disease placing a huge burden on patients, health systems and informal carers (families and friends providing daily help and support). It causes distress and isolation. Carers provide complex personal, practical and emotional support yet often feel ill-prepared to care. They lack knowledge and confidence in their caring role. The need to educate carers and families about breathlessness is established, yet we lack robustly developed carer-targeted educational interventions to meet their needs.; Methods: We conducted a qualitative interview study with twenty five purposively-sampled patient-carer dyads living with breathlessness in advanced disease (half living with advanced cancer and half with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to identify carers' educational needs (including what they wanted to learn about) and explore differences by diagnostic group in order to inform an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease.; Results: There was a strong desire among carers for an educational intervention on breathlessness. Six key topics emerged as salient for them: 1) understanding breathlessness, 2) managing anxiety, panic and breathlessness, 3) managing infections, 4) keeping active, 5) living positively and 6) knowing what to expect in the future. A cross-cutting theme was relationship management: there were tensions within dyads resulting from mismatched expectations related to most topics. Carers felt that knowledge-gains would not only help them to support the patient better, but also help them to manage their own frustrations, anxieties, and quality of life. Different drivers for education need were identified by diagnostic group, possibly related to differences in caring role duration and resulting impacts.; Conclusion: Meeting the educational needs of carers requires robustly developed and evaluated interventions. This study provides the evidence-base for the content of an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease.

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The impact of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) on cognition, quality of life, caregiver health, and family relationships in dementia: A randomised controlled trial

Background: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a well-established group psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is evidence that home-based programmes of cognitive stimulation delivered by family caregivers may benefit both the person and the caregiver. However, no previous studies have evaluated caregiver-delivered CST. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based, caregiver-led individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) program in (i) improving cognition and quality of life (QoL) for the person with dementia and (ii) mental and physical health (well-being) for the caregiver. Methods and Findings: A single-blind, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at eight study sites across the United Kingdom. The intervention and blinded assessment of outcomes were conducted in participants' homes. Three hundred fifty-six people with mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers were recruited from memory services and community mental health teams (CMHTs). Participants were randomly assigned to iCST (75, 30-min sessions) or treatment as usual (TAU) control over 25 wk. iCST sessions consisted of themed activities designed to be mentally stimulating and enjoyable. Caregivers delivering iCST received training and support from an unblind researcher. Primary outcomes were cognition (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive [ADAS-Cog]) and self-reported QoL (Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease [QoL-AD]) for the person with dementia and general health status (Short Form-12 health survey [SF-12]) for the caregiver. Secondary outcomes included quality of the caregiving relationship from the perspectives of the person and of the caregiver (Quality of the Carer Patient Relationship Scale) and health-related QoL (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]) for the caregiver. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. At the post-test (26 wk), there were no differences between the iCST and TAU groups in the outcomes of cognition (mean difference [MD] = -0.55, 95% CI -2.00-0.90; p = 0.45) and self-reported QoL (MD = -0.02, 95% CI -1.22-0.82; p = 0.97) for people with dementia, or caregivers' general health status (MD = 0.13, 95% CI -1.65-1.91; p = 0.89). However, people with dementia receiving iCST rated the relationship with their caregiver more positively (MD = 1.77, 95% CI 0.26-3.28; p = 0.02), and iCST improved QoL for caregivers (EQ-5D, MD = 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.10; p = 0.01). Forty percent (72/180) of dyads allocated to iCST completed at least two sessions per week, with 22% (39/180) completing no sessions at all. Study limitations include low adherence to the intervention. Conclusions: There was no evidence that iCST has an effect on cognition or QoL for people with dementia. However, participating in iCST appeared to enhance the quality of the caregiving relationship and caregivers' QoL. Trial Registration: The iCST trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry (identified ISRCTN 65945963, URL: DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN65945963)

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Impact of psycho-education on burden and other correlates of caregivers of patients suffering from bipolar mood disorder

Psycho education to family members has been emerged as an important prerequisite to modern psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation, since through psycho education many problematic areas related to patient care and compliance with the treatment can be successfully addressed. Being an indispensable adjunct to modern psychiatric treatment it is more efficacious in targeting all areas of patient's illness and functionality quite suitably than any single therapy based approach. Effects of bipolar disorder can be far-reaching, both into the lives of patients and those around them. Severe cognitive, emotional and behavioural dysfunctioning related to illness lead to burden, expressed emotion, life stress, avoidance coping, decreased quality of life and lesser social support in family members of patients because of their inability in understanding the meaning of psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Primary caregiver plays multiple role in care of the ill persons, not only they take day-to-day care of the patient, supervise medications, take the patient to the hospital and look after the financial needs but also they have to bear with the behavioral disturbances in the patient. Experiencing considerable stress and burden they might develop an unhealthy coping style which may adversely affect the caregiving function and their own health. Interventions techniques have proven efficacy in reducing relapse rates and negative impact of symptoms on caregivers and can diminish negative attitudes and increase the willingness in the caregivers in providing care to patients. Through intervention caregivers are imparted knowledge about illness, its course, etiology, warning signs and various ways of managing the patient during distress and dysfunctioning. Psychoeducational training is a way of offering help for caregivers, representing a forum for knowledge sharing, and in which the primary focus is on psychological themes aimed at carers developing coping skills and strategies. It helps caregivers to become skilled in closer monitoring of disease treatment and symptoms which can have major implication in the evolution of the disease over the long term. The goals of these efforts are educational, prevention and to promote psychological health among caregivers as well as the patients. 

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The medicines management needs of carers during an episode of mental health crisis

The article reviews the report "National Mental Health Development Unit 2010" highlighting the importance of involving carers particularly in crisis resolution and home treatment teams (CRHT), in managing medicines during a mental health crisis. The authors note the report's recommendation of developing training packages to help carers understand issues and enhance their understanding of mental health conditions and treatment options. They also recommend investigating the needs of young carers.

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Re-visioning social work education: an independent review

Norman Lamb, Minister of State for Care and Support at the Department of Health invited the Chair of Skills for Care to undertake this Independent Review, in the context of the changes to social work practice brought about by the Social Work Task Force and Social Work Reform Board, and their own recommendations for social work education. The review is based on evidence invited from as wide a field as possible, from the UK and internationally, of all those who have a stake in the education of social workers, including service users and carers, employers, educationalists, social work practitioners, students and others. Professor David Croisdale-Appleby considers whether social work education is ideally structured to best serve the changing nature of the profession. 

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General practitioners, primary care and support for carers in England: can training make a difference?

As a part of the national carers' strategy, the Department of Health commissioned six pilot workshops spread across England for General Practitioners (GPs) and other primary healthcare workers. The six workshops were held during September and October 2009, arranged by the Royal College of General Practitioners and planned in consultation with the Princess Royal Trust for Carers. The workshops were delivered by one of two GPs and by a carer. The Department of Health commissioned an evaluation of the workshop programme. This paper reports on the attitudes towards and knowledge of carers by GPs and other primary care workers, such as community matrons, practice nurses, healthcare assistants, practice managers and receptionists. It also tracks changes over time from the questionnaire responses pre- and post-workshop and 3 months later in the GPs' and other primary care workers' response to carers. Prior to the workshops, GPs and other primary care workers saw primary care as having a significant role in directly assisting carers, especially with emotional support and in signposting to other services. However, there was a lack of knowledge about issues facing carers, limited confidence in assisting carers and few services within the primary care teams directly focussed on carers. The workshops were regarded positively by those who attended, and the evaluation found that there was a positive impact with GPs and other primary care workers reporting specific actions they had taken post-workshop to assist carers, greater confidence and awareness in working with carers, and increased knowledge about carers. The paper concludes by recommending how the pilot programme might be rolled out more widely.

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Community provision for informal live-in carers of stroke patients

Stroke is common and disabling. Most stroke patients are cared for at home by informal carers. This study of informal carers of stroke patients measured service provision and satisfaction with different aspects of community care received by these carers. Dissatisfaction was expressed with training and information provision for carers, communication between carers and community services, speed of response and coordination of community services, and perceived support. Problems of information provision were most marked for those patients with most disability and/or older carers.

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Training nurses to support carers of relatives with schizophrenia

Carers have an enormous amount of responsibility for the welfare and management of people with a mental illness in Britain, and many require help if they are to continue caring. Mental health nurses may be in a key position to offer support, but they are often unclear of what is required and how it should be delivered. Existing UK nurse-led psychosocial interventions for families often focus on the needs of the patient rather than the carer. This article describes a needs-led support service that has been designed for carers whose relatives are diagnosed with schizophrenia. It recognizes the importance of a collaborative partnership between carers and nurses. In 2000, 10 mental health nurses were trained to deliver this support to carers. An evaluation is currently underway. This article outlines the principles of the training programme and how it might enable nurses to meet the carers' needs.

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Delivering Training to Carers. A practical guide based on finding from the National Evaluation of the Caring with Confidence Programme

This practical guide for organisations seeking to deliver training programmes to carers has been developed using learning from the National Evaluation of the Caring with Confidence (CwC) programme1 . The CwC programme ran from 2008 to 2010 and involved a large number of organisations in the UK delivering a seven-module training course to carers in their localities. CwC was designed to help carers develop a range of skills relevant to their caring roles, including: practical matters (such as safe lifting techniques and administering medicines); everyday life tasks (such as managing money and domestic responsibilities); and being able to have ‘a life of their own’. The programme also aimed to help carers become more confident in their caring roles, particularly in relation to seeking formal support and exploring recreational / employment opportunities. While delivering the programme, providers experienced a number of challenges, which were often met with creative solutions. This guide provides other organisations seeking to offer carer training with ideas about how to deliver it successfully, based on what providers found particularly effective. It covers the following issues: planning the training; sources of funding and financial planning; monitoring access; recruiting carers; course materials; delivery methods; practical considerations; and future planning.  

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A 10-year plan for quality living for people with disabilities and their carers

Background: The concerns of older carers of an adult with disabilities have been well documented. The sudden incapacity or death of the carer can result in a crisis response rather than a planned transition to a chosen sustainable alternative care arrangement for the person with disability. Building on previous ‘Futures Planning’ projects, the aim of this project was to enrich the lives of people with disabilities and their carers whilst ensuring that their wishes for the future are documented to provide security.

Materials and Methods: This article reports on information sessions and workshops that were held for people with disabilities, their carers and staff, and the training sessions for staff for this project.

Results: The sessions underlined the fact that people with disabilities want to enjoy the same experiences that most other people enjoy. Drawing on the ideas and suggestions from participants, the ‘Futures Planning’ documents were modified to meet the aims of the Quality Living project, making them suitable for planning for quality living for the carer and the person with a disability for the next 10 years.

Conclusions: Findings supported the concept that planning allows people with disabilities and their carers to take steps to achieve their dreams.

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Palliative and end of life care toolkit

This toolkit provides links to a range of resources to support GP practices and health professionals in ensuring patients nearing the end of life, and those close to them, receive the highest quality of care and support. It includes tools, guidance, current best practice policy, and legislation for healthcare professionals. It also provides links to training resources to help with continuing professional development and audit tools to evaluate practice. A section providing information for patients, informal carers, and those close to someone nearing the end of life is also included. Developed in partnership with Marie Curie and the Clinical Innovation and Research Centre, the toolkit will be updated on a regular basis.

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Carer knowledge and perception of healthy lifestyles for adults with intellectual disabilities

Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to examine carer knowledge of public health recommendations on diet and physical activity; perceptions of the benefits of healthy diets and physical activity levels; and the carer views on the barriers to change experienced by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Sixty-three carers took part in the study. They generally had a low level of knowledge around public health recommendations on diet and physical activity. Greater importance was attributed to the health benefits of diet than physical activity. Carers rated intrapersonal barriers to change within the person with intellectual disabilities as more important, than interpersonal or external barriers to change, with significant differences in perceived barriers relevant to diet and physical activity. Carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities have significant training needs relevant to promoting healthy lifestyles. This highlights the opportunity to promote health improvement via the development, and provision, of effective training initiatives.

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Informal carers and the primary care team

The number of carers in the community is rising, and the importance of general practice in providing supportfor them has been highlighted. Caring for a disabled friend or relative has been shown to be harmful to the health of the caregiver and changes in social and family structure have led carers to become isolated and more reliant on the formal support services. However, many carersfeel that GPs do not understand their needs, and in turn many GPs and nursesfeel that they lack the relevant resources and training to take a more proactive role. The shift from hospital to community-based care and the blurring of social roles of responsibility puts additional pressure on the carers and community services. However general practice is in the best position to help and there are many things that can be done by primary care teams, such as providing information about available support, benefits and local services, which would be appreciated by informal carers.

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No effects of a combination of caregivers support group and memory training/music therapy in dementia patients from a memory clinic population

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a combination of caregiver support group and memory training/music therapy in dementia patients on behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and caregiver burden compared to a control group.

Method: Eighteen patient-carer-dyads in the treatment group and 18 patient-carer-dyads as controls were studied in the setting of a memory clinic of a psychiatric university hospital over a period of 2 years. Controls were matched for age, gender, diagnosis, dementia severity, living arrangement and medication. The interventions were conducted once per week for 1 hour run by a clinical psychogeriatric team. Outcome measures were patients' cognitive and functional status as well as BPSD and caregivers subjective burden and depression measured by validated scales. Data were obtained 6, 12 and 24 months after baseline.

Results: There were no significant differences between the intervention and control group neither after 6, 12 nor after 24 months treatment.

Conclusions: The lack of a positive impact in alleviating caregiver burden or BPSD after intensive psychological interventions may result from extensive care in the routine clinical management including individual counselling for patients and families. The effect of ‘treatment as usual’ needs to be taken into account when comparing an intervention and control group, as well as the dosage of the intervention. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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A bulletin on the personal well-being of people who need care and support and carers who need support, 2014-15

This bulletin provides a picture of the wellbeing of people who received care and support, and carers who received support in the last 12 months, and where possible, provides a comparison to the rest of the respondents in the survey (those that had not received any care and support services). Due to the small number of respondents receiving help from care and support services, results are published at a Wales level only. 

Summarises findings from the 2014-15 National Survey for Wales and responses to questions designed to measure the personal well-being of people who need care and support and carers who need support. Respondents were shown a list of services offered by care and support services in Wales and were asked whether they had received any help from these services in the last 12 months. 9 per cent of all respondents had received care and support for themselves) or had received help to care for or arrange care for another person.

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It's a different thing

Often the needs of carers of people with dual diagnosis are ignored when they too may be doubly isolated and unsupported. Reports on a pilot two-day training workshop for carers in Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care NHS Trust, based on training provided for the trust's community and inpatient mental health staff. Discusses what both staff and carers found useful about the workshops.

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Prioritising need in the context of Putting people first: a whole system approach to eligibility for social care: guidance on eligibility criteria for adult social care, England 2010

The aim of this revised guidance is to assist councils with adult social services responsibilities to determine eligibility for adult social care, in a way that is fair, transparent and consistent, accounting for the needs of their local community as a whole as well as individuals’ need for support. It replaces Fair Access to Care Services: guidance on eligibility criteria for adult social care which was issued in 2003, and has been written in the light of recommendations made in the Commission for Social Care Inspection’s review Cutting the Cake Fairly. This revised guidance aims to set social care eligibility criteria within the context of both the new direction of policy established by Putting People First, and more generally within a broader theme of public service reform. Priorities for this reform include greater choice and control, better access to public services and information, empowerment of people using services and their carers at local level and the definition of user satisfaction as a key measure of success.

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Short report. Palliative care in heart failure - a neglected area in specialist training?

Heart failure has a comparable prognosis to many cancers and accounts for approximately 4% of deaths in the UK. Despite its poor prognosis, few patients have access to specialist palliative care services. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) acknowledges that the palliative care needs of patients with heart failure and their informal carers are not currently being met. Its recently published guidance recommends the development of an effective multidisciplinary service model for such patients.

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Home support workers perceptions of family members of their older clients : a qualitative study

Background: Health care discourse is replete with references to building partnerships between formal and informal care systems of support, particularly in community and home based health care. Little work has been done to examine the relationship between home health care workers and family caregivers of older clients. The purpose of this study is to examine home support workers’ (HSWs) perceptions of their interactions with their clients’ family members. The goal of this research is to improve client care and better connect formal and informal care systems.

Methods: A qualitative study, using in-depth interviews was conducted with 118 home support workers in British Columbia, Canada. Framework analysis was used and a number of strategies were employed to ensure rigor including: memo writing and analysis meetings. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and sent to a professional transcription agency. Nvivo 10 software was used to manage the data.

Results: Interactions between HSWs and family members are characterized in terms both of complementary labour (family members providing informational and instrumental support to HSWs), and disrupted labour (family members creating emotion work and additional instrumental work for HSWs). Two factors, the care plan and empathic awareness, further impact the relationship between HSWs and family caregivers.

Conclusions: HSWs and family members work to support one another instrumentally and emotionally through interdependent interactions and empathic awareness. Organizational Care Plans that are too rigid or limited in their scope are key factors constraining interactions.

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Experiences with using information and communication technology to build a multi-municipal support network for informal carers

This multi-municipal intervention study explored whether informal carers of frail older people and disabled children living at home made use of information and communication technology (ICT) to gain knowledge about caring and to form informal support networks, thereby improving their health. Seventy-nine informal carers accessed web-based information about caring and an e-based discussion forum via their personal computers. They were able to maintain contact with each other using a web camera and via normal group meetings. After the first 12 months, 17 informal carers participated in focus group interviews and completed a short questionnaire. Four staff members were also interviewed. Participant carers who had prior experiences with a similar ICT-based support network reported greater satisfaction and more extensive use of the network than did participants with no such prior experience. It seems that infrequent usage of the service may be explained by too few other carers to identify with and inappropriate recruitment procedures. Nevertheless, carers of disabled children reported that the intervention had resulted in improved services across the participant municipalities. To achieve optimal effects of an ICT-based support network due attention must be given to recruitment processes and social environment building for which care practitioners require training and support.

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Evaluation of a problem-solving (PS) techniques-based intervention for informal carers of patients with dementia receiving in-home care

The value of care provided by informal carers in Canada is estimated at $26 billion annually (Hollander et al., 2009). However, carers’ needs are often overlooked, limiting their capacity to provide care. Problem-solving therapy (PST), a structured approach to problem solving (PS) and a core principle of the Reitman Centre CARERS Program, has been shown to alleviate emotional distress and improve carers’ competence (Chiu et al., 2013). This study evaluated the effectiveness of problem-solving techniques-based intervention based on adapted PST methods, in enhancing carers’ physical and emotional capacity to care for relatives with dementia living in the community.

56 carers were equally allocated to a problem-solving techniques-based intervention group or a control arm. Carers in the intervention group received three 1 hr visits by a care coordinator (CC) who had been given advanced training in PS techniques-based intervention. Coping, mastery, competence, burden, and perceived stress of the carers were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention using standardized assessment tools. An intention-to-treat analysis utilizing repeated measures ANOVA was performed on the data.

Post-intervention measures completion rate was 82% and 92% for the intervention and control groups, respectively. Carers in the intervention group showed significantly improved task-oriented coping, mastery, and competence and significantly reduced emotion-oriented coping, burden and stress (p < 0.01–0.001). Control carers showed no change.

PS techniques, when learned and delivered by CCs as a tool to coach carers in their day-to-day caregiving, improves carers’ caregiving competence, coping, burden, and perceived stress. This may reduce dependence on primary, psychiatric, and institutional care. Results provide evidence that establishing effective partnerships between inter-professional clinicians in academic clinical health science centers, and community agencies can extend the reach of the expertise of specialized health care institutions.

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The £20 billion question: an inquiry into improving lives through cost-effective dementia services

The facts about the growing number of people with dementia in the UK and the associated costs are firmly established. It is well known that dementia is a significant and growing driver of demand for health and social care. The cost of dementia in the UK in 2010 was estimated to be £20 billion and this is expected to grow to over £27 billion by 2018. It is also clear that health and social care budgets are under extreme pressure and there is an urgent need to improve the cost-effectiveness of services. Given the high financial costs of dementia and the human cost of failing to provide good quality support, commissioners and planners will miss a vital opportunity if they do not treat dementia as a priority area for improving cost-effectiveness. The APPG believes there is ample opportunity for using resources more effectively while at the same time improving outcomes for people with dementia. The evidence in this report demonstrates that many areas have been able to not only achieve better outcomes for people with dementia but also to achieve greater value for money in dementia care, by making changes to service provision or adopting new ways of working. Many of the examples focus on earlier intervention to prevent crises or delay the need for more intensive types of support. Witnesses were also clear that integrated models of care are necessary. Professionals from across health and social care need to work closely and co-ordinate services to improve the efficiency and quality of dementia services. These findings should be incorporated within the current health and social care reforms, for example, by ensuring resources are focused on prevention and that commissioning is informed by a wide range of views. The APPG on Dementia considers that there is considerable potential to increase the cost-effectiveness of dementia services, while at the same time improving outcomes for people with dementia. We urge health and social care planners and providers to consider what they can do differently to achieve these ends. Given the considerable burden of dementia, improving the cost-effectiveness of dementia care could make a significant impact on the overall health and social care budget.

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Refreshed autistic spectrum disorder strategic action plan

This new Strategic Action Plan has been developed in response to what people with autism, their families and carers have said is important to them. We have also worked with a wide range of stakeholders to identify some key priority themes and actions that will make a real difference to the lives of children and adults with autism. The Plan sets out what we have done, what we were told and what we will do. It has three key priority areas:  Awareness raising, information and training;  Assessment and diagnosis; and  Meeting support needs. 

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Training in communication skills for informal carers of people suffering from dementia: a cluster randomised clinical trial comparing a therapist led workshop and a booklet

This study evaluates whether a short training workshop in communication techniques is more effective than an information booklet for improving communication skills in informal carers of people suffering from dementia. 30 informal carers were allocated to the workshop sessions and 15 to the booklet. Outcome measures included awareness of communication strategies; perceived frequency of communication breakdown at home, and the associated level of distress; general stress; and consumer satisfaction. At six week follow-up, the workshop group demonstrated a significantly greater awareness of communication strategies then the booklet-only group. Both groups reported some reduction in the frequency of communication problems at home, and a reduction in the associated level of distress. Satisfaction with the workshop indicated that training was helpful but depended on the stage of illness of the partner.

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A practical guide for disabled people or carers: where to find information, services and equipment

Guide giving information about services for disabled people available from government departments and agencies, the NHS, local government, and voluntary organisations. Covers every need, including housing, money, opportunities for holidays and leisure, and many more. Includes phone numbers, publications and a list of organisations.

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Training care givers of stroke patients : economic evaluation

Background Training care givers reduces their burden and improves psychosocial outcomes in care givers and patients at one year. However, the cost effectiveness of this approach has not been investigated. Objective To evaluate the cost effectiveness of caregiver training by examining health and social care costs, informal care costs, and quality adjusted life years in care givers. Design A single, blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting Stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects 300 stroke patients and their care givers. Interventions Caregiver training in basic nursing and facilitation of personal care techniques compared with no caregiver training. Main outcome measures Health and social care costs, informal care costs, and quality adjusted life years in care givers over one year after stroke. Results Total health and social care costs over one year for patients whose care givers received training were significantly lower (mean difference -£4043 ($7249; €, 95% confidence interval -£6544 to -£1595). Inclusion of informal care costs, which were similar between the two groups, did not alter this conclusion. The cost difference was largely due to differences in length of hospital stay. The EQ-5D did not detect changes in quality adjusted life years in care givers. Conclusion Compared with no training, caregiver training during rehabilitation of patients reduced costs of care while improving overall quality of life in care givers at one year.

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Listening to and learning from the family carer's story: an innovative approach in interprofessional education

Meeting family carers who recount their experiences of being on the receiving end of health and social care provides a 'real life' context in which undergraduate students from different professions can explore together and learn about interprofessional care and teamwork. This paper draws on data from a three-month in-depth evaluation of palliative care workshops in which medical, nursing, social work and rehabilitation therapy students interview family carers who are caring for someone with a terminal illness or who have recently been bereaved. The evaluation showed that students responded positively to 'real world' learning and coped well when carers were upset or recounted distressing incidents. Meeting the carer had a profound impact on the students- to the extent that some said they were 'changed' by the experience and felt it would significantly influence their professional behaviour. Hearing the carer's story also allowed them to pinpoint new and significant insights into their own profession and into healthcare provision generally. Family carers' views of their experience of the workshops were also sought and they too reported benefits from meeting the students. They found the experience cathartic and therapeutic and were both surprised and impressed by the maturity of the students who were able to respond to their distress. The paper also discusses the practicalities involved in recruiting the carers, issues of preparation and debriefing and lessons which will be useful to others who may wish to involve family carers in education.

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A potential model for the first all Wales mental health service user and carer-led research group

This paper will inform mental health service users and carers on how a University in Wales established a service user and carer-led research group. * The group's primary aim will be to undertake its own service user and carer-led research projects. * Mental health service users have undergone empowerment and research training at a University in Wales. This is an important initiative because it is the first service user and carer-led research group in Wales. * This paper is co-authored by a mental health service user and includes transcripts of service users' stories written in their words. Abstract Service user and carer involvement in research has been gaining momentum in recent years. However, this involvement to date has primarily been as research respondents or 'subjects' in research studies. A group of mental health service users at a University in Wales underwent empowerment and research training to enable them to become active participants in the research process; this training was a necessary step to equip mental health service users with the skills to become independent researchers and to carry out service user-led research. We included transcripts from mental health service users on their views of the empowerment and research training received. We are not reporting, in this paper, on the findings from a research study rather it aims to inform readers how a service user and carer-led research group has been established in Wales. The group has two purposes: (1) to train service users in research methodologies, and thus for them to gain essential research skills; and (2) to undertake their own service user and carer-led research projects thereby implementing the research skills they have acquired from the training. The latter is a primary aim of the group; a future paper will report on its development.

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The nature and scope of stressful spousal caregiving relationships

The caregiving literature provides compelling evidence that caregiving burden and depressive symptoms are linked with stressful care relationships, however, relational difficulties around caregiving are seldom described in the literature. This article presents findings from content analysis of baseline interviews with 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) spousal caregivers enrolled in a home care skill-training trial who identified their care relationship as a source of care burden. Disappointment and sadness about the loss of the relationship; tension within the relationship; and care decision conflicts within the relationship were recurrent themes of relational stress in caregiving. These spousal caregivers had relationship quality scores below the mean and burden and depressive symptom scores above the means of other caregivers in the study. These findings provide support for developing dyadic interventions that help spouses manage relational losses, care-related tensions, and care decision-making conflicts.

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Dysphagia: the challenge of managing eating and drinking difficulties in children and adults who have learning disabilities

This review explores some of the key issues relevant to children and adults who have dysphagia, or eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties, and a learning disability. It explores the methods for attempting to identify this area of difficulty effectively, and reflects on some of the other issues that may affect management, such as carer support and training and use of appropriate communication strategies to support and enable participation from the client with learning disability.

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Rural carers online: A feasibility study

Objective: To test the feasibility (for a potential randomised controlled trial) of a computer intervention for improving social interaction and promoting the mental health of rural carers.

Design: The study combined pre- and post-intervention measures with interviews to determine the feasibility of the intervention and the acceptability of the study design to participants. The intervention consisted of providing 14 rural carers with computers and a 4-week training program on basic computer skills, using email and the Internet.

Setting: The study was conducted in a rural community setting.

Participants: The carers were 12 women and two men, aged from 50 to 81 years, with an average of 65.5 years.

Main outcome measures: Measures of social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Scale), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), carer burden (Zarit Burden Interview) and computer confidence were taken at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Interviews were completed at follow-up to discuss outcomes of the study. A focus group discussion was conducted with 11 participants to discuss the study and resolve computer issues.

Results: Most carers reported increased confidence in email and Internet use. There was improvement for most participants in depressive symptoms and social isolation, but little change in carer burden. Participants identified many social benefits associated with the computer intervention, such as intergenerational connection, community building, skills and confidence and preparation for the future.

Conclusion: The intervention was found to be practical and acceptable for a group of older carers. It was concluded that it would be feasible to conduct a large randomised controlled trial of the intervention.

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Bridging troubled waters: family caregivers, transitions and long term care

Families are the bedrock of long-term care, but policymakers have traditionally considered them “informal” caregivers, as they are not part of the formal paid caregiving workforce. As chronic and long-term care systems have become more complex and as more demanding tasks have been shifted to families, this view is no longer sustainable. The care transition process offers a critical opportunity to treat family caregivers as important care partners. Enhancing their involvement, training, and support will contribute to reducing unnecessary rehospitalizations and improving patient outcomes. The contributions and experiences of family caregivers should be considered in gathering information to shape policies and practice; training health care professionals; developing programs; and reforming financing.

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Carers at the heart of 21st-century families and communities

This strategy sets the government agenda for supporting carers over the next 10 years ranging across the span of government’s responsibilities. Short-term changes are to be implemented over the next three years, and longer-term priorities are identified for the next 10 years. The strategy addresses breaks, personalisation of services, income, information and advice, the workplace, training for the workforce, access to employment, emotional support, the health of carers and the specific needs of young carers. . The strategy is based on the views and concerns of carers themselves, drawn from consultation across the country.

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Social work education case study: Kingston University and St George's University London

Service users, carers and academics describe participation in the social work degree at Kingston University and St George's University London. It looks at the different ways that users and carers are involved in the course, including teaching, role-playing activities, marking students' work and the selection process for students applying to on the course. It also looks at the importance of the university providing appropriate training and support, the benefits students get from contact with users and carers and what users and carers gain from the experience. The film will be of interest to social worker educators, students on social work courses, people working more broadly in co-production/participation and service users and carers.

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The experiences of young carers: a meta-synthesis of qualitative findings

The aim of this meta-synthesis was to explore young carers' accounts of caring for a family member with an illness, difficulty or disability, and to promote a phenomenological understanding of their experiences. A meta-ethnographic method of meta-synthesis was adopted, utilising the process of reciprocal translation to synthesise 11 qualitative studies. The synthesis yielded four main concepts: (1) becoming a caring person; (2) the adult child - the marks of being different; (3) who is a carer? - others' expectations and stigmatisation; and (4) keeping caring as a secret - protecting the caring role and identity. The synthesis of translation generated the higher-order concept of 'integrating caring into an emerging identity'. This concept considers the experiences of young carers as a process of identity formation in the face of persistent stressful experiences from both within and outside the caring role. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. 

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Changes in attributions as a consequence of training for challenging and complex behaviour for carers of people with learning disabilities: a systematic review

Aim  This paper reviews the evidence for changes in carers’ attributions regarding the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities as a consequence of carer training in challenging and complex behaviour.

Method  Papers were included in the review if they reported outcomes for carer training on the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities and used a measure of carer attribution of the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities. The characteristics of the scales used and the content and length of training are considered as possible factors affecting changes in attribution.

Results  Eleven papers were reviewed, most studies using behavioural curricula for their training, and none explicitly set out to change attributions. Eight of the 11 papers reviewed reported changes in attribution although core characteristics of training did not distinguish those papers that reported such changes and those that did not.

Conclusions  Changes in beliefs and attributions occur even though these are not identified as a focus within the training provided. The present authors suggest that the formulation processes involved in behavioural training may play a key part in changing attributions as a consequence of this training. The present authors discuss the potential for more focussed intervention designed to change attributions and for better alignment of measures to specific attribution change expected as a result of specific training approaches.

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The national outcomes framework for people who need care and support and carers who need support, 2014-15: working document

The national outcomes framework for people who need care and support and carers who need support in Wales has been created to deliver on the actions set out in Sustainable Social Services for Wales: A Framework for Action, and the need to fulfil the duties set out in the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act. The framework is made up of a well-being statement and the outcome indicators to measure whether well-being is being achieved. The key objectives of the framework are: to describe the important well-being outcomes that people who need care and support and carers who need support should expect in order to lead fulfilled lives, giving people a greater voice and control over their lives and enable them to make informed decisions to ensure they achieve their personal well-being outcomes; to set national direction and promote the well-being of people who need care and their carers; to provide greater transparency on whether care and support services are improving well-being outcomes for people in Wales using consistent and comparable indicators. This will allow the sector to scrutinise its performance and will shine a spotlight on what needs to be done to improve people’s well-being rather than focussing on the processes involved in delivering social services.

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The fount of all knowledge: training required to involve service users and carers in health and social care education and training

A modified Delphi study was carried out in order to obtain consensus regarding the content of a university training course to involve service users and carers at all stages of the health and social care educational process within a higher education environment. Telephone interviews were carried out with service users and carers, educationalists and leaders in the field of service user and carer involvement to generate curriculum ideas. A questionnaire was developed from their responses and sent to a purposive sample of 65 people (24 service users and carers, 28 health and social care educationalists and 13 leaders in the field of service user and carer involvement). Fifty‐five statements were generated with consensus being reached on 46 (84%) statements. Mismatches between service users and carers, educationalists and leaders in the field were explored. Key themes to be included in the curriculum were identified. This paper demonstrates that the best training is not imposed upon service users and carers by academics or others who think they know best; rather, that service users and carers themselves can play a leading role in identifying their training needs and devising strategies to ensure these needs are effectively met.

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Service user perspectives on palliative care education for health and social care professionals supporting people with learning disabilities

Background and objectives: Evidence from European and American studies indicates limited referrals of people with learning (intellectual) disabilities to palliative care services. Although professionals’ perceptions of their training needs in this area have been studied, the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and family carers are not known. This study aimed to elicit the views of people with learning disabilities, and their family carers concerning palliative care, to inform healthcare professional education and training.

Methods: A qualitative, exploratory design was used. A total of 17 people with learning disabilities were recruited to two focus groups which took place within an advocacy network. Additionally, three family carers of someone with a learning disability, requiring palliative care, and two family carers who had been bereaved recently were also interviewed.

Results: Combined data identified the perceived learning needs for healthcare professionals. Three subthemes emerged: ‘information and preparation’, ‘provision of care’ and ‘family-centred care’.

Conclusions: This study shows that people with learning disabilities can have conversations about death and dying, and their preferred end-of-life care, but require information that they can understand. They also need to have people around familiar to them and with them. Healthcare professionals require skills and knowledge to effectively provide palliative care for people with learning disabilities and should also work in partnership with their family carers who have expertise from their long-term caring role. These findings have implications for educators and clinicians.

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Supporting carers of people diagnosed with schizophrenia: evaluating change in nursing practice following training

BACKGROUND: United Kingdom legislation and clinical standards for schizophrenia challenge nurses to re-examine the support that they provide to carers. Nurses are in a key position to provide this support but may lack the necessary skills to do so. The training programme evaluated in the present study aimed to address this problem.

STUDY AIM: To evaluate change in clinical practice brought about by post-registration training for mental health nurses in supporting carers of people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

DESIGN/METHODS: The study was undertaken in collaboration between the Universities of Dundee and Glasgow, and Tayside National Health Service (NHS) Trust (Scotland). Respondents were nine nurses who completed training and then delivered a planned programme of support to carers. Data on nursing practice were gathered through semi-structured interviews with nurses before training and after providing support. Following the support intervention, carers also commented on the nurses' practice.

FINDINGS: Eight of the nine nurses reported changes in practice in five key areas: They built collaborative relationships with carers, developed a carer focused approach to their practice, acknowledged and supported the carer role, and made progress in identifying carer needs and accessing resources to meet these needs. Nurses experienced difficulties supporting carers who had mental health problems or previous negative experiences of services. Those who lacked community experience also found it difficult to adjust to working in a community setting. Although clinical supervision helped them to work through these difficulties, they remain largely unresolved.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that appropriate training may enable nurses to improve the support provided to carers of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. This study represents an important stage in determining the nature of support offered to carers by nurses. While developed to help nurses to meet clinical standards set for schizophrenia in the UK, findings may have clinical significance for nurses in other countries.

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Carer participation: training for people with intellectual disabilities in a Chinese society

People with intellectual disabilities require training to improve independence, and carers are important partners in the process. Studies show that carers are able to motivate family members with intellectual disabilities to participate in training. In addition, family members may serve as cotrainers. To increase carers' participation, it is necessary to empower them with training techniques and develop strategies to relieve their stress. This article aims to explore the effects of carer support to enhance training quality of daily living skills for their family member with intellectual disabilities, through the use of care case studies, in the context of families living in Hong Kong. A model of multiple case studies is adopted. Three cases are analyzed to illustrate various modes of carer participation.

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Including families and carers : an evaluation of the family liaison service on inpatient psychiatric wards in Somerset, UK

Purpose– National mental health policies in the UK have a common theme of seeking to develop working partnerships between people who use mental health services, their families and carers and professionals. In Somerset, following a staff training programme, a Family Liaison Service has been developed whereby systemically trained staff work alongside inpatient staff to hold family meetings as part of the assessment and admission process on all wards for working age adults and older people. This article aims to focus on this initiative.

Design/methodology/approach – The article considers the development of the Family Liaison Service and evaluates its progress based on audit data, feedback from families using the service, and a survey of staff experience. Issues raised in developing family inclusive services are discussed.

Findings – Evaluation of the service suggests that, although there is still progress to be made, considerable success has been achieved in embedding the service on inpatient units with a substantial increase in meetings held between staff and families. Feedback from families is positive and staff report increased confidence in engaging with families and carers.

Originality/value – This article describes a transferable model for the implementation of national policy to develop working partnerships with families and carers in mainstream mental health services.

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A structured training programme for caregivers of inpatients after stroke (TRACS) : a cluster randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

Background: Most patients who have had a stroke are dependent on informal caregivers for activities of daily living. The TRACS trial investigated a training programme for caregivers (the London Stroke Carers Training Course, LSCTC) on physical and psychological outcomes, including cost-effectiveness, for patients and caregivers after a disabling stroke.

Methods: We undertook a pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis. Stroke units were eligible if four of five criteria used to define a stroke unit were met, a substantial number of patients on the unit had a diagnosis of stroke, staff were able to deliver the LSCTC, and most patients were discharged to a permanent place of residence. Stroke units were randomly assigned to either LSCTC or usual care (control group), stratified by geographical region and quality of care, and using blocks of size 2. Patients with a diagnosis of stroke, likely to return home with residual disability and with a caregiver providing support were eligible. The primary outcome for patients was self-reported extended activities of daily living at 6 months, measured with the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale. The primary outcome for caregivers was self-reported burden at 6 months, measured with the caregivers burden scale (CBS). We combined patient and caregiver costs with primary outcomes and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) to assess cost-effectiveness. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN 49208824.

Findings: We assessed 49 stroke units for eligibility, of which 36 were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. Between Feb 27, 2008, and Feb 9, 2010, 928 patient and caregiver dyads were registered, of which 450 were in the intervention group, and 478 in the control group. Patients' self-reported extended activities of daily living did not differ between groups at 6 months (adjusted mean NEADL score 27·4 in the intervention group versus 27·6 in the control group, difference –0·2 points [95% CI –3·0 to 2·5], p value=0·866, ICC=0·027). The caregiver burden scale did not differ between groups either (adjusted mean CBS 45·5 in the intervention group versus 45·0 in the control group, difference 0·5 points [95% CI –1·7 to 2·7], p value=0·660, ICC=0·013). Patient and caregiver costs were similar in both groups (length of the initial stroke admission and associated costs were £13 127 for the intervention group and £12 471 for the control group; adjusted mean difference £1243 [95% CI –1533 to 4019]; p value=0·380). Probabilities of cost-effectiveness based on QALYs were low.

Interpretation: In a large scale, robust evaluation, results from this study have shown no differences between the LSCTC and usual care on any of the assessed outcomes. The immediate period after stroke might not be the ideal time to deliver structured caregiver training.

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Does physical activity reduce burden in carers of people with dementia? A literature review

Objectives: Physical exercise has been associated with a range of positive outcomes including improvements in psychological well-being. The aim of the present study was to review current evidence on the effects of physical activity interventions for carers of people with dementia.

Methods: Systematic review. We searched electronic databases and key articles of studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving psychological well-being in carers of people with dementia. Relevant papers were scored according to established criteria set by the Cochrane Review Group. Selection criteria for studies were a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, and comparing physical activity with a control group receiving no specific physical activity intervention. Two reviewers worked independently to select trials, extract data, and assess risk of bias.

Results: A total of four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated home-based supervised physical activity of low to moderate intensity, which included either aerobic exercise, or endurance training. Pooled data showed that physical activity reduced subjective caregiver burden in carers, standardized mean difference −0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.81 to −0.04, in comparison to a control group of usual care.

Conclusions: There is evidence from two RCTs that physical activity reduces subjective caregiver burden for carers of people with dementia. Although statistically significant, the observed benefits should be interpreted with caution as the studies conducted so far have limitations. Further high-quality trials are needed for evaluating the effectiveness of physical activity in improving psychological well-being in carers of people with dementia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community

If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including healthcare and local authority services. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR];Copyright of British Journal of Community Nursing is the property of MA Healthcare Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission.

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User involvement in social work education: Macedonian perspective

Involving service users and carers in the education and training of social workers is higher on the agenda in developed countries than ever before. Higher education institutions that run these programmes are required to involve service users and carers at all levels of the design and delivery of the programmes. The experiences of user involvement in social work education in the countries of transition, such as Macedonia, are however lacking. This article discusses the modalities, principles and benefits of user involvement in social work education based on the Anglo-Saxon experiences and make a reference to their applicability within the Macedonian context where relevant. The author focuses initially on the modalities in which user involvement may take place: teaching and learning, practice assignments, curricula development, student’s assessments, planning management and evaluation of courses etc. Further, it briefly explores core principles, as well as issues related to participation planning and payment.

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Improving caregiving competence, stress coping, and mental well-being in informal dementia carers

AIM: To study the effectiveness of Reitman Centre “Coaching, Advocacy, Respite, Education, Relationship, and Simulation” (CARERS) program, which uses problem-solving techniques and simulation to train informal dementia carers.

METHODS: Seventy-three carers for family members with dementia were included in the pilot study. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected from carers using validated measures of depression, mastery, role captivity and overload, caregiving competence and burden, and coping styles. To assess program effectiveness, mean differences for these measures were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used to determine if change in scores is dependent on the respective baseline scores. Clinical effects for measures were expressed as Cohen’s D values.

RESULTS: Data from 73 carers were analyzed. The majority of these participants were female (79.5%). A total of 69.9% were spouses and 30.1% were children of the care recipient. Participants had an overall mean age of 68.34 ± 12.01 years. About 31.5% of participating carers had a past history of psychiatric illness (e.g., depression), and 34.2% sustained strained relationships with their respective care recipients. Results from carers demonstrated improvement in carers’ self-perception of competence (1.26 ± 1.92, P < 0.0001), and significant reduction in emotion-focused coping (measured by the Coping Inventory of Stressful Situations, -2.37 ± 6.73, P < 0.01), Geriatric Depression scale (-0.67 ± 2.63, P < 0.05) and Pearlin’s overload scale (-0.55 ± 2.07, P < 0.05), upon completion of the Program. Secondly, it was found that carers with more compromised baseline scores benefited most from the intervention, as they experienced statistically significant improvement in the following constructs: competence, stress-coping style (less emotion-oriented), sense of mastery, burden, overload.

CONCLUSION: Study results supported the effectiveness of the CARERS Program in improving caregiving competence, stress coping ability and mental well-being in carers caring for family members with dementia.

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