Background: Family caregivers of operated neurosurgery patients function as informal extensions of the health system. But they are untrained and unprepared for their new role. It has been felt that their problems related to care provision can be resolved by appropriate training.; Aim: This study aimed to compare the impact of self-instruction manual-based training of family caregivers of operated neurosurgery patients on their knowledge regarding care provision and care practices.; Setting: Tertiary care hospital setting located in North India.; Design: Randomized controlled trial.; Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was done among the operated neurosurgery patients and their caregiver dyads (n = 90). They were randomly allocated to receive either self-instruction manual and one-to-one training (TP1) or self-instruction manual only (TP2). Block randomization method was used. Sequentially numbered sealed envelope was used for allocation concealment. Monthly follow-up was done for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was knowledge gain of the caregivers.; Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Student's t-test, paired t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance, and Bonferroni's correction were used.; Results: The attrition rate was 15.5%. Intention-to-treat analysis was followed. Caregivers in the TP1 group had significant knowledge gain (95% confidence interval of mean difference 9.4-14.5, P < 0.05). The number of caregivers who had followed correct caregiving practices was significantly more in the TP1 group.; Conclusion: Training of caregivers by providing information along with one-to-one training is an effective strategy for improving the knowledge and skills of caregivers regarding care provision of the operated neurosurgery patients.