There is a lack of evidence on the health-related impacts of being a young carer. This article takes a population approach to young carer research specifically to investigate the prevalence of young carers and explore differences in their health, well-being and future expectations. This is a cross-sectional regression analysis. Secondary analysis of a representative Scottish secondary school survey was undertaken. Pupils with caring responsibilities were identified, and their outcomes in terms of physical and mental health and postschool expectations were analysed. Almost one in eight (12%) surveyed reported caring for someone in the household. Young carers' physical and mental health and psychosocial outcomes were significantly poorer, and they were significantly less likely to see themselves entering further or higher education. This research suggests that Glasgow could have many more young carers than previously thought and provides clear evidence that young people's outcomes are influenced by carer status. • The number of young carers in Glasgow, Scotland, was higher than previously thought. • One in twelve of the school pupils surveyed provided informal care. • Young carers are significantly less likely to see themselves going on to further or higher education. • Young carers are more likely to report psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems.