Purpose: To examine the level of caregiving burden and sleep quality as well as their interrelationship amongst family caregivers of Chinese male patients with advanced cancer. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong. The Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to measure caregiving burden and sleep quality of the family caregivers. Results: A total of 96 family caregivers were recruited. Disrupted schedule (3.8; SD = 0.8) was rated as the most affected consequence of caregiving burden. Around 78.1% of the caregivers suffered from sleep problems. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that health problems due to caregiving burden was independently associated with poor sleep quality after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics of both patients and caregivers (regression coefficient, B = 2.09, P = 0.012). Conclusions: Caregiving burden amongst family caregivers of male patients with advanced cancer was remarkably high and associated with poor sleep quality. Strategies aiming to alleviate caregiving burden of caregivers may help break this vicious cycle to enhance the sleep quality of caregivers. Results also underscore the need to assess and develop intervention to relieve caregiving burden for family caregivers of cancer patients.