Introduction: Caregiving, providing regular care or assistance to family members or friends with health problems or disabilities, may affect caregivers' sleep. This study examined self-reported short sleep duration by caregiving status among US adults. Methods: Data of 114,496 respondents aged >= 18 years in 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. Prevalence of short sleep duration (<7 hours per 24-hour period) by caregiving status was calculated, and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from a multivariable logistic regression model with adjustment for potential covariates. Results: Nearly 1 of 5 adults reported caregiving within the past month. A higher prevalence of short sleep duration was reported among caregivers (39.5%) than among non-caregivers (34.2%, adjusted PR [95% CI] = 1.12 [1.06-1.19]). Caregivers who reported prolonged caregiving (>= 5 years) reported a higher prevalence of short sleep duration than those with <2 years of caregiving. Similarly, caregivers who provided 20-39 hours of caregiving per week reported a higher prevalence of short sleep duration than those with <20 hours caregiving per week. Conclusions: Caregivers had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration than noncaregivers. Providing information and community-based resources and supports for caregiving may minimize caregiver stress and improve sleep particularly for those with prolonged or more intense caregiving.