Background: People adopt health promotion behaviors to promote their health as they interact within the environment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing health promotion behaviors among older adults caring for family members with dementia. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, data from 135 older adults who were the main caregivers were collected at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital in the capital city of South Korea between September and October in 2020. Sociodemographic characteristics, caregiver-related characteristics, dementia knowledge, fear of dementia, and health promotion behaviors were measured. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the level of health promotion behaviors differed by age, sex, educational level, monthly income, relationship with the family member with dementia, and cohabitation with family members with dementia. In the multivariate analysis, a hierarchical multiple regression model explained 33.9% of the variance. Sex, duration of caregiving, use of long-term care service, and fear of dementia predicted health promotion behavior. Conclusion: A strategic tailored care plan for target population is needed to improve the health promotion behavior of older adults caring for family members with dementia.