There is a lack of evidence on the health-related impacts of being a young carer. This article takes a population approach to young carer research specifically to investigate the prevalence of young carers and explore differences in their health, well-being and future expectations. This is a cross-sectional regression analysis. Secondary analysis of a representative Scottish secondary school survey was undertaken. Pupils with caring responsibilities were identified, and their outcomes in terms of physical and mental health and postschool expectations were analysed.