In pediatric settings, a valid and reliable assessment of negative and positive dimensions of caregiving can inform intervention processes and improve parent–child adaptation outcomes. While caregiving is a normative component of parenting, the experience can be quantitatively and/or qualitatively different for parents of children with a chronic health condition. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the psychometric properties of the "Revised Burden Measure" in a sample of parents of children with and without chronic health conditions. The "Revised Burden Measure" and self-reported measures of quality of life and mental health were administered to a sample of parents who had children with (n = 277) or without (n = 117) chronic health conditions. Classical test theory, item response theory, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, and multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted to investigate the reliability and validity of the instrument. The "Revised Burden Measure" was shown to have good reliability, as well as criterion and known-groups validity. The data showed minor DIF by children's health status. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a second-order model of caregiving burden (with Relationship, Objective and Subjective burdens loading on Overall Burden) and the construct validity of the complementary Uplifts subscale. Additionally, multi-group analyses ascertained the measurement and structural invariance of the model by children's health status. The results generally confirm the reliability and validity of the "Revised Burden Measure" and demonstrate its overall clinical and developmental applicability in pediatric settings. Highlights: The "Revised Burden Measure" is a valid and reliable measure for use in pediatric settings. This clinically informative instrument is easy to administer, score and interpret. The "Revised Burden Measure" enables a comprehensive assessment of negative and positive dimensions of caregiving. This measure may be used to assess the caregiving experience of parents who have children with or without chronic conditions. The instrument is recommended for the assessment of caregiver's burdens and uplifts across different life-span periods.