Purpose: This study aimed to examine the quality of family‐centered care perceived by primary family caregivers and its influencing factors in mental healthcare practice. Design: A cross‐sectional, correlational study. Methods: A convenience sample of 121 mental health nurses and 164 primary family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia was recruited from acute psychiatric wards and chronic psychiatric rehabilitation wards in three psychiatric hospitals in Taiwan. Structured questionnaires for mental health nurses were designed to examine nurses' attitudes toward schizophrenia and the importance of families in nursing care. Primary family caregivers were assessed to determine their perceptions of quality of family‐centered care. At least one primary family caregiver of patients was matched to a nurse who took major responsibility for the patient during the hospitalization. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product‐moment correlations, independent t‐test, one‐way analysis of variance, and stepwise regression analyses. Results: Quality of family‐centered care perceived by primary family caregivers regarding the provision of general and specific information, as compared to enabling and partnership, coordinated and comprehensive care, and respectful and supportive care, was relatively inadequate. Younger and more educated primary family caregivers, having relatives with schizophrenia in acute wards, less supportive nurses' attitudes toward schizophrenia, and the importance of family in nursing care were correlated with poor primary family caregivers' perceptions of quality of family‐centered care. Nurses' supportive attitudes toward schizophrenia and chronic psychiatric rehabilitation wards where patients received care were key factors in determining better quality of family‐centered care. Conclusions: Findings provide a platform for the development of effective continuing education and training programs to equip mental health nurses with supportive attitudes toward mental illness and an integration of the family in nursing care, which will ultimately improve mental health care for families experiencing mental health problems. Clinical Relevance: Efforts in professional training to address stigma and encourage a family‐centered approach into recovery‐oriented practice for practicing mental healthcare providers, including mental health nurses, are recommended.