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Cultural factors

The following resources examine cultural and social factors that affect caring situations and relationships.

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Palliative care and catastrophic costs in Malawi after a diagnosis of advanced cancer: a prospective cohort study

Background: Inclusive universal health coverage requires access to quality health care without financial barriers. Receipt of palliative care after advanced cancer diagnosis might reduce household poverty, but evidence from low-income and middle-income settings is sparse. Methods: In this prospective study, the primary objective was to investigate total household costs of cancer-related health care after a diagnosis of advanced cancer, with and without the receipt of palliative care. Households comprising patients and their unpaid family caregiver were recruited into a cohort study at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Malawi, between Jan 16 and July 31, 2019. Costs of cancer-related health-care use (including palliative care) and health-related quality-of-life were recorded over 6 months. Regression analysis explored associations between receipt of palliative care and total household costs on health care as a proportion of household income. Catastrophic costs, defined as 20% or more of total household income, sale of assets and loans taken out (dissaving), and their association with palliative care were computed. Findings: We recruited 150 households. At 6 months, data from 89 (59%) of 150 households were available, comprising 89 patients (median age 50 years, 79% female) and 64 caregivers (median age 40 years, 73% female). Patients in 55 (37%) of the 150 households died and six (4%) were lost to follow-up. 19 (21%) of 89 households received palliative care. Catastrophic costs were experienced by nine (47%) of 19 households who received palliative care versus 48 (69%) of 70 households who did not (relative risk 0·69, 95% CI 0·42 to 1·14, p=0·109). Palliative care was associated with substantially reduced dissaving (median US$11, IQR 0 to 30 vs $34, 14 to 75; p=0·005). The mean difference in total household costs on cancer-related health care with receipt of palliative care was −36% (95% CI −94 to 594; p=0·707). Interpretation: Vulnerable households in low-income countries are subject to catastrophic health-related costs following a diagnosis of advanced cancer. Palliative care might result in reduced dissaving in these households. Further consideration of the economic benefits of palliative care is justified. Funding: Wellcome Trust; National Institute for Health Research; and EMMS International. 

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More GP contacts and poorer health of informal caregivers with low socioeconomic status in Germany: Results from the population-based DEGS1 and the cross-sectional GPCare-1 study

Objectives: Informal caregivers are known to have poorer mental health. Risk factors for caregiver burden include low education, female gender, cohabitation with the care recipient and lack of resources. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in supporting caregivers. Methods: Drawing on data from two surveys, associations between caregivers' socioeconomic status (SES), psychophysical health and GP contacts are analysed. Design Cross-sectional study. The study draws on data from two surveys (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, DEGS1 and General Practice Care-1, GPCare-1). Setting Germany. Participants DEGS1: German general population (18+ years) n=7987. GPCare-1: general practice patients (18+ years) n=813. Primary outcome Psychophysical health, GP contacts and communication. Methods Using representative DEGS1 data, the prevalence of informal caregivers, caregivers' burden, chronic stress, various health conditions and frequency of GP contacts were evaluated stratified by SES. Data from the GPCare-1 study addressed caregivers' experiences and communication preferences with GPs. Results: In the DEGS1, the prevalence of caregivers was 6.5%. Compared with non-caregivers, caregivers scored significantly higher for chronic stress (15.45 vs 11.90), self-reported poor health (37.6% vs 23.7%) and GP visits last year (3.95 vs 3.11), while lifestyle and chronic diseases were similar. Compared with caregivers with medium/high SES, those with low SES had a significantly lower prevalence of high/medium caregiver burden (47.9% vs 67.7%) but poorer self-reported health (56.9% vs 33.0%), while other characteristics did not differ. In the GPCare-1 study, the prevalence of caregivers was 12.6%. The majority of them felt that their GP takes their problems seriously (63.6%) without difference by SES. Conclusion: Caregivers with low SES constitute an especially high-risk group for psychological strain, requiring special GP attention to support their needs. 

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Male family carers' experiences of formal support – a meta‐ethnography

Background: Men represent a growing proportion of unpaid family carers across Europe. Comparative studies have proposed male carers experience their caring role differently to females; men are less likely to avail of formal support services than women. Social ideas around masculinity have been linked to the help‐seeking behaviours of male carers, as well as men's attitudes around accessing formal support. More understanding about this role from the perspective of male carers is required. Methods: The study followed a meta‐ethnography process starting with a systematic literature search of five electronic databases. The methodological quality of the selected studies was evaluated using the Mc Master checklist. Using NVivo 12 software, primary data were analysed and themes throughout the papers were identified. Results were synthesised as a meta‐ethnography that retained direct quotes from the studies. Results: Two themes and five sub‐themes were developed from the data. The first theme was ‘Men's experiences of formal support’ which contained sub‐themes ‘Reluctance to step back’, ‘A space to share emotions’ and ‘Education diminishes burden’. The second theme was ‘Coping without Formal Support’ with sub‐themes ‘Satisfied without help’ and ‘Duty prevents help seeking’. Conclusions: Fear of perceived failure and a loss of control in the caring relationship were key factors in men's low trust and dissatisfaction with available services. To engage more male carers, formal service providers should acknowledge men's wish to be seen as competent in the care role as well as their desire to stay involved in decision‐making around care for their family member. Support services that were collaborative, education‐based and gender‐sensitive were favoured by male carers.

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Introduction and Psychometric Validation of the Resilience and Strain Questionnaire (ResQ-Care)— A Scale on the Ratio of Informal Caregivers' Resilience and Stress Factors

Background: Informal caregivers are a particularly vulnerable population at risk for adverse health outcomes. Likewise, there are many scales available assessing individual caregiver burden and stress. Recently, resilience in caregivers gained increasing interest and scales started to assess resilience factors as well. Drawing on a homeostatic model, we developed a scale assessing both caregivers' stress and resilience factors. We propose four scales, two covering stress and two covering resilience factors, in addition to a sociodemographic basic scale. Based on the stress:resilience ratio, the individual risk of adverse health outcomes and suggestions for interventions can be derived. Methods: A total of 291 informal caregivers filled in the ResQ-Care as part of a survey study conducted during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Exploratory factor analysis was performed. Validity analyses were examined by correlations with the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Results: The data fitted our proposed four-factor solution well, explaining 43.3% of the variance. Reliability of each scale was at least acceptable with Cronbach's α ≥0.67 and MacDonald's ω ≥0.68 for all scales. The two strain scales weighed more than the resilience scales and explained 65.6% of the variance. Convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed for the BRS and PSS-4, whereas the GDS-15 correlation pattern was counterintuitive. Conclusion: The factor structure of the ResQ-Care scale was confirmed, with good indications of reliability and validity. Inconsistent correlations of the scales with the GDS-15 might be due to a reduced validity of GDS-15 assessment during the COVID-19 lockdown. 

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Incorporating young children into family caregiving for people with dementia in Taiwan

Background: Positive attitudes and appropriate knowledge about dementia are essential for the provision of suitable dementia care. Children as future voters may take on a critical role to increase community awareness and knowledge about dementia. Guided by Chinese filial piety cultural virtues, Taiwanese children are taught to respect and care for family seniors and extend this respect to other seniors. Accordingly, young children are considered part of family dementia caregiving system, despite children rarely assume formal caregiver role and not directly provide care work. However, Taiwanese children may possess stigmatized attitudes toward dementia due to a lack of proper dementia knowledge. Research Objective: This study aims to survey Taiwanese children age 9-11 years old attitudes and knowledge to the concepts of dementia. Methods: A total of 312 Taiwanese children from 8 elementary schools in the south Taiwan, aged 9-11 years old, were surveyed to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward dementia. Participants completed The Kids Insight into Dementia (KIDS), which is a 5-scale questionnaire containing three factors, “Personhood”, “Stigma”, and “Dementia Understanding”. The data was analyzed using quantitative method. Results: The results show that Taiwanese children are unfamiliar with dementia as related to brain disease (M= 3.94, SD=2.91), Taiwanese children are unfamiliar about nursing home provision of care (M=3.97, SD=2.17), Taiwanese children do not know the course of dementia disease (M=3.34, SD-1.39). Participants scored high on the question of “people with dementia have hobbies and interests” (M=4.15, SD=1.22); Participants reported that they agreed less often with stigma attached to the people with dementia, including items of “I would feel a bit scared if I met someone dementia in the street” (M=2.70, SD=1.79), ”people with dementia can be creepy” (M=2.18, SD=1.71), “It would be annoying of frustrating to spend time with someone with dementia” (M=2.15, SD=1.17), “It is unlikely that I would meet someone with dementia” (M=2.36, SD=1.27). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Taiwanese children may express less stigmatized attitudes toward people with dementia and yet they report less understanding of concepts of personhood of people with dementia. Therefore, dementia education is necessary to increase dementia knowledge among school age children in Taiwan.

 

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Income-related inequalities in informal care: Evidence from the longitudinal healthy longevity survey in China

Objectives: This report aims to examine income-related inequalities in informal care among older people with functional limitations in China. Methods: Data are drawn from the 2005, 2008, 2011, and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Erreygers concentration index, concentration index, and horizontal inequity index are used to examine inequalities in informal care. A random effects model is then used to investigate the relationship between household income and informal care. Results: There is no significant association between household income and the probability of receiving informal care. However, we observed a significant positive association between household income and hours of informal care received, indicating that those with higher household income receive more hours of informal care compared to those with lower household income. The degree of this inequality increases as the number of functional limitations increases. Discussion: Lower household income is associated with lower intensity of informal care received, particularly for older people with more functional limitations. Policies are required to support low-income older people with more functional limitations. 

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The impacts of caregiving intensity on informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from a national survey

Background: Provision of informal care may adversely affect health, daily and social activities of the informal caregivers, but few studies have examined these effects in relation to caregiving intensity. This study examined the predictive factors associated with the effects of caregiving roles on health, daily and social activities of informal caregivers, accounting for caregiving intensity. Methods: Data of adults aged 18 years and over from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019 were used. Respondent’s demographic, socioeconomic, health, and caregiving-related characteristics were described using complex samples analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors affecting health, daily and social activities of caregivers, accounting for caregiving intensity. Results: Five point one percent of adults in Malaysia provided informal care. High intensity caregivers were more likely to be actively employed and provided longer duration of care compared with low intensity caregivers. For low intensity caregiving, females, those aged 35–59 years, and those with long-term condition were more likely to have negative effects on health. Daily activities of non-Malays were more likely to be affected, while no factor was found significantly associated with effect on social activities. For high intensity caregiving, caregivers aged 60 and over, those received training and those without assistance were more likely to have negative effects on health. Daily activities of those without assistance were more likely to be affected. Social activities of non-Malays, those received training and those providing care for 2 years or more were more likely to be affected. Conclusions: Our study indicates that both low- and high-intensity caregivers have common features, with the exception of employment status and care duration. Caregiving, regardless of intensity, has a significant impact on caregivers. In order to reduce the negative consequences of caregiving responsibilities, all caregivers need assistance from the community and government, that is customised to their needs. By addressing the factors contributing to the negative effects of caregiving, a continuation of informal caregiving can be sustained through policies supporting the growing demand for informal care necessitated by an ageing population and higher life expectancy in Malaysia. 

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The impact of pediatric tracheostomy on the quality of life of caregivers

Objective: Pediatric tracheostomy is a challenge in otolaryngology practice and it is associated with greater morbidity and mortality than in adults; hence, constant vigilance by the designated family caregiver is critical. This study was designed to assess the impact of on quality of life of caregivers in a homecare setting as a result of the presence of child with a tracheostomy. Methods: This was a combined retrospective and prospective cohort study with caregivers of children younger than 16 years who had undergone a tracheostomy, had been discharged home with a tracheostomy tube and completed 6 months of domiciliary tracheostomy care. The consenting primary caregivers were assessed for their quality of life based on the PedsQL v 4.0 questionnaires across various domains. Results: We identified the primary caregivers of 85 children who had undergone a tracheostomy during the study period. The children's median age was 3.5 years (range, 9 months to 14 years). The mean caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL) score was 59.3, the mean family functioning score was 62.8, and the mean total family impact score was 54.7 with relative deficits seen in caregiver's social functioning (56.9) and emotional functioning (53.2). Good or average quality of physical and social function was seen among 74 % and 65 % of caregivers respectively while only 55 % were reported having good or average emotional function. Emotional disturbance, interfering with everyday family activities, and sleep disturbance were the major concerns among caregivers. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial consequences of caring for a child with a tracheostomy are profound for the family, affecting the quality of life of caregivers and adding to the emotional and social burden of the child's family. 

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From villain to hero: trans men and non-binary persons as care providers in Southern Europe

This article focuses on biographical narratives of trans men and non-binary people about care practices in the spheres of friendship and family. Recognising forms of resistance to adversity through informal networks of support, in this article, care provided by trans and non-binary people to (often) cisgender recipients is conceptualised as a heroic act. It is suggested that trans male and non-binary embodied experiences of care constitute a fundamental political platform to rethink sociologically concepts of care, masculinity and corporal dissidence within the framework of intimate citizenship in and beyond Southern Europe.

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Feeling called to care: a qualitative interview study on normativity in family caregivers' experiences in Dutch home settings in a palliative care context

Background: Family caregivers, such as partners or other family members, are highly important to people who desire to stay at home in the last phase of their life-limiting disease. Despite the much-investigated challenges of family caregiving for a patient from one's direct social network, lots of caregivers persevere. Objectives: To better understand why, we aimed to specify how normative elements - i.e. what is considered good or valuable - shape family caregivers' experiences in Dutch home settings. Methods: From September 2017 to February 2019, a total of 15 family caregivers, 13 bereaved family caregivers, and 9 patients participated in one-time in-depth interviews. The data were qualitatively analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: Central to this study is the persistent feeling of being called to care. By whom, why, and to what? Family caregivers feel called by the patient, professionals entering normal life, family and friends, or by oneself; because of normative elements of love, duty, or family dynamics; to be constantly available, attentive to the patient while ignoring their own needs, and assertive in managing the caring situation. The prospect of death within the palliative care context intensifies these mechanisms with a sense of urgency. Conclusions: Our analysis showed a difference between feeling called upon in the caring situation on the one hand, and how caregivers tend to respond to these calls on the other. Taking into account the inherent normative and complex nature of family caregiving, the pressing feeling of being called cannot - and perhaps should not - simply be resolved. Caring might be something families just find themselves in due to being related. Rather than in feeling called upon per se, the burden of care might lie in the seeming limitlessness to which people feel called, reinforced by (implicit) social expectations. Support, we argue, should enable caregivers to reflect on what norms and values guide their responses while acknowledging that caring, despite being burdensome, can be a highly important and rewarding part of the relationship between partners or family members.

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Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Background: The increase in the elderly population, chronic and degenerative diseases, as well as accidents at work and on the road in Malaysia would result in an increased demand for informal care. Objectives: This paper aimed to determine the associated factors of informal caregiving and its effects on health, work and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia. Methods: The data from the 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage stratified random sampling design, was used in this research. The study included respondents who were 18 years and older (n = 11,674). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results: 5.7% of the adult population were informal caregivers. Provision of informal care were significantly associated with the female sex (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.21, 1.92]), those aged 36–59 years (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.15, 2.25]), and those who reported illness in the past 2 weeks (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.33]). The risk of having their health affected were associated with female caregivers (OR = 3.63, 95% CI [1.73, 7.61]), those who received training (OR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.10, 4.00]) and those who provided care for 2 years or more (OR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.08, 3.37]). The factors associated with the effects on work were ethnicity, received training and had no assistance to provide the care. In terms of effect on social activities, female caregivers (OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.04, 3.69]) and caregivers who received training were more likely (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.22, 3.93]) to have their social activities affected. Conclusion: Our study revealed that sex, age, and self-reported illness were factors associated with being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. Informal caregivers faced effects on their health, work, and social activities which may be detrimental to their well-being. This understanding is crucial for planning support for caregivers.

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Psychological well-being and family distress of Italian caregivers during the COVID-19 outbreak

Objecives: The present study aimed to investigate the personal well-being and family distress of Italian caregivers during the lockdown. Methods: Five hundred sixty-five family caregivers and 638 age- and sex-matched noncaregivers completed a web-based survey. The following scales were administered to all participants: General Health Questionnaire-12 items (GHQ-12), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), and Family Distress Index (FDI). Caregivers were also asked to provide information about their family members with disabilities. Results: Individual and family distress, as well as insomnia, were significantly higher in caregivers than controls. Contrariwise, caregivers reported lower resilience levels. Multiple linear regression showed that distress was higher in caregivers living in Central and Southern Italy. Individual well-being was negatively predicted by low independence measured by the activities of daily living (ADL). Family distress was higher in households of psychiatric patients. Finally, low resilience levels appeared as the strongest predictors of both individual and family distress. Conclusions: The lockdown caused severe distress among caregivers and families of people with disabilities. Support networks for people with disabilities and their families are fundamental to prevent severe consequences from a psychological, social, and economical point of view.

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Known by the Children’s Condition: Associative Stigma Among Family Carers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Background: The experience of associative stigma (stigma that persons experience because they are associated with persons who belong to a stigmatized category in society) could have negative impacts on carers’ and children’s health and well-being. This descriptive qualitative study therefore focused on associative stigma among family carers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Methods: Using the convenience sampling technique, sixty-one family carers were purposively recruited to participate in the study. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted to collect data. With the permission of participants, the FGDs and IDIs were audio-recorded and transcribed. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that the carers of children with CP were stigmatized and discriminated against by family and non-family members. Evidence showed that myths and beliefs underpinned people’s negative attitudes toward carers included in the study. Moreover, the family carers utilized different strategies, such as avoidance, discounting, reacting, and accepting, to address associative stigma. Conclusions: Given that carers’ experiences of stigma and discrimination are often overlooked, family counseling and education could be provided to help challenge the negative perceptions and beliefs people have about the condition. This would help improve the well-being of carers, particularly mothers of children with cerebral palsy. 

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Stroke Rehabilitation Use and Caregiver Psychosocial Health Profiles in Singapore: A Latent Profile Transition Analysis

Objectives: To identify and describe caregiver profiles based on their psychosocial health characteristics over a 12-month period and transitions among these profiles, to determine if stroke rehabilitation use at 12 months post-stroke differed by caregiver profile transition patterns, and to investigate if caregiver profiles at 3 months post-stroke moderate the association of stroke rehabilitation use at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke after accounting for covariates. Methods: Latent profile transition analysis of caregiver psychosocial health with stroke rehabilitation use at 12 month post-stroke as outcome. Setting and Participants: A total of 149 stroke patient-caregiver dyads from the Singapore Stroke Study. Methods: Cross-sectional latent profile analyses were conducted on caregiver psychosocial health indicators of burden, depression, health status, quality of relationship with patient, and social support. Changes in latent profile classification over 3 time points (baseline, 3 months, and 12 months post-stroke) were analyzed using latent transition analysis. A transition model with stroke rehabilitation use at 12 months post-stroke as the outcome was tested after accounting for covariates. Results: Two distinct caregiver psychosocial health latent profiles were found across time: nondistressed and distressed. Most caregivers were classified as nondistressed and remained nondistressed over time. Distressed caregivers at baseline were 76% likely to become nondistressed at 12 month post-stroke. Regardless of profile transition patterns, nondistressed caregivers at 12 months post-stroke tended to have cared for stroke rehabilitation nonusers at 12 months post-stroke. Patient depression explained profile classification at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke. After accounting for covariates, rehabilitation users at 3 months post-stroke tended to continue using rehabilitation at 12 months post-stroke only when they had nondistressed caregivers at 3 months post-stroke. Conclusions and Implications: Whether caregiver adaptation explains the associations between the latent profile transition patterns and rehabilitation use at 12 months post-stroke should be examined. Early psychosocial health assessment and sustained support should be made available to stroke caregivers to enhance their well-being and subsequent patient rehabilitation participation. 

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Factor analysis of the Resilience Scale for Brazilian caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease

Background: Resilience is a dynamic process that acts to modify the effects of an adverse life event. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to test the construct validity of the Resilience Scale by employing exploratory and confirmatory procedures, and to investigate the relationship between caregiver's resilience and clinical status of people with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A sample of 143 dyads of people with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers were included. Results: The total Resilience Scale mean score was 140.3 (standard deviation [SD] = 16.289), ranging from 25 to 175, indicating a high level of resilience. Cronbach's alpha was high (alpha = 0.77), indicating excellent internal consistency. The mean of corrected item-total correlation coefficients was moderate. The Resilience Scale presented a four-factor solution with a well-defined structure: sense of life and self-sufficiency, perseverance, self-confidence and equanimity, and meaningfulness. Conclusion: The findings indicate excellent internal consistency of the Resilience Scale when used to evaluate psychological and emotional difficulties of caregivers, even though the correlations observed between the Resilience Scale and clinical variables were not significant for functionality, mood, awareness, neuropsychiatric symptoms, or burden.

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Exploring The Experiences Of Stroke Survivors, Informal Caregivers And Healthcare Providers In Sierra Leone: A Qualitative Study Protocol

Background: Stroke is now the second leading cause of adult death in Sub-Saharan Africa. Developed in dialogue with stroke survivors and caregivers in Sierra Leone, this will be the first study to explore the experience of stroke as well as the perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to accessing stroke care among stroke survivors, informal caregivers and healthcare providers. Findings will inform future stroke research and care in Sierra Leone. Methods and analysis: A cross-sectional qualitative study employing semistructured interviews that will be audiorecorded, translated, transcribed and coded. Setting: Freetown, Sierra Leone. Participants: Interviews with a purposive sample of stroke survivors, informal caregivers and healthcare providers. Analysis: Interviews will be coded by two authors and inductively analysed using thematic analysis. Ethics and dissemination: This study has received ethical approval from the Sierra Leone Ethics and Scientific Review Committee (8 December 2020) and the KCL Biomedical & Health Sciences, Dentistry, Medicine and Natural & Mathematical Sciences Research Ethics Subcommittee (reference: HR-20/21-21050). The findings of the study and learning in terms of the process of coproduction and involvement of stroke survivors will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conferences, media and lay reports.

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Supporting Informal Caregivers of People With Dementia in Cost-Effective Ways: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background and Objectives: Caring for persons with dementia is a heavy burden for informal caregivers. This study aimed to appraise the economic evidence of interventions supporting informal caregivers of people with dementia. Methods: Literature was searched, and trial-based studies evaluating the costs and effects of interventions supporting informal caregivers of people with dementia were included. Cost data were analyzed from both healthcare and societal perspectives. Random-effects models were used to synthesize cost and effect data, based on mean differences (MDs) or standardized MDs. Results: Of 33 eligible studies identified from 48 588 records, 14 (42.4%) showed net savings in total cost regardless of analytical perspectives. Among 22 studies included in meta-analyses, caregiver-focused psychosocial interventions showed improvements in caregivers’ psychological health (n = 4; standardized MD 0.240; 95% confidence interval 0.094-0.387); nevertheless, the increases in societal cost were significant (n = 5; MD 3144; 95% confidence interval 922-5366). Psychological intervention and behavioral management engaging patient-caregiver dyads showed positive effects on caregivers’ subjective burden, also with increases in total cost. Subgroup analyses indicated that the inclusion of different intervention components, the caregiver characteristics, and the follow-up periods could affect the costs and effects of interventions supporting informal caregivers. Conclusions: Psychosocial interventions directed at informal caregivers and dyad-based psychological and behavioral interventions are effective but also expensive. The use of these interventions depends on the society's willingness to pay. More comprehensive economic evidence of interventions supporting informal caregivers is required, and the design of intervention should focus more on different intervention components, characteristics of patients and caregivers, and healthcare systems. 

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Subjective burdens among informal caregivers of critically ill patients: a cross-sectional study in rural Shandong, China

Background: Informal caregivers are the main source of care for the critically ill, especially after discharge or during the terminal stages at home. However, the concern for informal caregivers is often overshadowed by critically ill patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of the subjective burden of informal caregivers and to seek solutions accordingly. Methods: Between July and August 2019, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Shandong, China, focusing on family caregivers and critically ill patients. Subjective caregiver burden was measured by the Chinese version of Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). The stress process model was used to identify conditions relevant to the caregiving burden and to assess their impact on family caregivers. Results: 554 samples were selected for analysis. The average scores of Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI) scores in this study was 30.37±19.04 (n=554). ZBI scores of older, less educated, and spouse caregivers were significantly lower (4.12; 95%CI, 0.42 to 7.81; P =0.029). Objective and subjective burdens increased proportionally. Secondary role stress factors included the higher out-of-pocket (OOP) costs of critical diseases and lower household income, both of which increased caregivers’ subjective burdens (1.28; 95%CI, -0.06 to 2.63; p=0.062). Formal medical aid systems played a positive role in reducing subjective caregiving burdens (-7.31; 95%CI, -13.23 to -1.40; p=0.016). Conclusions: Health policies should address both the direct medical burdens and the intangible psychological burdens of critical diseases. 

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Exploration of caregiver experiences of conservatively managed end‐stage kidney disease to inform development of a psychosocial intervention: The acorn study protocol

Background: End‐stage kidney disease (ESKD) is an overwhelming illness that impacts not just patients, but also their informal carers. Patients who opt for conservative management rather than dialysis experience difficult symptoms and the psychosocial consequences of their condition. Informal carers of patients who choose conservative management can also experience high levels of psychosocial burden, yet there is little guidance on how best to support informal carers, and no evidence on psychosocial interventions to address unmet needs.  Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the experiences and unmet needs of informal carers of patients with ESKD receiving conservative management in order to inform the development of a psychosocial intervention. Methods: This qualitative study will consist of three stages: (I) semi‐structured interviews with informal carers in England and Northern Ireland, (II) focus groups with healthcare professionals and informal carers, and (III) national workshops to refine the components of a psychosocial intervention. Discussion: Informal carers of patients with ESKD who are receiving conservative management experience a high psychosocial burden, but there is limited evidence on how best to provide support, particularly as the patient nears the end of life. To our knowledge this study will be the first to address this gap by exploring the experiences and unmet needs of informal carers, with the aim of informing the development of a psychosocial intervention to support the health and wellbeing of informal carers. 

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Family caregivers of people with dementia have poor sleep quality: A nationwide population-based study

Background: Previous studies have documented cognitive impairments, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in family caregivers of people with dementia (PWD), which could be attributed to their sleep disturbances. Notwithstanding the increasing recognition of poor sleep quality and sleep disturbances in family caregivers of PWD, their association has not been tested yet using population-representative samples. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using population-based data from the 2018 Korean Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, mental health-related, and physical health-related variables as well as sleep quality evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared between 2537 cohabitating caregivers of PWD, 8864 noncohabitat-ing caregivers of PWD, and 190,278 non-caregivers. Two sets of multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations between dementia caregiving and poor sleep quality in cohabitating and noncohabitating caregivers versus noncaregivers. Results: Both cohabitating and non-cohabitating caregivers had higher global PSQI scores and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality (PSQI score > 5) than did noncaregivers. Multivariable logistic regressions adjusted for potential confounders revealed that cohabitating caregivers (odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.38) and noncohabitating caregivers (OR 1.15, CI 1.10–1.21) were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Conclusions: Our results showed that both cohabitating and noncohabitating caregivers of PWD experienced overall poorer sleep quality compared to noncaregivers, indicating the deleterious effect of dementia caregiving on sleep quality, regardless of living arrangements. Given the high prevalence of poor sleep quality in family caregivers of PWD and the increasing awareness of the serious health consequences of poor-quality sleep, physicians should consider active sleep interventions to promote health and wellbeing not only for the dementia patients but also for family caregivers. 

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The Association of Positive or Negative Religious Coping Methods With Psychological Distress and Quality of Life Among Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether positive and negative religious coping methods were associated with psychological distress and quality of life in parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at a provincial hospital in Fujian, China. Clinical data from 115 parents of infants with CHD were collected. Chinese Sociodemographic Forms, Brief RCOPE, Beck Depression Interview (BDI), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used in this study. Results: The sex of caregivers in infants with CHD was an independent predictor of BDI scores. The positive religious coping score and the negative religious coping score were both independent predictors of the BDI score (beta = -5.365, P = 0.006 and beta = 4.812, p = 0.017). The correlation between the quality-of-life scores and positive or negative religious coping scores indicated that positive religious coping scores were significantly positively correlated with Vitality, Social Functioning, and Mental Health scores. There was a significant negative correlation between negative religious coping scores and mental health scores. Conclusions: Positive or negative religious coping methods may be associated with psychological distress and quality of life among parents of infants with CHD. It is suggested that more attention should be devoted to the influence of religious coping methods on parents of infants with CHD, and the use of religious resources should be encouraged.

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Perceptions and experiences of dementia and its care in rural Kenya

Objectives: We aimed to explore the perceptions towards dementia and related care across three stakeholder groups in rural Kenya. Methods: A total of 38 key stakeholders (carers of persons with dementia, health care providers and the general public) participated in focus group discussions. Additional five individual interviews were held with carers. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings: Across the three participant groups, a total of four themes were identified: (i) negative stereotypes of dementia, (ii) limited knowledge about dementia, (iii) diagnostic pathway and (iv) neglect and abuse. Conclusions: We found a general lack of knowledge of dementia amongst family carers, healthcare professionals and the general public. The combination of poor awareness and ill-equipped healthcare systems leads to stigma manifested in the form of patchy diagnostic pathways, neglect and abuse. Local governments could take advantage of the existing family- and community-based systems to improve understanding of dementia nationally. 

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Prevalence of perceived stigma and associated factors among primary caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study

Background: Mental illness exposes persons to stigma and this stigma also affects family caregivers of persons with mental illness. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of perceived stigma and associated factors among primary caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design and systematic random sampling technique were used to recruit 408 participants at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit-12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We collected the data by face-to-face interview. Devaluation of Consumer Families Scale was used to measure perceived stigma. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Oslo-3 social support scale were the instruments used to assess the factors. Coded variables were entered into Epidata V.3.1 and exported to SPSS V.21 for analysis. Binary logistic regression was used for analysis. Result: A total of 408 participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 96.5%. The magnitude of perceived stigma was 38.5% with 95% CI (33.6-43.1). Majority (68.6%) of the respondents were female. In the multivariate logistic regression, being mother (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.59, 4.91), absence of other caregiver (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.49), poor social support (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.59, 6.13), and symptoms of depression (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.88, 3.65) were factors significantly associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion: The prevalence of perceived stigma among primary caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness was high. Being mother, absence of other caregiver, poor social support, and symptoms of depression were factors significantly associated with perceived stigma.

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Resilience, emotional intelligence, and occupational performance in family members who are the caretakers of patients with dementia in spain: A cross-sectional, analytical, and descriptive study

Background: The concern in the scientific community for the study of people with dementia and their families is comprehensible, especially the importance of knowing the effects that caring for the patient has on their family dynamic, paying special attention to the main caregiver. Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of resilience and emotional intelligence with functional performance in the main caregivers of people with dementia in Spain according to the phase of the disease. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out. A total of 144 primary family caregivers of patients with dementia in Spain were included in the study. The following variables were measured: sociodemographic, psychosocial, and occupational, as well as resilience and emotional intelligence. Results: The caregivers obtained a low moderate resilience (mean = 64.01 ± 14.5), an emotional intelligence bordering between moderate and high (mean = 78.48 ± 14.82), and a 61.8% self-care categorized as somewhat and quite a bit. The presence of higher levels of resilience in family caregivers of people with dementia were positively related to the time spent on self-care (r = 0.227; p = 0.033) and leisure (r = 0.262; p = 0.014), especially in the moderate phase of the disease, while in the severe phase, this relationship appeared with productivity (r = 0.355; p = 0.034). The higher levels of emotional intelligence were positively related to a greater time dedicated to self-care (r = 0.233, p = 0.005), as well as the data observed in the moderate and severe phase (r = 0.214; p = 0.046 and r = 0.398; p = 0.016 respectively). Conclusions: The primary caregivers of relatives with dementia who have higher levels of resilience and emotional intelligence spend more time on self-care and leisure activities, especially in the moderate phase of the disease. 

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The role of subjective social status in living well for carers of people with dementia: findings from the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life programme

Background and Objectives: We investigated how carers of people with dementia evaluate their standing in their community and wider society, and if this is related to 'living well'. Methods: We used baseline data from the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life programme and found that carers rated their standing in society higher than in their local community. Results: Higher evaluations of both were associated with enhanced life satisfaction, well-being and quality of life. Conclusions: Initiatives that increase support or engagement in the community or wider society may help to increase carerss' perceptions of their social status, enhancing their ability to 'live well'.

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Effects of a social support family caregiver training program on changing blood pressure and lipid levels among elderly at risk of hypertension in a northern Thai community

Background: Hypertension is becoming increasingly prevalent among the elderly. Family caregivers play an important role in caring for elderly people and empowering them to care for themselves. Objectives: This study’s goal was to see how social support training for family caregivers affected changes in hypertension, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and how such support led to the prevention of hypertension behaviors among the elderly in rural areas. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with 268 elderly people at risk of hypertension and their caregivers. Sixty seven pairs of elderly people and their caregivers were assigned to the intervention and control groups. Baseline data were collected in November 2020. The intervention group received the Social Support Family Caregiver Training Program (SSFCTP), while the control group received a regular program from the local health authority. The activity lasted 12 weeks, with home visits and telephone check-ups along the way, and data collection took place after the program ended. The final data were collected three months after the end of the intervention. Results: An analysis of repeated measures ANOVA showed the overall effect of the SSFCTP on knowledge, self-efficacy, health care behaviors, and blood pressure among elderly people during three different time periods (p<0.05). Furthermore, the intervention program had a time-dependent effect on knowledge, blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels (p<0.05). In terms of caregiver outcomes, there was an overall difference among the degrees of knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors toward health care displayed by elderly hypertensive patients during the three different time periods (p<0.05). The average knowledge and self-efficacy of the participants improved after the intervention. As a result, better self-care behaviors and lower blood pressure and total cholesterol levels were observed among the elderly participants after the intervention. Conclusions: The programs emphasized the importance of caregivers’ roles in providing social support, boosting confidence, and encouraging participation in caring, monitoring, and assisting the elderly in controlling blood pressure and other health issues.

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Evaluation of Family Caregivers’ Use of Their Adult Care Recipient’s Patient Portal From the 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey: Secondary Analysis

Background: Patient engagement is critical for realizing the value of telehealth modalities such as the patient portal. Family caregiver engagement may also be critical for facilitating the use of the patient portal among adult patients, including older adults. Objective: This study aims to analyze the 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey to characterize family caregivers’ use of their care recipient’s patient portal in terms of sociodemographic, health, and caregiving characteristics and caregivers’ use of their own portal. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey 5 Cycle 3. This survey was administered to 5438 US adults between January and May 2019. We analyzed data from 320 respondents who were identified as family caregivers. We created measures to reflect family caregivers’ use of their care recipient’s and their own portal, caregiver demographic and caregiving characteristics, and care recipient health characteristics. Results: Over half of the caregivers (179/320, 55.9%) reported using their own portal at least once, whereas only one-third (105/320, 32.8%) reported using their care recipient’s record in the previous 12 months. Caregivers using their own portal were significantly more likely to use their care recipient’s portal (odds ratio 11.18; P<.001). Conclusions: Policies should enable patients to designate family caregivers who can access their patient portal. Providers could screen caregivers for challenges in their caregiving responsibilities that may be addressed through the portal so they can better support their adult relatives. Interventions to support family caregivers, especially older caregivers, in using their own portal may facilitate their use of their care recipient’s portal.

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Dyadic Research of Patients and Their Family Caregivers in the Context of Chronic Illness: Current Status and Challenges

Objectives: This narrative review aims to provide an introduction and overview of dyadic research within the context of chronic illness. In addition, some methodological considerations and future directions for conducting dyadic research are presented. Methods: The focus of this review is on adult participants in dyads and with chronic illness based on the previous studies and literatures on dyadic science. Results: Theory of Dyadic Illness Management and Dyadic Regulation-Connectivity Model (DR-CM) may be appropriate for performing dyadic research. At present, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the dyadic approach for research on chronic diseases. Dyadic health interventions for building collaborative relationships within a dyad may be beneficial to improve dyadic health outcomes. This article addressed some of the challenges regarding recruitment, data collection, and analysis when it comes to planning dyadic research pertaining to chronic illnesses. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals should prioritize needs and preferences at the dyadic level when designing effective chronic disease management. Particularly, it is critical to regularly monitor the dyadic relationships or type of dyadic care during illness trajectories. More research should be undertaken on patient-family caregiver dyads in chronic care, considering the various types of chronic diseases and cultural diversities. 

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Dual-duty caregivers: formal and informal care roles and their implications among nursing workers

Background: A nursing worker who is also a caregiver of an elderly family member, plays a dual-duty role, which is challenging and requires knowledge, skills and professional experience. The interaction between family and work entails a spillover between the two, and affects employees and healthcare organizations. Objectives: The current exploration study examined differences between nursing employees who hold a dual role and those who do not, while identifying implications of the dual-duty role and the correlations between them at the individual level that might negatively affect the organization. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted, including 158 staff members from nursing homes in Israel: 41.8% were also informal caregivers for elderly family members, 62.5% were women, and 79.2% were Arabs. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure workload, family-work conflict, absenteeism, tardiness, and intentions to leave the organization. Participants with a dual role tended to be older, had more children, had worked for longer period, and held part-time positions compared to those who do not. Results: Preliminary results showed no significant differences between the two groups. Pearson correlations revealed that workload and family-work conflict were positively associated with leaving intentions (dual-role caregivers: r=.30, p<.05, r=.45, p<.01; others: r=.61, p<.01, r=.34, p<.05). Among the dual-role group, workload was related to absenteeism (r=.27, p<.05), and family-work conflict was related to absenteeism and tardiness (r=.24, r=.29, p<.05). Among the other group, only family-work conflict was associated with tardiness (r=.33, p< .01). Conclusions: As negative consequences were indicated for workers with a dual-duty role, additional research in the healthcare sector should be conducted, leading to intervention programs for helping employees and organizations deal with the dual role and serving as the basis of policies and procedures. Key messages Nursing workers often suffer from workload and family-work conflict. Workload and family-work conflict among dual-duty caregivers might result in withdrawal behaviors (tardiness and absenteeism).

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Does Unpaid Caregiving Erode Working Hours Among Middle-Aged Chinese Adults?

Background: Middle-aged adults are commonly confronted with the burden of paid work and multiple caregiving roles. Objectives: This paper examines the relationship between weekly hours of unpaid caregiving and hours of work using data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Methods: The analysis was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 3645 working-age Chinese adults aged 45–60 years who were not farming and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, we combined the use of a Heckman selection procedure and instrumental variables to estimate the relationship between weekly caregiving hours and hours of work. A caregiving threshold was also identified for women and men separately to allow for the testing of a kink and/or a discontinuity in this relationship. Results: We found that for women, their working hours were initially unrelated to hours of caregiving before the threshold of 72 caregiving hours per week; then, their working hours experienced an almost two-fold increase at the caregiving threshold before falling by 2.02 percent for each additional hour of caregiving beyond the threshold. For men, their hours of work fell by 2.74 percent for each hourly increment in caregiving. Although a caregiving threshold of 112 h was identified for men, there was insufficient evidence for a statistically significant kink or discontinuity in this relationship. Conclusions: These findings provide support for a range of fiscal and human resource policies that target employed family caregivers in order to advance their well-being while also maintaining their work productivity.

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Determinants of the need for respite according to the characteristics of informal carers of elderly people at home: results from the 2015 French national survey

Background: The demographic and social changes associated with population aging and the increasing incidence of chronic diseases underscore the importance of the role of informal carers. The number of informal carers is increasing and negative consequences associated with providing care, such as burnout, are known. However the influence of socioeconomic and psychological factors on the need for respite have not been well characterized to date. Informal care represents an essential component of health care systems and long-term care. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the characteristics of informal carers affect the need for respite. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey, Capacités Aides et Resources des Seniors (CARE - ménage), collected in 2015 by the National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) and the Directorate for Research, Studies, Assessment and Statistics (DREES). The determinants of the need for respite among the characteristics of informal caregivers were explored using a probit model. To handle missing data, sensitivity analyses were performed using multiple imputations. Results: Our study included N = 4033 dyads of informal carers and care recipients. The mean age was 61 for carers. The majority of carers were female, married, the child of the care recipient. Almost 27% reported a need for respite. A worse health status, feeling of loneliness, having a lack of time for oneself and needing to provide more than 30 h of care per month very significantly increased the need for respite irrespective of whether or not the carer lived with the care recipient (p < 0.01). Providing care to other persons was likely to induce a greater need for respite (p < 0.01). Cohabitation of the informal carer and the care recipient was likely to increase the need for respite (p < 0.05). Conversely, however, being closely acquainted with the care recipient showed a reduced need for respite in comparison with that of carers who are married to their care recipient (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings provide useful information for policymakers, physicians and other health professionals for reducing carers’ risk of exhaustion and burnout and for referring carers to the relevant service, e.g. psychological intervention, respite care support, training support and education support. 

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Determinants of informal care‐giving in various social relationships in the Netherlands

Objectives: This study investigates determinants for offering help to family members, neighbours and friends, based on the Informal Care Model. Methods: We do so in pooled representative data for the Netherlands collected in 2014 and 2016 (persons >17 years, n = 13,165). Results: One‐third provides informal care to a person with health problems or impairments: partners (4%, n = 671), parents or children (16%, n = 2,381), distant relatives (6%, n = 858), friends or neighbours (6%, n = 839). Marginal effects show differences in the associations of care‐giving relationships with sociodemographic factors, barriers and beliefs. Helping a partner is related to age, gender (older people and men are more likely to help) and household composition (singles help less often). Care for close family is given often by 45–64 year olds, women, multiperson households and those with strong family beliefs. Helping second‐degree relatives correlates with age (young people help more often), barriers (those living with children help less often) and beliefs (people with professional background in care and people who attend church or mosque helping more often). Providing non‐kin care is associated with age and education level (young people less likely to help, people with a high education more likely), barriers (having a fulltime job) and beliefs (work experience in care, church or mosque attendance and norms). The supply of care to partners and close family is mainly associated with sociodemographic factors and barriers while the provision of care to distant family and non‐kin is also correlated with beliefs. Conclusions: If desirable policy is to create more informal care, investment in the combination of work and informal care, childcare and supportive arrangements for older community living couples is recommended. It also might be worthwhile to enhance beliefs about the usefulness of helping each other in times of need.

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Dementia caregiving in the Middle East and North Africa: A scoping review

Background: Care for persons with dementia in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is undertaken predominantly by family members, domestic workers, and private nurses within the home. Domestic caregivers possess different understandings and varying degrees of knowledge of dementia that are influenced by complex socio-cultural and religious factors. With much of the burden falling on the shoulders of “invisible” caregivers, the role and needs of these individuals require deeper scrutiny. Objective: The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the empirical studies published on caring for persons with dementia in Arab countries of the MENA region. Methods: Using a systematic review technique, searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar using database-specific terms associated with caregiving, dementia, aging, and the MENA region. To ensure local and regional research was captured, hand searches of regional journals, reference lists of included articles, and Arabic databases Al-Manhal and e-Marefa were also searched. No date restrictions were imposed. Results: Twenty studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: caregiving experiences and the burden of care; barriers to caregiving; and caregiver recommendations to improve care. Results demonstrate that studies about informal caregivers and dementia within Arab-Muslim populations are underrepresented in the research. Conclusions: This review highlights the paucity of literature on service users’ experiences and underscores the need for future research specific to dementia care within the Arab-Islamic sociocultural context. These trajectories are especially pertinent given the unprecedented aging demographics of the MENA populations. 

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Culturally adapted psychoeducation among family caregivers of schizophrenic clients: A scoping review

Background: As psychoeducation was originally developed from Western, this intervention should be integrated with a culture to obtain effective outcomes. However, how culturally adapted psychoeducation on family caregivers of schizophrenic client developed in the previous studies has not been systematically documented. Objective: The purpose of this review was to map culturally adapted psychoeducation in the previous studies. Methods: This scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley approach. Inclusion criteria including family caregiver, culture, psychoeducation, and schizophrenia. Non-primary and non-experiment studies, non-English language, and non-free articles were excluded from the study. Advanced search technique used keywords family caregiver, culture, psychoeducation, schizophrenia on CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases. Screening was done by checking duplication, title, and abstract. Full text of relevant articles was read in detail to select eligible articles. Selection results were described in the PRISMA flowchart. Data were analyzed after these were extracted and resumed on the table. Results: A total of eight studies were included in this review. More than half of articles used randomized control trial but these studies did not conduct follow-up. Most of studies were in Asia (6) and it conducted in the outpatient department (6). Almost all studies modified multifamily group psychoeducation with culture theories. The longest duration of intervention was 12 months. Multidiscipline health professional delivered the intervention and most of them were psychiatrist. Coping was the most family caregiver outcomes in reviewed studies. Conclusion: Limited studies were obtained in various ethnics and ways. Further studies need to measure effectiveness of the intervention in long-term effect. 

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The burden of Alzheimer’s caregivers and social support in the Tunisian family

Background: Alzheimer is a pathology that concers the patient and his family having a physical, social, economic and psychological impact. Research on family caregivers is still lacking and little is known about caregivers burden and ist associated factors in Tunisia. Objectives: The aim of this study were to describe caregiver burden among Tunisian family caregivers of patients with alzheimeŕs disease, its associated factors and ist relationship to social support. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 118 family caregivers during three months at the neurology outpatient departments of two university hospitals. Sahloul, Sousse and Taher Sfar, Mahdia. Using the Zarit Burden Interview-22 (ZBI)items and the Medical Outcome Study-Social Support Survey to assess burden and social support among the caregivers. Results: We included 118 caregivers of patients with Alzheimeŕs disease,with an average age of 45±15 years. Women were more predominant with a sex ratio of 0.57.Half of caregivers were the descent of patients. The Mean years of caregiving was 5±3 years with an average of 13 hours ±3 of care assistance per day. The mean ZBI Score was 38.4±18.5 and 16.1% of caregivers percived a severe burden. The mean ZBI Score was higher in female, retired, lowmsocio economic status and in rural area with a statistically significance difference. We found that caregiver burden and social support were highly correlated (p < 0.001,r=-0.41)indicating that a high level of caregiver burden was asoociated with a less level of social support. Conclusions: The level of burden in family caregivers who are caring for a patient with alzheimeŕs disease is high. A considerate help and support from helth care and social institutions is required by taking into account the factors that contribute to caregivers burden and considering the importance of social support in alleviating caregiver burden. Key messages: The level of burden in family caregivers who are caring for a patient with alzheimeŕs disease is high. High level of caregiver burden was asoociated with a less level of social support.

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Combining a variable‐centered and a person-centered analytical approach to caregiving burden – a holistic approach

Background: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often experience elevated levels of caregiving burden. However, existing studies tend to use a variable-centered approach to explore it. This study aims to understand the caregiving burden of informal caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore through a combination of variable-centered and person-centered analytical approaches, and explore the correlates of identified factors and latent classes of caregiving burden. Methods: Zarit Burden Interview was used to gauge the caregiving burden of 282 primary informal caregivers of persons with dementia recruited through convenience sampling in Singapore. Factor analysis and latent class analysis were conducted to identify the latent factors and the latent classes of Zarit Burden Interview, followed by multiple linear regression and multinomial logistic regression to explore their significant correlates. Results: The analyses suggested a 17-item 3-factor structure for Zarit burden interview and three mutually exclusive caregiving burden classes. Regression analyses found that caregiving related variables especially care recipients’ memory and behaviour problems were correlated with both the factors and latent classes of caregiving burden. Conclusions: The combination of these two approaches suggests that caregivers experiencing higher burden on one domain are likely to experience higher burden on the other two domains. This further supports the point that more attention should be given to caregivers who experience an overall high burden. Future research could explore the generalizability of our findings among caregivers elsewhere and explore the type of support needed by caregivers, especially those experiencing high burden. 

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Codesigning a supportive online resource for Australian cancer carers: A thematic analysis of informal carers' and healthcare professionals' perspectives about carers' responsibilities and content needs

Objective: To gather preliminary qualitative data that will assist in the codesign and development of a new informational and supportive website to assist informal cancer carers in Australia. Methods: Utilising a previously tested codesign process, informal carers' experiences and perspectives, including those of healthcare professionals', were examined via focus groups and/or interviews. Data were analysed via thematic analysis. Participants Rural (n=9) and urban (n=11) carers', and healthcare professionals' (n=8) perspectives were collected. Carers participated in a focus group (n=9) or telephone interview (n=11). Healthcare professionals completed an interview (n=6) or online survey (n=2). Results: Rural and urban carers typically felt ill prepared for their multitudinal caregiving responsibilities. Supporting patient-to-healthcare professional liaisons could especially challenge. Carers' biopsychosocial and fiscal strains were affected by patients' hardships and available informal supports. Rural carers described greater social support than urban carers. Both rural and urban carers also described discontentment related to a carer neglecting healthcare system. Both carers and healthcare professionals endorsed the need for a user-friendly, carer-specific website encompassing practical information and resources, peer-driven advice and evidence-based illness information, tailored to the Australian context. Conclusions: Carers and healthcare professionals recognise the pressing need for an Australian, cancer carer-specific online resource. Findings will inform the next phase, where a resource will be designed, developed and tested. 

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Characteristics of dyadic care types among patients living with multiple chronic conditions and their informal caregivers

Objectives: To examine the distribution of dyadic care types in multiple chronic conditions, compare self-care and caregiver contributions to patients' self-care in each care type and identify the patient and caregiver characteristics associated with each care type. Methods: Secondary analysis of a multicentre, cross-sectional study. Patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled from outpatient clinics and community settings. The Dyadic Symptom Management Type Scale was used to categorize dyads by type. Self-care, self-efficacy, comorbidities and cognitive impairment were measured in patients, whereas caregiver contributions to patient self-care, self-efficacy, caregiver burden and hours of caregiving were measured in caregivers. Sociodemographic characteristics perceived social support and mutuality were measured in both patients and caregivers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: A sample of 541 patient-caregiver dyads was examined. The most frequent dyadic care type was the collaborative-oriented (63%). In the patient-oriented type, patients scored higher on self-care compared with caregivers; in the caregiver-oriented and collaborative types, caregivers scored higher than patients supporting the typology. The patient-oriented type was associated with younger, healthier male patients with better cognitive status, who scored higher for mutuality and whose caregivers scored lower for burden. The caregiver-oriented type was associated with older, less educated patients, with caregivers experiencing higher burden and unemployment. The collaborative type was associated with sicker patients, with the caregiver more probably to be female and employed, with higher perceived social support, mutuality and burden. The incongruent dyadic care type was associated with lower caregiver mutuality. Conclusions: In the context of multiple chronic conditions, clinicians should consider targeting any educational interventions aimed at improving patient self-care and caregiver contributions to self-care by dyadic care types. 

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Ethnic differences in informal caregiving after stroke

Background: Informal (unpaid) caregiving usually provided by family is important poststroke. We studied whether the prevalence of informal caregiving after stroke differs between Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Methods: Between October 2014 and December 2018, participants in the BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) project in Nueces County, Texas, were interviewed 90 days after stroke to determine which activities of daily living they required help with and whether family provided informal caregiving. Ethnic differences between MAs and NHWs were determined by logistic regression. The logistic models were stratified by formal (paid) care status. Odds ratios (95% CIs) are reported with NHW as the referent group. Fisher exact tests were used to assess the association of ethnicity with relationship of caregiver and with individual activities of daily living. Results: Eight hundred thirty-one patients answered the caregiving questions. Of these, 242 (29%) received family caregiving (33% of MAs and 23% of NHWs), and 142 (17%) received paid caregiving (21% of MAs and 10% of NHWs). There were no ethnic differences in stroke severity. In logistic regression analyses, among those without formal, paid care, MAs were more likely to have informal caregiving (odds ratio, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.12–2.73]) adjusted for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, prestroke modified Rankin Scale, and insurance. No ethnic differences in informal care were found among those who had formal care. There were no differences between ethnic groups in which family members provided the informal care. MAs were more likely to require help compared with NHWs for walking (P<0.0001), bathing (P<0.0001), hygiene (P=0.0012), eating (P=0.0004), dressing (P<0.0001), ambulating (P=0.0304), and toileting (P=0.0003). Conclusions: MAs required more help poststroke than NHWs for assistance with activities of daily living. MAs received more help for activities of daily living through informal, unpaid caregiving than NHWs if they were not also receiving formal, paid care. Efforts to help minority and low-resource populations provide stroke care are needed. 

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Ethical challenges in end-stage dementia: Perspectives of professionals and family care-givers

Background: In Israel, caring for people with end-stage dementia confined to home is mainly done by home care units, and in some cases by home hospice units, an alternative palliative-care service. Because life expectancy is relatively unknown, and the patient’s decision-making ability is poor, caring for this unique population raises ethical dilemmas regarding when to define the disease as having reached a terminal stage, as well as choosing between palliative and life-prolonging-oriented care. Objectives: Exploring and describing differences and similarities of professional staff members’ (PSMs’) and family caregivers’ perceptions of caring for people with end-stage dementia in two different settings. Methods: Qualitative research, using semi-structured interviews analyzed through a thematic content–analysis approach. Participants: Sixty-four interviews were conducted (24 PSMs and 40 family caregivers) in two care-settings—home hospice unit and home care unit. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee (BBL00118-17). Findings: We found dilemmas regarding palliative care to be the main theme, including definition of the disease as terminal, choosing “comfort” over “life-prolonging,” clarifying patients’ wishes and deciding whether or not to use artificial feeding. Discussion: Both PSMs and family caregivers deal with ethical dilemmas and have reached different conclusions, both legitimate. Comprehending dementia as a terminal disease influenced participants’ perceptions of the relevancy of palliative care for people with end-stage dementia. Discrepancies between PSMs and family caregivers in caring for people with end-stage dementia were found in both home hospice unit and home care unit environments, raising potential conflicts regarding decisions for end-of-life care. Conclusions: Communication between PSMs and family caregivers is crucial for the discussion about the discrepancies regarding the unique dilemmas of caring for people with end-stage dementia and bridging the gap between them. Lack of communication and resources can hamper the provision of an acceptable solution for quality and equality of care in the best interest of people with end-stage dementia.

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Humanistic and socioeconomic burden of COPD patients and their caregivers in Malaysia

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with substantial humanistic and socioeconomic burden on patients and their caregivers. COPD is expected to be 7th leading cause of disease burden till 2030. Objectives: The objective of the current study was to assess the humanistic and socioeconomic burden of COPD patients and their caregivers in Malaysia. The burden includes the cost of management of COPD, QOL of COPD patients and their caregivers, work productivity and activity impairment of COPD patients and their caregivers due to COPD. Methods: One hundred and fifty COPD patients and their caregivers from the chest clinic of Penang Hospital were included in the study from August 2018 to August 2019. Caregiving cost was estimated using the replacement cost approach, while humanistic and social burden was assessed with the help of health status questionnaires. Results: Overall, 64.66% and 7.1% of COPD patients reported to depend on informal caregivers and professional caregivers respectively. COPD patients reported dyspnoea score as 2.31 (1.31), EQ-5D-5L utility index 0.57 (0.23), CCI 2.3 (1.4), SGRQ-C 49.23 (18.61), productivity loss 31.87% and activity impairment 17.42%. Caregivers reported dyspnoea score as 0.72 (0.14), EQ-5D-5L utility index 0.57 (0.23), productivity loss 7.19% and social activity limitation as 21.63% due to taking care of COPD patients. Conclusions: In addition to the huge direct cost of management, COPD is also associated with substantial burden on society in terms of compromised quality of life, reduced efficiency at the workplace, activity impairment and caregiver burden. 

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Challenges to Family Caregivers in Caring for Gastric Cancer Patients from Perspectives of Family Caregivers, Patients, and Healthcare Providers: A Qualitative Study

Objectives: Cancer affects both patients and their families. Sometimes, the effects of cancer on families are greater than its effects on patients. Family caregivers play significant roles in care for patients with cancer. Nonetheless, the data on the challenges they face in caregiving are limited. The present study explored the perspectives of patients with gastric cancer (GC), their family caregivers, and healthcare providers regarding family caregivers' challenges in caregiving to patients with GC. Methods: This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was conducted in 2019-2020. Six GC patients, six family caregivers, three physicians, and five nurses took part for a total of twenty participants. Purposive sampling was performed, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and continued up to data saturation. Conventional content analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Caregivers' challenges in caregiving to patients with GC were grouped into five main categories, namely, lengthy process of GC diagnosis, delivery of bad news, management of physical symptoms, altered relationships, and psychological consequences, and 14 subcategories. Conclusion: Educating the public about the primary symptoms of GC and the importance of timely seeking medical care as well as using culturally appropriate protocols for delivering bad news is recommended. Empowering family caregivers for the effective management of GC symptoms and caregiving-related challenges are also recommended to reduce their caregiver burden. 

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Caring for persons with drug use disorders in the Yangon Region, Myanmar: Socioeconomic and psychological burden, coping strategies and barriers to coping

Background: Drug use disorder (DUD) is a serious health condition that imposes a heavy burden on the persons who have a drug addiction experience and their families, especially in countries, such as Myanmar, where few formal support mechanisms are in place and repressive drug laws exacerbate the situation. Yet, in Myanmar, little is known about how informal caregivers are affected. Objectives: This qualitative study aims at exploring the socioeconomic and psychological burden that informal caregivers in Myanmar encounter, coping strategies they employ, as well as barriers to coping they face. Methods: Thirty primary informal caregivers were chosen purposively from a mental health hospital in Yangon for in-depth interviews. The recorded interviews were transcribed and the data were analysed using framework analysis. Findings: The results revealed that financial constraint, income loss, social limitation and negative impact on family cohesion are important dimensions of socioeconomic burden, whereas sadness, anger, helplessness, worry, fear and guilt are the main psychological distress factors encountered by caregivers of persons with DUD. Key coping strategies employed by caregivers include religious coping, financial coping, acceptance and planning. Moreover, perceived stigma towards persons with DUD and their caregivers was very high and caregivers received hardly any social support, inter alia because of the country's drug law which reinforces stigma and discrimination. Neither the government nor any other organization in Myanmar provided financial support to the caregivers. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that caring for persons with DUD has devastating effects on caregivers and their families. While the 2018 National Drug Control Policy can potentially help alleviate the burden on substance users and their families, further amendments of the existing drug law are urgently needed. Moreover, strengthening prevention and harm reduction approaches, improving treatment and rehabilitation services, as well as stigma-reducing educational campaigns should be considered a priority. 

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Caregiving Role and Psychosocial and Individual Factors: A Systematic Review

Background: Taking care of a person with a physical disability can become a challenge for caregivers as they must combine the task of caring with their personal and daily needs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact that taking care of a person who needs support has on caregivers and to analyze certain characteristics they present, such as self-esteem and resilience. Methods: To that end, a bibliographic review was carried out from 1985, when the first article of taking care of a person who needs support was published, to 2020 (inclusive), in the databases of Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, Pubmed, Eric, Psycinfo, and Embase. Results: The search yielded a total of (n = 37) articles subject to review, following the guidelines established in the PRISMA declaration. Conclusions: The results show that caregiving was highly overburdening and negatively affected the physical condition and the psychological and mental states of caregivers. In addition, certain psychological characteristics present in caregivers such as having high self-esteem and being resilient were found to act as protective factors against the caregiving burden.

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Caregiving Across Cultures: Priority Areas for Research, Policy, and Practice to Support Family Caregivers of Older Asian Immigrants

Background: About 4.6 million older adults (aged 60 years and older) in the United States are foreign born, and Asian Americans are projected to become the largest immigrant group in the United States by 2055. Older Asian immigrants have to navigate new sociocultural contexts, including relationships with health care providers, dietary recommendations and adjustments, and care-seeking norms. They may also experience structural challenges, such as discrimination in the health care system because of race, ancestry, and language. These adults often require assistance from unpaid family caregivers (e.g., adult children)-with whom they are also likely to reside-to navigate these sociocultural complexities and barriers in the health care system. Yet, our understanding of the experiences and challenges of family caregivers of older Asian immigrants remains limited despite their unique circumstances as children of immigrants who are simultaneously balancing and navigating multiple cultural identities of their own while often being viewed as perpetual foreigners or outsiders to US culture. Immigration history and experiences likely also influence the use of formal services. Minority family caregivers are less likely than White caregivers to use formal support services (e.g., mental health treatment), suggesting that they may face additional burdens and barriers in the process of supporting their older relative in the health care system. Identifying ways to better support family caregivers as they care for their immigrant older relatives is critical for promoting inclusion in the health care system. This requires concerted research on Asian American caregivers and their experiences and challenges in their role supporting older relatives with household, daily functioning, and health care activities as well as navigating sociocultural aspects of care. It also requires recognition and consideration of the diversity of experiences and challenges faced by Asian American families, including heterogenous Asian ethnic subgroups with distinct cultures, languages, needs, and preferences.

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Caregiver Burden in Caregivers of Acute Stroke Patients: From a Biopsychosocial Perspective in a Turkey Sample

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate caregiver burden among caregivers of acute stroke patients with a biopsychosocial perspective in a Turkey sample. Methods: 72 stroke patients and 72 their caregivers were included the study. The mean age of the stroke patients included in the study was 65 +/- 12.39. The mean age of caregivers was 44.5 +/- 14 and 66.7% of them were females. Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and The Barthel Index (BI) were used to assess the patients with stroke. The caregivers were evaluated by using the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale, Family Sense of Coherence Scale-Short Form (FSOC-S), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), WHOQOL-Bref-Short Form and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: There were significant positive correlation between the BCOS score and the SMMSE (r=0.36; p=0.002) and BI (r=0.22; p=0.05) scores. A significant positive correlation was found between the BCOS score and MSPSS's family (r=0.31; p=0.007), friend (r=0.41; p<0.01) and special human (r=0.46; p<0.01) sub-parameters. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between BCOS score and the physical (r=0.35; p=0.02) and environmental (r=0.42; p<0.01) sub-dimensions of the WHOQOL-BREF, also HADS Depression sub-score (r=0.93; p=0.01). Correlations between BCOS score and patients' age, MMAS, FSOC-S, scores and HAD Anxiety sub-score were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The cognitive function and independence level of the patients is associated with care burden. Furthermore, psychosocial features such as poor social functioning, quality of life and emotional health of caregiver have adverse effects on caregiver burden.

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Informal caregivers of older Muslims diagnosed with cancer: A portrait of depression, social support, and faith

Objective: Islamic population constitute more than 20% of the world population and is growing rapidly. Nevertheless, data concerning informal caregiving to older Muslim patients diagnosed with cancer are scarce. Improving the well-being of caregivers is a vital step to optimal care for the patients themselves throughout the Muslim community and the world. This study focuses on a sample of Palestinian caregivers of older Muslim patients diagnosed with cancer living in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza. The study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the caregivers and to understand their social support, and identify predictors of caregivers’ depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 99 dyads of Palestinian patients (age ≥65) and their informal caregivers. Depression and social support were measured using the five items of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Cancer Perceived Agents of Social Support questionnaire. Results: Caregivers were most frequently adult children (52%) or spouses (32%), with male patients cared for by spouses (47.5%) or sons (32%), and female patients by daughters (50%). Clinical levels of depression were reported by 76% of the caregivers and 85% of patients. The significant predictors of caregiver depression were female gender, lower education, lower perceived social support from spouse and family, and higher perceived support from faith. Significance of results: Healthcare providers serving the study population should determine the position and role of the caregiver within the social and family structure surrounding the patients’ families. This understanding may facilitate overcoming barriers to effective and meaningful social support.

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Older adults with chronic illness – Caregiver burden in the Asian context: A systematic review

Background: Upsurge in life expectancy, filial responsibility of caring, and healthcare advances have increased the older adult population in Asia. The last decade has witnessed nuclear families' proliferation in Asia, leaving family caregivers with more accountability and responsibility. This review explores the pattern of caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults with chronic illness in Asia. Methods: PRISMA guidelines serves as the framework for this systematic review. Studies from selected databases assessed caregivers' physical state, psychological dysfunction, and or burden as an outcome measure. The Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale appraised the quality of the selected studies. Results: The review included 12 research articles. Caregivers consistently report mild to a moderate burden. Care recipient with functional dependency, comorbidities, memory, and sleep impairments, escalate caregiver burden. Caregiver variables intensifying burden were advancing age, male gender, spouse as a care recipient, longer care provision duration, and no assistance. Conclusion: Optimal levels of emotional well-being, significant family/social support, and self-preparedness among caregivers are grounds for their empowerment. Practical Implications: A paradigm shift from 'caregiver burden' to 'caregiver resilience' is advocated. Routine screening, preventive measures (skill-building and psychosocial empowerment), and restorative services (respite care and problem-based home visiting) for caregivers are forecasted. 

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What motivates informal carers to be actively involved in research, and what obstacles to involvement do they perceive?

Background: Due to demographic changes and a strained public sector operating in many countries globally, informal care is increasing. Currently, at least 1.3 million adults in Sweden regularly provide help, support and/or care to a family member/significant other. With no sign of an imminent decrease in their caring activities, it is important that informal carers are considered as a key stakeholder group within research that affects them, e.g., the co-design of carer and/or dyadic support interventions. The objective of this descriptive, quantitative study was to investigate informal carers’ perceived motivations and obstacles to become involved in research. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted, using first-wave data from a panel study. The data, collected in Sweden between September 2019 and March 2020, included survey responses from 147 informal carers who were either aged 60+ years themselves or were caring for someone who was aged 60+ years. Results: Our main results showed that informal carers are, in general, interested in research. Slightly fewer were interested in becoming actively involved themselves, but older age was the only characteristic significantly associated with less interest of being actively involved. Two latent motivational dimensions emerged from the factor analysis: ‘family motivation’ and ‘the greater good motivation’. These, according to our results, almost equally valued dimensions, described the differing reasons for informal carers to become involved in research. The most common perceived obstacle was lack of time and it was reported by more women than men. Conclusion: Our study contributes with new knowledge of informal carers’ perceived motivations and obstacles regarding carer involvement in research. Paying attention to the differing motivational dimensions held by informal carers could help researchers create conditions for more inclusive and systematic participation of informal carers within research. Thereby, increasing the opportunities for research that is deemed to be of higher societal impact. IRRID (International Registered Report Identifier): RR2-10.2196/17759.

 

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Caregiver burden among family caregivers of incurable cancer patients in two eastern Mediterranean countries

Background: Although family caregivers (FCs) play an important role in the care provided to incurable cancer patients in our region, little is known about the burden they experience. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of caregiver burden (CB) among FCs of incurable cancer patients in two Eastern Mediterranean countries and to identify factors that may be associated with significant CB. Methods: The study included 218 FCs, 165 from Egypt and 53 from Saudi Arabia. The 22-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-22) was used to assess caregiver burden CB. Significant CB was defined as a ZBI-22 score ≥ 21. The assistance with basic ADLs was classified into 3 levels according to FCs’ assistance with early/middle/late-loss basic ADLs. The relationship between CB and the assistance with ADLs and other factors was studied. Results: The mean (SD) ZBI-22 score among FCs was 23.4 (9.3) and the majority (128/218, 59%) had significant CB. Eighty-nine percent of FCs assisted with at least one basic ADL. Assistance with late-loss basic ADLs, best supportive care treatment plan and poorer performance status were associated with higher CB (p < 0.0001, =0.018 and = 0.005). However, in logistic regression analysis, only assistance with late-loss ADLs was independently associated with significant CB (OR = 3.4 [95%CI:1.2–9.7], p = 0.024). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of FCs of incurable cancer patients in our region experience significant CB. Family caregivers assisting with late-loss basic ADLs are at risk of significant CB and should be routinely screened for CB. 

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Care needs of dying patients and their family caregivers in hospice and palliative care in mainland China: A meta-synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies

Objective: To investigate the care needs of dying patients and their family caregivers in hospice and palliative care in mainland China. Methods: A search for English and Chinese quantitative and qualitative studies was performed using the following English databases: PubMed (Medline), CINAHL and PsycINFO, as well as Chinese databases: SinoMed and CNKI. The records were independently screened by two reviewers and critiqued using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools. All quantitative data were transformed into qualitative data, which were converted into textual descriptions. Due to the diversity of included studies, a three-step analysis was performed: Narrative summary, thematic analysis and presentation of integrated results in a narrative form. The qualitative findings were pooled using the meta-aggregation approach. Results: The literature search identified 2964 papers after removing duplicates, from which 18 were included (9 quantitative and 9 qualitative studies). All studies were conducted in mainland China. Quantitative studies involved cross-sectional surveys, and qualitative studies involved interviews for data collection. Two synthesised results of patients' needs were identified, including needs to be comfortable and experience a good death. Another two synthesised results of family caregivers' needs included needs to care for and improve the quality of life of patients, and to care for themselves well. Conclusions: This study identified that patients and family caregivers have an increasing demand for professional care at the end of life. Professionals, especially nurses, should enact a patients' demand-centred practice to overcome the challenges of organisation, education, emotion and communication to provide high-quality end-of-life care. 

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Understanding the Implications of Peer Support for Families of Children With Neurodevelopmental and Intellectual Disabilities: A Scoping Review

Background: Families are integrally involved in day-to-day caregiving of children with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disabilities (NDID). Given the widespread and increasing prevalence of children with NDID and the impact of family caregiving on psychological, social, and economic implications for both the child and family, understanding and supporting these families is an important public health concern. Objective: We conducted a scoping review on peer support networks to understand their implications on families. Considering increasing prevalence of NDID's, understanding the implications of existing networks is critical to improve and nurture future support networks that can complement and reduce the burden on existing formal support systems. Methods: A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted. Articles were screened by two reviewers and any disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. We explored existing research on parent-to-parent peer support networks, which included networks that developed informally as well as those that involved a formal facilitator for the group interpersonal processes. There were no limits on the study design, date and setting of the articles. We included all research studies in English that included an identifier for (i) “peer support networks,” (ii) “children with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disabilities” and (iii) “family caregiver outcomes.” Results: We identified 36 articles. Majority of the studies were conducted in North America, and were face to face networks. They included families of children with a wide range of NDIDs. Relevant information extracted from different studies highlighted peer support network characteristics and development process, needs of family caregivers attending these networks, factors affecting caregiver participation and the impact of peer support networks on family caregivers. These networks represent a way to strengthen family caregivers, developing resilience and social interactions. Family caregivers sharing similar experiences support one another and provide critical information to each other. Although results are encouraging, future studies incorporating improved study designs are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of peer support networks. Furthermore, studies where peer support networks develop organically while the child is supported are warranted. Conclusion: Although results obtained are encouraging, our findings support the need for further research studies of peer support networks with better designs and more detailed description of the factors involved in the development. 

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Understanding context: A qualitative analysis of the roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer in Vietnam and the implications for service development in low‐income settings

Objectives: Research on the needs of family caregivers of people living with cancer remains disproportionately focused in high income contexts. This research gap adds to the critical challenge on global equitable delivery of cancer care. This study describes the roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer in Vietnam and possible implications for intervention development. Methods: Semi‐structured interviews and focus groups with family caregivers (n = 20) and health care providers (n = 22) were conducted in two national oncology hospitals. Findings were verified via workshops with carers (n = 11) and health care professionals (n = 28) in five oncology hospitals representing different regions of Vietnam. Data was analyzed collaboratively by an international team of researchers according to thematic analysis. Results: Family caregivers in Vietnam provide an integral role in the delivery of inpatient cancer care. In the hospital environment families are responsible for multiple roles including feeding, hydration, changing, washing, moving, wound care and security of personal belongings. Central to this role is primary decision making in terms of treatment and end‐of‐life care; relaying information, providing nutritional, emotional and financial support. Families are forced to manage severe complications and health care needs with minimal health literacy and limited health care professional input. Conclusions: Understanding context and the unique roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer is critical in the development of supportive services. As psycho‐oncology develops in low and middle income contexts, it is essential that family caregiver roles are of significant importance.

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Understanding context: A qualitative analysis of the roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer in Vietnam and the implications for service development in low‐income settings

Objectives: Research on the needs of family caregivers of people living with cancer remains disproportionately focused in high income contexts. This research gap adds to the critical challenge on global equitable delivery of cancer care. This study describes the roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer in Vietnam and possible implications for intervention development. Methods: Semi‐structured interviews and focus groups with family caregivers (n = 20) and health care providers (n = 22) were conducted in two national oncology hospitals. Findings were verified via workshops with carers (n = 11) and health care professionals (n = 28) in five oncology hospitals representing different regions of Vietnam. Data was analyzed collaboratively by an international team of researchers according to thematic analysis. Results: Family caregivers in Vietnam provide an integral role in the delivery of inpatient cancer care. In the hospital environment families are responsible for multiple roles including feeding, hydration, changing, washing, moving, wound care and security of personal belongings. Central to this role is primary decision making in terms of treatment and end‐of‐life care; relaying information, providing nutritional, emotional and financial support. Families are forced to manage severe complications and health care needs with minimal health literacy and limited health care professional input. Conclusions: Understanding context and the unique roles of family caregivers of people living with cancer is critical in the development of supportive services. As psycho‐oncology develops in low and middle income contexts, it is essential that family caregiver roles are of significant importance.

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Use of antidepressants among Finnish family caregivers: a nationwide register-based study

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of antidepressants over 6 years between family caregivers providing high-intensity care and a matched control population using register-based data. Methods: The study includes all individuals, who received family caregiver’s allowance in Finland in 2012 (n = 29,846 females, mean age 66 years; n = 12,410 males, mean age 71 years) and a control population matched for age, sex, and municipality of residence (n = 59,141 females; n = 24,477 males). Information on purchases of antidepressants, including the number of defined daily doses (DDD) purchased, between 2012 and 2017 was obtained from the national drugs reimbursement register. Results: During the follow-up, 28.5% of female caregivers and 23.5% of the female controls used antidepressants, while the numbers for males were 21.1% and 16.4%, respectively. Adjusted for socioeconomic status, female caregivers used 43.7 (95% confidence interval 42.4–45.0) and their controls used 36.2 (35.3–37.2) DDDs of antidepressants per person-year. Male caregivers used 29.6 (27.6–31.6) and their controls used 21.6 (20.2–23.0) DDDs of antidepressants per person-year. Among female caregivers, the relative risk for use of antidepressants was similar (about 1.3) from 20 to 70 years, after which the relative risk declined. In male caregivers, the relative risk was highest (about 1.4–1.5) between 45 and 65 years. Conclusions: Family caregivers providing high-intensity care use more antidepressants and hence, are likely to have poorer mental health than the age-matched general population in virtually all age groups. However, the magnitude of the higher use varies as a function of age and gender. 

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Care for caregivers- a mission for primary care

Background: The number of elderly people living in the community who are limited in daily activities is increasing worldwide. This generates prolonged care, which usually falls on one family member, the family caregiver. Caregivers are prone to develop psychosocial and physical symptoms. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a clear directive to assess and support these caregivers. Objectives: The main goals of this study were to assess primary care physicians’ (PCP) awareness to caregivers’ health risks and the extent that they recommended preventive measures to maintain the health of the caregivers. As no suitable instrument existed, a secondary goal was to develop a scale to measure physicians’ awareness to caregivers’ health and preventive treatment and test it’s psychometric properties. Methods: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 201 PCP interviewed with structured questionnaires. Results: The participants’ mean age was 48.5 ± 11.2 years and 53.5% were female. Only 48.5% were Israel medical graduates and 72% were board-certified family physicians. Nearly 34% had been primary caregivers of family members. Most physicians (83.6%) were aware of the primary caregiver’s high-risk for morbidity and mortality, and recommended preventive care. On a multivariate regression, PCP's higher level of risk awareness, their country of medical school and board certification were significant for explaining recommendations for preventive care. However, being a primary caregiver for a sick family member neither contributed significantly to the physicians’ awareness to caregiving risks nor to their preventive care. Conclusion: Although a high percentage of physicians were aware and concerned about caregivers’ health, their preventive care activities were relatively passive. PCPs should take a more active and preventive role for maintaining caregivers’ health. 

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Burden of informal care in stroke survivors and its determinants: a prospective observational study in an Asian setting

Background: Informal caregiving is an integral part of post-stroke recovery with strenuous caregiving demands often resulting in caregiving burden, threatening sustainability of caregiving and potentially impacting stroke survivor’s outcomes. Objectives: Our study aimed to examine and quantify objective and subjective informal care burden after stroke; and to explore the factors associated with informal care burden in Singapore. Methods: Stroke patients and their informal caregivers were recruited from all five tertiary hospitals in Singapore from December 2010 to September 2013. Informal care comprised of assistance provided by informal caregivers with any of the activities of daily living. Informal care burden was measured by patients’ likelihood of requiring informal care, hours of informal care required, and informal caregivers’ Zarit’s Burden Score. We examined informal care burden at 3-months and 12-months post-stroke. Generalized linear regressions were applied with control variables including patients’ and informal caregivers’ demographic characteristics, arrangement of informal care, and patients’ health status including stroke severity (measured using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale), functional status (measured using Modified Rankin Scale), self-reported depression, and common comorbidities. Results: Three hundred and five patients and 263 patients were examined at 3-months and 12-months. Around 35% were female and 60% were Chinese. Sixty three percent and 49% of the patients required informal care at 3-months and 12-months point, respectively. Among those who required informal care, average hours required per week were 64.3 h at 3-months and 76.6 h at 12-months point. Patients with higher functional dependency were more likely to require informal care at both time points, and required more hours of informal care at 3-months point. Female informal caregivers and those caring for patients with higher functional dependency reported higher Zarit’s Burden. While informal caregivers who worked full-time reported higher burden, those caring for married stroke patients reported lower burden at 3-months point. Informal caregivers who co-cared with foreign domestic workers, i.e.: stay-in migrant female waged domestic workers, reported lower burden. Conclusions: Informal care burden remains high up to 12-months post-stroke. Factors such as functional dependency, stroke severity, informal caregiver gender and co-caring with foreign domestic workers were associated with informal care burden.

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Adaptation and learning processes of stroke survivors and family carers: a scoping review

Background: Knowledge on the processes of adaptation and learning after stroke are scarce, hindering the development of evidence-based public health strategies to promote survivors and family carers' health and wellbeing, across the post stroke trajectory. Objectives: This study aims to assess the available evidence on the processes of adaptation and learning after stroke, by mapping the main barriers and enablers according to the perspectives of stroke survivors and family carers. Methods: A scoping review was performed, following PRISMA-ScR guidelines. The electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO and SciELO were searched for empirical, peer-reviewed, original, and full-length studies on the processes of adaptation and learning of stroke survivors and family carers, in March 2021. Eligibility and data extraction were conducted by two independent researchers. The main qualitative data were explored by thematic content analysis and quantitative findings were synthesized. Results: The included studies, 29 qualitative and 1 quantitative, were published between 1994 and 2019. Most of the studies were carried out with small samples and without a specific focus on the adaptation and learning processes after stroke. Barriers and enablers to stroke adaptation and learning processes were influenced by physical, psychological and social characteristics. The poor physical and functional status of survivors, the inability to maintaining the Activities of Daily Living, emotional disturbances, lack of support and information, and changes in roles, were identify as main barriers to stroke adaptation. Using coping strategies and having psychological, educational, and financial support were described as enablers. Conclusions: Public health policies and practices should consider the physical, psychological and social barriers and enablers to the stroke adaptation and learning processes to ensure a high-quality long-term care centred on survivors and family carers. Key messages: Robust theoretical and methodological studies, specifically designed to deeply explore and describe the post stroke adaptation and learning processes, are needed. Understand the main barriers and enablers to adaptation and learning after stroke may be useful for developing health education interventions centred on survivors and carers preferences and needs.

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Are informal family caregivers stigmatized differently based on their gender or employment status?: a German study on public stigma towards informal long-term caregivers of older individuals

Background: Stigma and informal caregiving are determinants for health and wellbeing, but few studies have examined stigma towards informal caregiving. Public stigma may be expressed differently towards caregivers depending on their gender and employment status due to societal norms. Therefore, this study analyzes if there is a difference in public stigma shown by the general population toward informal caregivers of care recipients aged 65 years or older based on the observed caregiver’s gender or working status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Germany. Data from 1038 adult participants from the general population in Germany were assessed with an Online-Survey. They were recruited with a quota-system based on the German micro census. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 16 vignettes describing a caregiving situation, which varied in the caregiver’s gender and working status, and care recipient’s gender and type of impairment. After reading the vignette, they were asked to provide sociodemographic information and complete three questionnaires on public stigma assessing their emotional (Emotional Reactions), behavioral (Social Distance) and cognitive reaction (Statements on informal caregivers) to the caregiver described in the vignette. Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic data of the participants, were conducted. Results: Findings indicated an association between reading about male caregivers and increased social distance, compared with reading about female caregivers. Reading about working caregivers was associated with decreased social distance and increased appreciative statements, compared to reading about non-working caregivers. Analyses after stratifying by gender of the caregiver in the vignette indicated an association between reading about female working caregivers and increased appreciative statements, compared to reading about female non-working caregivers. When stratifying by working status, an association was found between reading about male working caregivers and increased social distance, when compared to reading about female working caregivers. Conclusions: This study’s findings indicate that gender and working status of the perceived informal caregivers are of relevance to the public stigma directed towards these caregivers. Male and non-working informal caregivers were shown more public stigma than female and working informal caregivers. Thus, interventions to reduce public stigma, in particular towards male and non-working caregivers, are recommended.

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Anxiety, depression, and stress in caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders in Ghana and implications for medication adherence

Objective: This study assessed levels of anxiety, depression, and stress among family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders in Ghana and the implication on medication adherence. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at the outpatient departments of the three main public psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. Participants: Two hundred and ten non-paid family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders were recruited for this study. Main Outcome Measure: The study assessed symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress among the caregivers and estimated caregiver-reported medication adherence. Results: About 56.2%, 66.2% and 78% of the caregivers experienced severe anxiety, severe depression and moderate to severe stress symptoms respectively. From the multiple logistic regression model, while anxiety was significantly affected by religion and education, depression was influenced by sex, age, marital status, proximity to facility, and employment status. Female caregivers had about four times higher odds of being depressed compared to male caregivers (aOR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.66 - 8.75). The caregiver-reported medication adherence was 11.9%. Anxiety was significantly predictive of medication adherence. Conclusion: Most family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders experienced symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress with anxiety having implications for medication adherence. The study findings underscore the need to consider psychological characteristics of caregivers and the provision of mental health support for them, as part of the routine health care for children and adolescents with mental disorders. 

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A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for Latinx and American Indian patient-family caregiver dyads coping with chronic health conditions

Background: Latinx and American Indians experience high rates of chronic health conditions. Family members play a significant role as informal caregivers for loved ones with chronic conditions and both patients and family caregivers report poor psychosocial outcomes. Objectives and Methods: This systematic review synthesizes published studies about psychosocial interventions for Latinx and American Indian care dyads to determine: (i) the benefits of these interventions; (ii) their distinguishing features or adaptations, and; (iii) recommendations for future intervention development. Findings: Out of 366 records identified, seven studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions demonstrated benefits to outcomes such as disease knowledge, caregiver self-efficacy and burden, patient and caregiver well-being, symptom distress, anxiety and depression, and dyadic communication. Distinguishing features included tailoring to cultural values, beliefs, and delivery preferences, participants’ level of acculturation, and population-specific issues such as migratory stressors and support networks. Conclusions: Based upon this review, six recommendations for future intervention development are put forth. 

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Association between having cancer and psychological distress among family caregivers using three years of a nationwide survey data in japan

Objectives: We aimed to describe the characteristics of caregivers with cancer compared to those without and analyze the association between having cancer and caregivers’ psychological distress in Japan. Methods: We used data from the Japanese Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in 2010, 2013, and 2016. The participants were 5258 family caregivers aged ≥40 years, caring for only one family member whose information in the dataset was available for all the covariates included in the model. The family caregivers’ psychological distress was defined by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) score (K6 ≥ 5). We conducted a Poisson regression analysis to examine the association between having cancer and family caregivers’ distress. Results: The sample of family caregivers consisted of mostly females (69.3%) and people within the 40–64 years age group (51.8%). As a result, family caregivers with cancer increased across the survey periods; a higher number of participants were unemployed. When adjusted for covariates, including the presence of other diseases, having cancer was significantly associated with distress (risk ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.69) among family caregivers. Conclusions: Family caregivers with cancer are expected to increase in the future; it is important to provide them with more support in managing both their treatment and caregiving to cope with their distress. 

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Beyond nostalgia: Older people's perspectives on informal care in rural Flanders

Background: Flanders (Belgium) is aging at high speed. In 2060, almost one in three (32 percent) will be older than 60. The number of people aged 80 and over will increase from more than 400,000 today to nearly 800,000 in 2060. This demographic change can be witnessed throughout the entire region, yet older people are overrepresented in rural areas. A large majority of older people is ‘aging in place’. This often occurs in places that witness a severe decline in basic facilities and that suffer from a loss of its young(er) population. Nevertheless, policies in Flanders strongly support aging in place, while emphasizing the role of informal caregivers. Objective: This paper explores older people's perceptions of and experiences with informal care in rural Flanders. Methods: Based on qualitative in-depth interviews, we focus on the role of family members and neighbors in providing informal care for older people living at home in two different rural areas in Flanders (‘Westhoek’ and ‘Kempen’). Findings: The analysis shows how, in both regions, receiving care from children and neighbors is simply not always perceived as a valid and realistic option by our respondents, and this for different reasons. It concludes that the current focus of elderly policy in Flanders on aging in place and the strong emphasis on the role of informal caregivers work only for those older people whose informal caregivers (in practice mostly children) live nearby. This depends strongly, of course, on spatial and economic factors. Also, neighbors are not the cohesive group they are presumed to be. Conclusions: We thus have to move beyond the nostalgic idea that neighbors and close family members can or will actively engage in informal care. 

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A systematic literature review of the disease burden in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

Background/objective: Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a genetic collagen disorder characterized by skin fragility leading to blistering, wounds, and scarring. There are currently no approved curative therapies. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive literature review of the disease burden caused by RDEB. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Observational and interventional studies on the economic, clinical, or humanistic burden of RDEB were included. Results: Sixty-five studies were included in the review. Patients had considerable wound burden, with 60% reporting wounds covering more than 30% of their body. Increases in pain and itch were seen with larger wound size. Chronic wounds were larger and more painful than recurrent wounds. Commonly reported symptoms and complications included lesions and blistering, anemia, nail dystrophy and loss, milia, infections, musculoskeletal contractures, strictures or stenoses, constipation, malnutrition/nutritional problems, pseudosyndactyly, ocular manifestations, and dental caries. Many patients underwent esophageal dilation (29–74%; median dilations, 2–6) and gastrostomy tube placement (8–58%). In the severely affected population, risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 76% and mortality from SCC reached 84% by age 40. Patients with RDEB experienced worsened quality of life (QOL), decreased functioning and social activities, and increased pain and itch when compared to other EB subtypes, other skin diseases, and the general population. Families of patients reported experiencing high rates of burden including financial burden (50–54%) and negative impact on private life (79%). Direct medical costs were high, though reported in few studies; annual payer-borne total medical costs in Ireland were $84,534 and annual patient-borne medical costs in Korea were $7392. Estimated annual US costs for wound dressings ranged from $4000 to $245,000. Patients spent considerable time changing dressings: often daily (13–54% of patients) with up to three hours per change (15–40%). Conclusion: Patients with RDEB and their families/caregivers experience significant economic, humanistic, and clinical burden. Further research is needed to better understand the costs of disease, how the burden of disease changes over the patient lifetime and to better characterize QOL impact, and how RDEB compares with other chronic, debilitating disorders. 

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A socially prescribed community service for people living with dementia and family carers and its long‐term effects on well‐being

Background: Support services for people with dementia are variable depending on the area or town they live. People with dementia and family carers can often get very little support after a diagnosis. Services might not be suitable or they may not be aware of the service in the first place. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a socially prescribed community service provided to people with dementia and family carers offering physical and mental activities. Methods: People with dementia and family carers were recruited from a community centre in the North West of England to complete in this study. Participants provided demographic information and completed the Short Warwick‐Edinburgh Mental Well‐Being Scale at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Postcode data were used to generate an Index of Multiple Deprivation score for information on participants’ socioeconomic background. Data were analysed using paired samples t‐tests to compare well‐being scores between baseline and follow‐up assessments. Results: A total of 25 people with dementia (n = 14) and family carers (n = 11) participated in the service. Visits ranged from 1 to 36, with 22 and 15 participants completing the 3‐ and 6‐month follow‐up respectively. Some reasons for discontinuation were lack of transport and other commitments. Most participants lived in some of the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Compared to baseline, well‐being was significantly higher at both follow‐ups. Conclusions: This is one of the first studies reporting the benefits of a social prescribing service in dementia. Future implementation work needs to design an implementation plan so that the service can be implemented in other community centres across the country.

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A qualitative exploration of the unmet information needs of Chinese advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers

Background: Studies in the West have demonstrated that appropriate informational support is a vital component of cancer care, with positive effects on both patients and their informal caregivers. Since little is known about the information needs of advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers in China, where ‘silence as virtue’ is much more valued and the communication style is less open, this study was therefore conducted to elaborate the information needs of advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers as well as to explore their perceptions and experiences regarding their unmet information needs in the Chinese context. Methods: This sub-study of a previous cross-sectional survey utilized a qualitative descriptive study design. The approach involved semi-structured interviews that followed an interview guide to collect data. Eligible participants were the advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers who had participated in the previous cross-sectional survey and reported unmet information needs. Each interview was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Seventeen advanced cancer patients and 15 informal caregivers with unmet information needs participated in the semi-structured interviews, with ages ranging from 32 to 63 years old for patients and from 32 to 70 for informal caregivers. Four categories were extracted from the interviews with the patients and caregivers: (1) types of unmet information needs; (2) reasons for information needs not being met; (3) preferences for the provision of information; and (4) meaning and role of information. Each category had two to four sub-categories for both the patients and the caregivers, which were similar but not completely the same. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the provision of appropriate information could promote informed decision-making and greater satisfaction with treatment options, reductions in psychological disturbances, and enhanced confidence and ability in self-management and capacity in caregiving. Moreover, information on Traditional Chinese Medicine and food therapy should be increased, particularly for patients at the follow-up stage, while the amount of information on prognosis should be flexible as it could increase patients’ and caregivers’ psychological burden. Healthcare professionals were the most preferred information provider, although their heavy workload resulted in time constraints. In this case, they should provide information to patients and caregivers together as a ‘whole unit.’ At the same time, the value of separate conversations should also be recognized as some caregivers preferred to conceal unpleasant information from the patient. 

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The Effects of the Modified Transtheoretical Theory of Stress and Coping (TTSC) Program on Dementia Caregivers' Knowledge, Burden, and Quality of Life

Objectives: This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the effect of the modified transtheoretical theory of stress and coping (TTSC) program on the knowledge, burden, and quality of life of dementia caregivers. Methods: The participants comprised 60 caregivers (30 participants in each group) selected via purposive sampling, and the study was conducted between October 2018 and September 2019 in a semi-urban area of central Thailand. The experimental group received an 8-week program, while the comparison group received routine care. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. To analyze the intervention's effectiveness, repeat measure ANOVA and Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Dunn's tests were performed. Results: At the end of the program and again three months after the end of the program, the knowledge and quality of life scores for the experimental group were significantly higher (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively) than for the control group. The burden score decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group in week 8 (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups, as demonstrated by ANOVA (F[1.58] = 2.394; p = 0.127). Conclusions: Our findings show that this program had a positive effect on the caregivers' knowledge and quality of life. However, the program did not affect the caregivers' burden.

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The Effects of Caring for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities on Mothers’ Health and Healthcare Use: Analysis of Primary Care Data in the Born in Bradford Cohort

Methods: We explored the association between caregiving for preschool children with developmental disabilities and maternal health and healthcare use using linked primary care and Born in Bradford birth cohort data. Results: Adjusting for prenatal health, healthcare use and socioeconomic status, mothers who were caregivers were more likely than other mothers to have symptoms of psychological distress (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.01, 1.53), exhaustion (1.42; 1.12, 1.80) and possibly head and musculoskeletal pain (1.18; 0.97, 1.43). Despite the higher prevalence of symptoms, they did not access healthcare services more and may seek healthcare for psychological distress less often (0.64; 0.40, 1.02). In general, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with worse health. Pakistani ethnicity (versus white British) and prenatal consultation were strongly associated with higher postnatal consultation rates. Prenatal ill health, healthcare use and socioeconomic status are important factors in the detection of postnatal ill health via primary care services. Conclusions: If caregiver burden and the risk of under-detecting (and thus under treating) caregiver ill health is not addressed during the preschool period health inequalities between caregivers and other mothers and their families may persist and grow. The health of mothers of young disabled children, in particular their unmet health needs, warrants attention in research and clinical practice.

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Community participation of families of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in South Africa

Background: Families struggle to support family members with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), especially in low resourced settings where formal services may not be available. Method: The adapted Family Community Participation survey, measuring perceptions of community participation, was administered to 67 primary caregivers of children with PIMD in Cape Town by community-based rehabilitation workers. Results: Families were most satisfied going to religious activities and getting together with family and friends. They were most dissatisfied with doing activities together in public and working or volunteering outside the home. Barriers to participation included negative attitudes, insufficient money and unavailability of community activities. Transportation, safety and security were additional challenges. Conclusions: Participants advocate awareness raising, community support and provision of services to address barriers to community participation. Families should be consulted on community issues to integrate their specific family needs into the overall needs of the community.

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The social burden experienced by families caring for members living with cancer in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Background: Cancer is a global public health problem and it affects people in different ways. Family caregivers (FCs) play an essential role in caring for patients with cancer, and thus, they experience many caregiver burdens that go unnoticed. Aim: This research study explored the social burden that families experience in providing care to their family members living with cancer. Setting: This study was conducted in Durban and Pietermaritzburg, cities located in KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. Methods: This was a qualitative study using the interpretative phenomenological approach that was ideal for understanding FCs subjective perspectives on their cancer caregiving experience. Data saturation were reached at 20 in-depth interviews. Results: Two major themes culminated from the data analysis; dynamics of a cancer diagnosis and psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis with respective sub-themes. Themes centred around the relational impact of a cancer diagnosis with FCs experiencing a shift in this dynamic and a disturbance to normality in social life. Social support systems were found to play a meaningful role in mitigating the impact of a cancer diagnosis with financial, psychosocial and educational support considered essential needs. Conclusion: Cancer caregiving is a challenging task that also presents opportunities for strengthening family bonds as they evolve in new paths. A family-centred care approach is recommended as a form of social support with further collaboration with health care providers for guided patient care. If the needs of FCs are addressed accordingly through health care policies and interventions, FCs may be able to provide better care and support for their family members with cancer and thus positively impact cancer survivorship.

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Tensions in support for family caregivers of people with dementia in Singapore: A qualitative study

Background: Family members as informal caregivers are considered the first line of support for people with dementia across the world. In Singapore, caregiving expectations revolve around the cultural expectations of providing care in the home environment. However, studies in Singapore have identified a lack of family support for primary caregivers. Family support has been discussed in the literature as the provision of care for people with dementia, and rarely as a resource for family caregivers. Method: To understand family support among primary caregivers in Singapore, 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis found four themes: excuses for lack of physical support for the caregiver, tensions between cultural expectations of caregiving and the provision of support, unmet emotional support, and lack of awareness of dementia and caregiving needs. Findings: Caregivers rationalized and forgave the absence of physical support but were frustrated when the lack of support impacted people with dementia. This was seen as a lack of fulfilling cultural obligations of caring for elderly parents. The caregivers also felt frustrated with the lack of emotional support provided to them, but these were unspoken between the caregiver and the family members. Insufficient and unhelpful support giving was exacerbated with the perception of family members’ limited understanding of the demands of caregiving. Conclusion: The findings offer four practical suggestions to address unmet support needs. First, public education is needed to enhance general knowledge about the symptoms and progression of dementia. Second, help is needed to address miscommunication about support within the family. Third, the development of guidebooks is needed to help family caregivers communicate with family members about their various support needs. Fourth, the relationship between cultural expectation and caregiving must be understood within the context of modernity and urbanism. 

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Stress and Depression in Family Members of Patients with Dementia in Urban and Rural Communities: Cross-Sectional Surveys in Korea

Background: Re compared the associations of socioeconomic factors with stress and depression among family members living with a dementia patient in urban and rural areas of South Korea. Methods: Data were collected from 9,730 (4,560 urban and 5,170 rural) participants in the Korean Community Health Survey from 2014-17. The variable of interest was the presence of a cohabitating dementia patient, and the dependent variables were stress and depression. Results: Family members living with a dementia patient in rural areas had a significantly lower socioeconomic status (education, household income, marital status, and employment) than those living in urban areas (p<0.001). In addition, family members living with a dementia patient in rural areas reported statistically significantly less stress and depression than did those in urban areas after adjusting for related factors(rural stress OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.80-0.95; rural depression OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.66-0.85). Female gender and a low family income were associated with stress and depression in both rural and urban areas. Age, educational attainment, number of family members, marital status, and employment status differed slightly between urban and rural areas. Conclusion: The socioeconomic factors associated with stress and depression differ slightly in the rural and urban areas of South Korea.

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Peer support interventions for parents and carers of children with complex needs

Background: Parents and family carers of children with complex needs experience a high level of pressure to meet children's needs while maintaining family functioning and, as a consequence, often experience reduced well-being and elevated psychological distress. Peer support interventions are intended to improve parent and carer well-being by enhancing the social support available to them. Support may be delivered via peer mentoring or through support groups (peer or facilitator led). Peer support interventions are widely available, but the potential benefits and risks of such interventions are not well established. Objectives: To assess the effects of peer support interventions (compared to usual care or alternate interventions) on psychological and psychosocial outcomes, including adverse outcomes, for parents and other family carers of children with complex needs in any setting. Search methods: We searched the following resources. • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; latest issue: April 2014), in the Cochrane Library. • MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1966 to 19 March 2014). • Embase (OvidSP) (1974 to 18 March 2014). • Journals@OVID (22 April 2014). • PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1887 to 19 March 2014). • BiblioMap (EPPI-Centre, Health Promotion Research database) (22 April 2014). • ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (26 May 2014). • metaRegister of Controlled Trials (13 May 2014). We conducted a search update of the following databases. • MEDLINE (OvidSP) (2013 to 20 February 2018) (search overlapped to 2013). • PsycINFO (ProQuest) (2013 to 20 February 2018). • Embase (Elsevier) (2013 to 21 February 2018). We handsearched the reference lists of included studies and four key journals (European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: 31 March 2015; Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders: 30 March 2015; Diabetes Educator: 7 April 2015; Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: 13 April 2015). We contacted key investigators and consulted key advocacy groups for advice on identifying unpublished data. We ran updated searches on 14 August 2019 and on 25 May 2021. Studies identified in these searches as eligible for full-text review are listed as "Studies awaiting classification" and will be assessed in a future update. Selection criteria: Randomised and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs and cluster RCTs) and quasi-RCTs were eligible for inclusion. Controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies were eligible for inclusion if they met criteria set by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. The comparator could be usual care or an alternative intervention. The population eligible for inclusion consisted of parents and other family carers of children with any complex needs. We applied no restriction on setting. Data collection and analysis: Inclusion decisions were made independently by two authors, with differences resolved by a third author. Extraction to data extraction templates was conducted independently by two authors and cross-checked. Risk of bias assessments were made independently by two authors and were reported according to Cochrane guidelines. All measures of treatment effect were continuous and were analysed in Review Manager version 5.3. GRADE assessments were undertaken independently by two review authors, with differences resolved by discussion. Main results: We included 22 studies (21 RCTs, 1 quasi-RCT) of 2404 participants. Sixteen studies compared peer support to usual care; three studies compared peer support to an alternative intervention and to usual care but only data from the usual care arm contributed to results; and three studies compared peer support to an alternative intervention only. We judged risk of bias as moderate to high across all studies, particularly for selection, performance, and detection bias. Included studies contributed data to seven effect estimates compared to usual care: psychological distress (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.32 to 0.11; 8 studies, 864 articipants), confidence and self-efficacy (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.21; 8 studies, 542 participants), perception of coping (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.21; 3 studies, 293 participants), quality of life and life satisfaction (SMD 0.03, 95% CI -0.32 to 0.38; 2 studies, 143 participants), family functioning (SMD 0.15, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.38; 4 studies, 272 participants), perceived social support (SMD 0.31, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.77; 4 studies, 191 participants), and confidence and skill in navigating medical services (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.28; 4 studies, 304 participants). In comparisons to alternative interventions, one pooled effect estimate was possible: psychological distress (SMD 0.2, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.79; 2 studies, 95 participants). No studies reported on adverse outcomes. All narratively synthesised data for psychological distress (compared to usual care - 2 studies), family functioning (compared to usual care - 1 study; compared to an alternative intervention - 1 study), perceived social support (compared to usual care - 2 studies), and self-efficacy (compared to alternative interventions - 1 study) were equivocal. Comparisons with usual care showed no difference between intervention and control groups (perceived social support), some effect over time for both groups but more effect for intervention (distress), or mixed effects for intervention (family function). Comparisons with alternative interventions showed no difference between the intervention of interest and the alternative. This may indicate similar effects to the intervention of interest or lack of effect of both, and we are uncertain which option is likely. We found no clear evidence of effects of peer support interventions on any parent outcome, for any comparator; however, the certainty of evidence for each outcome was low to very low, and true effects may differ substantially from those reported here. We found no evidence of adverse events such as mood contagion, negative group interactions, or worsened psychological health. Qualitative data suggest that parents and carers value peer support interventions and appreciate emotional support. Conclusions: Parents and carers of children with complex needs perceive peer support interventions as valuable, but this review found no evidence of either benefit or harm. Currently, there is uncertainty about the effects of peer support interventions for parents and carers of children with complex needs. However, given the overall low to very low certainty of available evidence, our estimates showing no effects of interventions may very well change with further research of higher quality. 

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Psychosocial Issues Among Primary Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Head and Neck Cancer-A Mixed-method Study

Objectives: This study aims to explore the psychosocial issues faced by the primary caregivers of advanced head and neck cancer patients with the primary objective to understand their experiences within social context. Materials and Methods: Burden and QOL of caregivers (n = 15) were quantified using Zarit Burden Interview schedule and caregiver quality of life index-cancer (CQOLC), respectively. Primary caregivers (n = 10) were interviewed using semi-structured interview schedule. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the qualitative data. Descriptive statistics was used for quantitative data. Results: Four major themes emerged: (1) Impacts of caregiving, (2) coping with caregiving, (3) caregiver's appraisal of caregiving and (4) caregiver's perception of illness. Majority (73.3%) of the caregivers had QOL below 100. The mean CQOLC score was 73.07 (SD 24.17) and most (46.7%) of the caregivers reported mild-to-moderate burden, while 27% had little to no burden. The mean ZBI score was 32.4 (SD 18.20). Conclusion: Caregiving impacts the physical, emotional, financial and social aspects of caregiver's life. Caregivers adopt active coping strategies to overcome the impacts of caregiving. Family acts as a major source of strength to manage the emotional constraints faced by Indian caregivers. Cultural beliefs and values of caregivers influence their appraisal of caregiving situation. Majority of the caregivers experienced mild-to-moderate burden while most of the caregivers scored low on QOL.

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Correlation between burden and quality of life among family caregiver of patients undergoing hemodialysis

Background: In Indonesia, taking care of sick family member is an obligation for other family members. Family caregivers not only involve in patients’ physical health, but also psychological and financial aspect that sometimes also cause burden for them. However, most of them often ignore their health status and wellbeing. Objectives: Therefore, current study aimed to identify the correlation between burden and quality of life among family caregiver of patients having hemodialysis. This was a cross sectional study in 80 family caregivers. Methods: Data were collected using Zarit Burden Inventory and SF-36. Pearson Correlation test was performed. It is found that most of the caregiver of patient undergoing hemodialysis was the spouse (62.8%). As many as 53.8% family caregiver experienced no burden in taking care of patients. Overall, they showed a moderate score in 8 domain of quality of life. Burden was significantly correlated with general health (p = 0.001), bodily pain (p = 0.002), social functioning (p = 0.035), role-functioning physical (p = 0.043), and role-functioning emotional (p = 0.048). Conclusions: To sum up, most of family caregiver felt no burden in taking care of patients undergoing hemodialysis and it is correlated with their quality of life. Thus, in taking care patients undergoing hemodialysis, nurses should also pay attention to their family caregiver. 

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Coronavirus and the social impacts on unpaid carers in Great Britain: April 2021

Indicators from the Office for National Statistics’ Opinions and Lifestyle Survey to understand the impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on unpaid carers in Great Britain.

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Timely Communication Through Telehealth: Added Value for a Caregiver During COVID-19

Objective: This caregiver case study applies the lens of relational coordination theory (RC) to examine the value of telehealth as a medium of care coordination for a pediatric patient with hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented burden on the delivery of healthcare around the globe and has increased the reliance on telehealth services. Delivering telehealth requires a high level of communication and coordination within and across providers as well as between providers, patients and their families. However, it is less clear how telehealth impacts the coordination of care. In this paper, we provide insight into the quality of care coordination between providers and an informal caregiver following policy changes to the provider payment structure in Massachusetts. Methods: This paper employs a single-case, autoethnographic study design where one of the authors uses their experiential insights, as mother of the patient, to inform a wider cultural and political understanding of the shift to remote caregiving for a pediatric patient with hEDS. Data was collected using reflective journaling, interactive interviews, and participant observation and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Findings revealed four interrelating roles of the caregiver including, logistics support, boundary spanner, home health aide, and cultural translator. The adoption of telehealth was associated with improved timeliness and frequency of communication between the caregiver and providers. Findings about the impact of telehealth adoption on accuracy of communication were mixed. Mutual respect between the caregiver and providers remained unchanged during the study period. Conclusions: This paper highlights areas where payer policy may be modified to incentivize timely communication and improve coordination of care through telehealth services. Additional insight from the perspective of an informal caregiver of a patient with a rare chronic disease provides an understudied vantage to the care coordination process. We contribute to relational coordination theory by observing the ways that caregivers function as boundary spanners, and how this process was facilitated by the adoption of telehealth. Insights from this research will inform the development of telehealth workflows to engage caregivers in a way that adds value and strengthens relational coordination in the management of chronic disease. 

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Eldercare in Japan: Cluster Analysis of Daily Time-Use Patterns of Elder Caregivers

Methods: Using the data of the 2006 Japanese Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities, we perform cluster analysis and identify seven unique patterns of daily time-use patterns of co-resident family elder caregivers: (1) ‘Overworkers’, (2) ‘Full-time Workers’, (3) ‘Part-time Workers’, (4) ‘Intensive Caregivers’, (5) ‘Houseworkers’, (6) ‘Leisurely’, and (7) caregivers, who needed medical attention on the diary day (‘Emergency Diaries’). Results: Our results show that the ‘Houseworkers’ and ‘Intensive Caregivers’ spend the most time on adult caregiving activities. Care activities for ‘Houseworkers’ are more likely to coincide with longer housework hours, increasing the total unpaid work volume. Conclusions: The analysis of demographic profiles suggests that similar daily patterns on weekdays and weekends do not belong to people with the same demographic characteristics. For instance, although on weekdays, ‘Leisurely Caregivers’ are mostly represented by the elderly taking care of other elderly, people of any age can belong to this category on weekends. Among all types of caregivers, only 'Intensive Caregivers' are as likely to be men as they can be women, suggesting that when the need for eldercare increases, family caregivers of any gender will step in.

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Associations between perceived stress and quality of life in gynaecologic cancer patient-family caregiver dyads

Purpose: This study aims to explore the level of stress perceived and quality of life (QOL) by gynaecologic cancer (GC) patients and family caregivers’ dyads. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 86 dyads were recruited from the gynaecological oncology department of a general hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan. The patients and family caregivers completed a sociodemographic information sheet, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Taiwanese version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlations. This study used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) with distinguishable dyads to examine the effect of patients' and caregivers' perceived stress on QOL in patient-caregiver dyads. Results: GC patients' and caregivers' level of QOL was influenced by their own stress level (actor effect). Caregivers' stress was statistically negatively associated with the patients’ QOL (partner effect); however, there were no partner effect from GC patients to caregivers. Both patients and family caregivers with higher perceived stress had poorer QOL. Therefore, we identified that stress has some level of actor and partner effects on QOL in GC patient-family caregiver dyads. Conclusions: Family caregivers' stress displayed both actor and partner effects within the first year of the cancer diagnosis; therefore, patient-and caregiver-based interventions, such as stress reduction strategies, should be developed to enhance patients' and caregivers’ QOL and stress management ability. 

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A comprehensive assessment of informal caregivers of patients in a primary healthcare home-care program

Background: Studies of the characteristics of informal caregivers and associated factors have focused on care-receiver disease or caregiver social and psychological traits; however, an integral description may provide better understanding of informal caregivers’ problems. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study in primary healthcare centers was performed in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were a random sample of informal caregivers of patients in a home-care program. Findings: Primary outcomes were health-related quality of life and caregiver burden, and related factors were sociodemographic data, clinical and risk factors, social support and social characteristics, use of healthcare services, and care receivers’ status. In total, 104 informal caregivers were included (mean age 68.25 years); 81.73% were female, 54.81% were retired, 58.65% had high comorbidity, and 48.08% of care receivers had severe dependence. Adjusted multivariate regression models showed health-related quality of life and the caregivers’ burden were affected by comorbidity, age, time of care, and dependency of care receiver, while social support and depression also showed relative importance. Aging, chronic diseases, and comorbidity should be included when explaining informal caregivers’ health status and wellbeing. Conclusions: The effectiveness of interventions to support informal caregivers should comprehensively evaluate caregivers when designing programs, centering interventions on informal caregivers and not care receivers’ conditions. : 

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“The system is well intentioned, but complicated and fallible” interviews with caregivers and decision makers about palliative care in Canada

Background: Canadian palliative care (PC) philosophy seeks to support individuals in a person-centered and sensitive manner. Unfortunately, philosophy does not necessarily translate into practice and this divide may leave patients without appropriate care at the end of life, causing distress for some families. The primary goal of the study was to identify key factors affecting perceptions of quality PC from the perspective of informal caregivers and decision makers (e.g., program managers) and to understand how their experiences within the health care system may have influenced their perceptions. Methods: Nine caregivers and 11 decision makers from Yukon Territory, British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, & Nova Scotia shared their experiences in PC via interview or focus group. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed for themes. Results: Three themes emerged, including the Caregiver as Anchor, Bewildering System, and Patient, Caregiver, and Family-Centered Care. While these results resembled other studies on caregivers and individuals receiving PC, the present study also uncovered systemic concerns. There was agreement between the two participant groups across most subthemes, however only caregivers reported feelings of being trapped by the health care system and a general lack of respect from health care professionals. Additionally, caregivers stressed the importance of preserving some sort of normalcy in daily life despite the individual’s illness. Conclusions: Caregivers are critical. The health care system expects them to help a great deal, but they often do not feel supported or respected and the system is lacking the capacity and resources to meet their needs while they are grieving loss and struggling to meet demands. 

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“It’s extremely hard but it’s not a burden”: A qualitative study of family caregiving for people living with dementia in Vietnam

Background: Vietnam is one of the fastest-aging countries in the world with a rising number of people with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Families in Vietnam provide most of the care for persons living with dementia, yet our understanding of their experiences and needs is limited. Objectives: This study examined the family caregiving experience in a semi-rural region outside of central Hanoi from the perspectives of family caregivers and other key informants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 key stakeholders (12 family caregivers and 9 healthcare providers and community leaders). A descriptive, thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Qualitative data analysis revealed four themes related to the family caregiving experience: 1) perceptions of dementia symptoms as a normal part of aging rather than a disease, 2) caregiving as a moral and expected familial obligation, 3) patterns of caregiving that are heavily influenced by both gender and sibling order, and 4) multiple challenges or hardships, including time constraints, loss of income, increased social isolation, a toll on their perceived physical health, and emotional distress. Caregivers rejected the notion that caregiving was a “burden” and expressed their distress through terms such as frustration, sadness, and exhaustion. Conclusions: In this low-resource setting, the stress of family caregiving may be amplified by lack of community resources, cultural stigma discouraging outside help-seeking, and economic impact of care provision. The study highlights the vulnerability and predicament of Vietnamese women who often face multiple challenges in their caregiving role as well as the urgent need for the development of community-based programs and supports.

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'This is Still All about Love': Practitioners' Perspectives of Working with Family Carers Affected by the Harmful Behaviour of the Older Person for Whom They Care

Objectives: This article explores a hidden and under-acknowledged dimension of caring in family life: when older people with care needs act in a harmful, abusive or violent way towards the family member(s) who cares for them. Methods: Thirty-eight health and social care professionals, working in the UK, took part in five focus groups to explore their experience of working with families in this situation. The group discussions were stimulated by vignettes developed from interviews with carers affected by harmful behaviour, and the data generated using this method were analysed using a thematic approach. Findings: There were two principal findings: (i) 'carer harm' is a serious and under-acknowledged problem, which practitioners have extensive experiential knowledge of and (ii) practitioners face considerable practical and ethical challenges working with affected families. Conclusions: Drawing on Miranda Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice, we discuss how contemporary social, legal and policy systems can make it difficult for practitioners to identify and meet the needs of affected families. Finally, we explore the role of social workers-and the support they need as a professional group-to work alongside a 'hidden' group of families seeking to manage the intersection of care, harm and intimacy in later life.

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'She misses the subtleties and I have to help - help to make the invisible visible': parents' role in supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities with intimate relationships

Background: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities often need support to develop and maintain intimate relationships; however, little is known regarding the role of family carers in this area. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with 19 family members to explore the support they provide to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities to find a potential partner and any support they may have to provide to support/develop an existing relationship. Findings: Family members provided similar support in this area as support staff, including both practical and emotional support. Conclusions: More needs to be done to support the family members providing this support, such as access to specialist resources and advice, as well as facilitated opportunities to discuss concerns.

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Who is taking care of the Chinese functionally impaired older people? The characteristics of family caregivers from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

Objective: To investigate caregiving in terms of personal, family and living arrangement among Chinese functionally impaired older people. Methods: A secondary cross‐sectional analysis of data obtained from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was performed. Among 6,252 participants aged 65 years or older, people with at least one indicator of Activities of Daily Living Scales (ADLs) of disabilities were included in this research. Statistical analyses included chi‐square tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Results: Data of 973 functionally impaired people aged 65 and over, and 2772 adult offspring were extracted and analysed. The level of impairment, age, gender, marital status of the functionally impaired older people, adult offspring's income and living status were significantly associated with caregiving types. Conclusion: This research describes the characteristics of functionally impaired older people and their caregivers, which may help improve the efficiency, quality and equity within the Chinese social care system.

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When Financial Health Is Tied to Mental Health: Predictors of Hospice Cancer Caregivers' Psychological Well-Being (SCI949)

Objectives: Identify 2-4 factors sociodemographic, caregiving, or economic factors associated with cancer caregivers' mental health outcomes during hospice. Evaluate how financial well-being affects the mental health of cancer caregivers and discuss implications for policy and practice. Background: End-of-life caregiving is associated with poorer mental health which may impact bereavement. Research Objectives To examine the sociodemographic, caregiving, and economic characteristics of mental health among hospice family caregivers of cancer patients. Methods: Informal caregivers were purposively recruited from hospices from four states. Participants completed demographic, caregiving, and mental health survey items. The Medical Outcomes Social Support Survey (α=0.85), Zarit Caregiving Burden Inventory (α=0.89), PROMIS mental health subscale (α=0.80), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (anxiety- α=0.88; depression α=0.80), and the Positive Affect and Well-being Scale (α=0.94) were administered. Hierarchical linear regression models (base models: sociodemographic factors, final models: sociodemographic and caregiving factors) were generated in SPSS version 24 with significance set at p<0.05. Results: Data from 102 informal caregivers were analyzed. Participants had a mean age of 58.93 years (SD=14.24). Majority of participants were female (72.55%), spouses (51.96%), and non-Hispanic White (80.00%). Over 60% cared for patients for less than 2 years, 51.96% had less than a college degree, and 46.53% were not employed. Most (77.78%) described their financial situation as comfortable or more than adequate. Controlling for sociodemographic and caregiving characteristics, higher financial satisfaction (B=1.47), social support (B=0.05), and lower caregiving burden (B=-0.11) were associated with more positive overall mental health (R2=0.56, ΔR2=0.27, p<0.001). Younger age (B=-0.11) and higher caregiving burden (B=0.17) were associated with increased anxiety (R2= 0.46, ΔR2=0.15, p<0.001) while financial satisfaction (B=-1.26), lower social support (B=-0.04), and higher caregiving burden (B=0.16) were associated with depression (R2=0.47, ΔR2= 0.26, p<0.001). Less proximal caregiving relationship (child vs. spouse; other relationship vs. child; B=2.14), financial satisfaction (B=2.03), social support (B=0.10), and lower caregiving burden (B=-0.26) were associated with greater well-being (R2=0.48, ΔR2=0.27, p<0.001). Conclusion: Financial satisfaction remains a major factor of caregivers' psychological well-being even after controlling for other variables. Implications for Research, Policy, or Practice This study identifies subgroups of caregivers who may benefit from additional hospice support services.

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What Do Parents Value Regarding Pediatric Palliative and Hospice Care in the Home Setting?

Context: Children with life-shortening serious illnesses and medically-complex care needs are often cared for by their families at home. Little, however, is known about what aspects of pediatric palliative and hospice care in the home setting (PPHC@Home) families value the most. Objectives: To explore how parents rate and prioritize domains of PPHC@Home as the first phase of a larger study that developed a parent-reported measure of experiences with PPHC@Home. Methods: Twenty domains of high-value PPHC@Home, derived from the National Consensus Project's Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care, the literature, and a stakeholder panel, were evaluated. Using a discrete choice experiment, parents provided their ratings of the most and least valued PPHC@Home domains. We also explored potential differences in how subgroups of parents rated the domains. Results: Forty-seven parents participated. Overall, highest-rated domains included Physical aspects of care: Symptom management, Psychological/emotional aspects of care for the child, and Care coordination. Lowest-rated domains included Spiritual and religious aspects of care and Cultural aspects of care. In exploratory analyses, parents who had other children rated the Psychological/emotional aspects of care for the sibling(s) domain significantly higher than parents who did not have other children (P = 0.02). Furthermore, bereaved parents rated the Caregiver support at the end of life domain significantly higher than parents who were currently caring for their child (P = 0.04). No other significant differences in domain ratings were observed. Conclusion: Knowing what parents value most about PPHC@Home provides the foundation for further exploration and conversation about priority areas for resource allocation and care improvement efforts.

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Well‐being losses by providing informal care to elderly people: Evidence from 310 caregivers in Shanghai, China

Background: A series of policies aimed toward rational resource allocation of long‐term care have being actively discussed since the launch of the social long‐term care insurance in Shanghai, and it is important to take a societal perspective for informed decision‐making. Objectives: This study aims to explore factors that are associated with well‐being of informal caregivers in Shanghai, and to provide empirical evidence of application of an established well‐being valuation method to monetise informal caregivers' well‐being losses in a developing country. Methods: 310 informal caregivers of applicants for social long‐term care insurance in Shanghai were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors with life satisfaction of the caregivers. The monetary values of an additional hour of caregiving with and without specification of care tasks were estimated by the well‐being valuation method. Results: Life satisfaction was consistently associated with monthly income, health status, and caring hours of the caregivers. The money needed to compensate one additional hour of caring per week was 12.58 CNY (0.3% of the monthly income), and 96.95 CNY (2.0% of the monthly income) for activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. Income, health status, and caregiving are significantly associated with well‐being of informal caregivers. Conclusions: Caregivers in relatively poor health condition and/or involved in more ADL tasks should be particularly considered in supporting policies in Shanghai.

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Well‐being and needs of Malay carers of people with mental illness in Singapore

Background: Despite the importance of carers supporting the lives of people with mental illness, there are limited studies investigating the well‐being and needs of Malay carers in multicultural Singapore. The Malays consist of 13.4% of Singapore's population. Methods: A mixed methods qualitative dominant research approach was used to explore the well‐being and needs of Malay carers in a voluntary welfare organisation. The Kessler‐10, Friendship Scale and Carers' and Users' Expectations of Services—Carer version were used to assess the needs and well‐being of 17 Malay carers. Results: Findings show that Malay carers experienced poor well‐being and had numerous unmet needs. Four main themes were found: (a) Concerns related to relatives with mental illness, (b) Mental health practices related to carers, (c) Holistic support for carers and (d) Preference for greater spiritual support in mental health. Recovery‐oriented mental health practice implications are discussed. Conclusion: Spirituality of Malay carers needs to be given greater consideration in recovery‐oriented mental health services.

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“We Have to Be Strong Ourselves”: Exploring the Support Needs of Informal Carers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People with Cancer

Background: Informal carers provide an important role in supporting people with cancer. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience higher cancer mortality than other Australians. To date, very little is known about the support needs of carers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with cancer. This article explored these needs through a qualitative study. Methods: Twenty-two semi-structured qualitative interviews and one focus group were conducted with carers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with cancer (n = 12) and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cancer survivors (n = 15) from Queensland, Australia. Half of the carers interviewed were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Australians. Interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed following an interpretive phenomenological approach. Findings: Thematic analysis of carer and survivor interviews revealed four key themes relating to carers’ needs: managing multiple responsibilities; maintaining the carer’s own health and wellbeing; accessing practical support and information; and engaging with the health system. Within these overarching themes, multiple needs were identified including specific needs relevant for carers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, such as advocating for the patient; accessing Indigenous support services and health workers; and ensuring that the cultural needs of the person are recognised and respected. Conclusion: Identifying the needs of informal carers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cancer patients will enable greater understanding of the support that carers require and inform the development of strategies to meet these areas of need.

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“We are humans after all”: Family caregivers’ experience of caring for dependent older adults in Brazil

Objective: This paper aims to understand the experiences of family caregivers with dependent older adults in Brazil and the consequences of caring for dependent older adults in the family caregiver’s life. Methods: This is a qualitative multicenter study employing dialectical hermeneutics as a theoretical framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with 84 family caregivers in Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, Teresina, Porto Alegre, and Araranguá, and Manaus. Findings: The thematic analysis yielded three categories: motivations for taking on the caregiving role, influences on the family caregiver’s life, coping, and self-care modalities. The care assumed is influenced by affective relationships with older adults and ethical and moral responsibilities. The influences are related to the lack of preparation for caregiving, financial hardship, restricted freedom, and physical and mental health problems. Coping strategies were religion, spirituality, turn-taking between family caregivers, and learning about the tasks. Conclusions: Women predominate in caregiving due to cultural, ethical, and moral reasons. However, family caregivers often lack guidance and require protection and a support network. 

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Views of patients with advanced disease and their relatives on participation in palliative care research

Background: Patients with advanced disease may not be invited to participate in research based on the assumption that participation would be too burdensome for them. The aim of this study was to explore how patients with advanced disease and their relatives evaluate their experience with research participation. Method: This study used data from two parts of a larger project. The first dataset was a cross-sectional questionnaire study focused on priorities at the end of life. The second dataset used a longitudinal design with structured interviews on prognostic awareness. In both studies, participants evaluated their experience on a 5-point Likert scale and specified their motivation in an open-ended question. Data were collected in 6 hospitals in the Czech Republic with patients with advanced disease and life expectancy less than 1 year and their relatives. Data were analysed using non-parametric tests and thematic analysis. Results: First dataset consisted of 167 patients and 102 relatives, and second dataset consisted of 135 patients and 92 relatives (in total, 496 respondents). Results were similar in both datasets, with half of the sample (53%, 48%) scoring neutral, and over 30% of the sample identified their experience as interesting. The most significant factors associated with the evaluation were religiosity (p = 0.001) and the type of diagnosis (p = 0.04). Motivation for participation was to improve care, support research, express own opinion, opportunity to talk and trusting relationship. Conclusions: Patients with advanced disease and relatives do not mind participating in palliative care research, and it can be even a positive experience for them.

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Validity and reliability of the Spanish caregiver reaction assessment scale for caregivers of people with dementia

Aim: Of the few instruments available to measure the important, positive aspects of caring, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment is regarded as the most suitable, but there is no validated Spanish version. The aim of this study was to translate the Caregiver Reaction Assessment into Spanish and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: The Caregiver Reaction Assessment was translated into Spanish and then back translated. Validation included construct validity, criterion validity and reliability: 287 interviews were conducted with informal caregivers of patients with dementia between November 2010 and April 2012. Results: Principal component analysis confirmed the original instrument's five subscales. Criterion validity showed a moderate negative correlation between the impact on health and the EQ‐5D (r = −.43), that is, a greater impact on health correlated with lower health‐related quality of life. The Caregiver Reaction Assessment showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach alpha of .804, and good temporal stability for the distinct subscales, with intraclass correlation coefficients varying from .683 to .729 (p < .001). Conclusion: The Caregiver Reaction Assessment is a reliable, valid instrument for the measurement of the reactions of informal caregivers of patients with dementia, with good psychometric properties.

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A Validation Study of the Revised Caregiving Burden Instrument in Korean Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Caregiving Burden Instrument in Korean informal caregivers of stroke survivors. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used with a convenience sample of 208 primary caregivers of stroke survivors. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory and known-group analysis. Results: Each subscale and the total scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis identified five factors: family support, patient’s dependency, physical health, financial burden, and psychological health, which together accounted for 62.7% of the variance. Known-group analysis indicated that caregivers with more than one year of experience reported significantly higher mean scores for the total burden score and its five subscales compared to those with less than one year. Conclusions: This 23-item instrument demonstrates good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The tool can be used to effectively assess burden in caregivers of stroke survivors and the data obtained can form the basis for the development of family interventions.

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Validating the Chinese version of the Cancer Survivors' Partners Unmet Needs measure (C‐CaSPUN) and exploring unmet needs in Chinese cancer survivor–family caregiver dyads

Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the C‐CaSPUN in Chinese family caregivers (FCs) of cancer survivors (CaS) and to compare the unmet needs of CaS‐FC dyads. Methods: A questionnaire survey, consisting of five Chinese version measurement scales, was used to collect data from CaS‐FC dyads. Statistical methods used included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach's α, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation. Results: Participants consisted of 610 survivor–caregiver dyads. EFA and CFA established the four‐factor construct C‐CaSPUN, comprising relationship impact and life perspective, information and health care, quality of life (QoL) and survivorship care. All of the C‐CaSPUN scales had good internal reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.752). The ICC for test–retest ranged from 0.645 to 0.782 at the scale level, with an average ICC value of 0.653. The concurrent validity was evidenced by C‐CaSPUN being negatively associated with SF‐12 MCS and positively related to anxiety and/or depression. In addition, the correlation coefficient scores between C‐CaSPUN factors and the C‐CaSUN total scale ranged from moderate to good (r = 0.505–0.671). Conclusions: Study findings may support the reliability and validity of the C‐CaSPUN in measuring the unmet needs of FCs of Chinese CaS.

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Willingness and preparedness to provide care: interviews with individuals of different ages and with different caregiving experiences

Background: At present, the provision of informal care to older relatives is an essential pillar of the long-term care system in Germany. However, the impact of demographic and social changes on informal caregiving remains unclear. Methods: Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with care consultants, informal caregivers and people without any caregiving experience to explore if people are willing to provide older adult care and how prepared these are with regard to the possibility of becoming care dependent themselves. Results: In total, three main categories (willingness to provide care, willingness to receive care and information as preparation) with several sub-categories were identified during the content analysis. While almost all interviewees were willing to provide care for close family members, most were hesitant to receive informal care. Other factors such as the available housing space, flexible working hours and the proximity of relatives were essential indicators of a person’s preparedness to provide informal care. It is, however, unclear if care preferences change over time and generations. Six out of 12 informal caregivers and nine out of 14 care consultants also reported an information gap. Because they do not possess adequate information, informal caregivers do not seek help until it is too late and they experience high physical and mental strain. Despite the increased efforts of care consultants in recent years, trying to inform caregivers earlier was seen as almost impossible. Conclusions: The very negative perception of caregiving as a burden was a reoccurring theme throughout all interviews and influenced people’s willingness to receive care as well as seeking timely information. Despite recent political efforts to strengthen home-based care in Germany, it remains unclear whether political efforts will be effective in changing individuals’ perceptions of informal caregiving and their willingness to be better prepared for the highly likely scenario of having to care for a close relative or becoming care dependent at a later stage in life.

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'The Woman Gives': Exploring gender and relationship factors in HIV advance care planning among African American caregivers

Aims and objective: Advance care planning (ACP) is the communication process of documenting future healthcare preferences in case patients are unable to make healthcare decisions for themselves. Research suggests ACP discussions among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) are infrequent overall and may differ by gender and/or race. Background: Previous literature has displayed that African Americans are less likely than other racial groups to use advanced care planning, palliative care or hospice, but does not conclusively account for ACP among PLHIV. African American PLHIV rely on informal care that may be differ by gender and represents an important pathway to increase ACP. Design: The study was mixed methods and observational. Methods: Participants completed self‐report surveys (N = 311) and were interviewed (n = 11). Poisson regression (quantitative) and grounded theory analyses (qualitative) were implemented, using COREQ checklist principles to ensure study rigor. Results: Less than half had discussed ACP (41.2%; N = 267). More ACP knowledge predicted 76% lower likelihood of ACP discussions among women. Men who spent more time caregiving in a given week were nearly 3 times more likely to discuss ACP than men who spent less time caregiving. Women were more likely than men to be caregivers and were also expected to serve in that role more than men, which was qualitatively described as 'being a woman'. Conclusions: The present study is one of few studies exploring ACP among caregivers in African American populations hardest hit by HIV. Results suggest that ACP skill building and education are critical for African Americans living with HIV to promote ACP discussions with their caregivers. Knowledge about ACP topics was low overall even when healthcare had recently been accessed. Support reciprocity and gender‐specific communication skill building may facilitate ACP in African American HIV informal caregiving relationships. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Results underscore the need for ACP education which includes healthcare providers and caregivers, given African Americans' preference for life‐sustaining treatments at end‐of‐life. ACP is crucial now more than ever, as COVID‐19 complicates care for older adults with HIV at high risk of complications.

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Work, Leisure Time Activities, and Mental Health among Family Caregivers of the Elder People in Japan

Background: In Japan, there is a high incidence of family members caring for their elderly. To facilitate this, caregivers often quit their jobs, work reduced hours, and forfeit leisure activities. Objectives: This study examined the relationship between the mental health of the caregivers and the sacrifices and adjustments they make to care for the elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with responses from 171 caregivers. Referencing Pearlin’s stress process model, the relationship among five types of work change, four types of leisure activity quitting, caregivers’ subjective care burden, and depression were analyzed using t-test and multiple regression analysis. Methods: Caregivers who quit their work or other home activities had significantly more daily living care responsibilities than those who did not. Moreover, caregivers who gave up leisure activities had a greater sense of subjective care burden than those who did not. The experience of giving up peer activities and taking leave of absence from work was significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Being a part-timer or financially prosperous was associated with good mental health. Conclusions: To support family caregivers, it is essential to reduce the burden of long-term care and provide financial help and an environment where they interact with their peers, and their moods can be enhanced.

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Young carers and ALS/MND: exploratory data from families in South Africa

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) remains under-resourced across much of the world, including the global south. The lack of supports for ALS/MND is underscored, given the barriers to care, stigma associated, and need for intensive, 24-hour care, primarily provided by family, including vulnerable children and youth, 'young carers'. With little information of the care experience in ALS/MND in South Africa, this study sought to explore family characteristics and identify caregiving experiences and need of young carers in families living with ALS/MND. Methods: Using an exploratory mixed-methods approach, participants (N = 40) from 20 familes, were recruited from the two ALS/MND clinics in Cape Town and Johannesburg areas. Separate audiotaped interviews with adults living with ALS, adult caregivers and young carers were conducted. Findings: Young carers, both genders, ages 9–19, provided care up to 50 or more hours per week, including administering medications, toileting, and feeding the person with ALS/MND, with the majority reporting no training. Stigma, fear and lack of knowledge about ALS/MND limited how families discussed both ALS/MND and care provided by young carers. Families highlighted transportation barriers, and inconsistent access to care across regions. Parents identified emotional support, and in-home help to alleviate the burden of care on youth, acknowledging reliance on young carers due to cost of care. Young carers identified the need for education and people their age to talk to about ALS/MND. Conclusions: Results highlight the complex needs and interaction among families living with ALS/MND in South Africa. Data support the development of targeted support and education programs to address the need for culturally relevant interventions for families and their young carers living with ALS/MND. 

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The Turkish version of the SPPIC validated among informal caregivers with a Turkish immigrant background

Background: This study assesses the internal consistency and known group validity of the Turkish version of the SPPIC, a measurement instrument to assess the self perceived pressure from informal care in family caregivers of people with dementia that was originally in Dutch. Methods: The feasibility, comprehensibility and appropriateness of the Turkish SPPIC were assessed during a pilot test. Internal consistency was examined based on data from 117 family caregivers with a Turkish immigrant background by calculating Cronbach’s alpha and by conducting a single-factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Known group validity was determined to obtain an understanding of the validity of the translated instrument, testing differences in the self-perceived pressure from informal care, depending on frequency of caregiving, living with a person with dementia and level of education. Results: The pilot test showed that the translated SPPIC was considered to be feasible, comprehensible and appropriate. The internal consistency appeared to be strong (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.94). The CFA indicated that the factor ‘Self-perceived Pressure from Informal Care’ explained varying levels of variance in the items of the SPPIC (ranging from .52 to .87). Family caregivers who provided care at least once a week and who shared a home with a person with dementia perceived a greater pressure from informal care (p = 0.007, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The Turkish translation of the SPPIC can be used in future research and practice to obtain insight into self-perceived pressure from informal care of family caregivers with Turkish immigrant backgrounds. At the same time it is recommended to conduct more research on how the measurement of self-perceived pressure from informal care in this group can be further improved.

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Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Chinese version of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool for family caregivers of cancer patients receiving home-based hospice care

Background: Family caregivers need to be supported in caring for patients at the end of life, but practical tools to assess their support needs have been missing in China. So this study aimed to culturally adapt and validate the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT). Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of the original CSNAT for a Chinese setting was performed according to Brislin’s translation guidelines. A pilot study was conducted with 15 Chinese family caregivers of cancer patients receiving hospice home care and 5 medical staff. A cross-sectional survey of 205 family caregivers was conducted from December 2018 to May 2019 at a home-based hospice care institute in Shenzhen, China. The validation procedure comprised the establishment of (1) content validity by a group of six experts; (2) face validity by 15 family caregivers; (3) criterion validity by calculating Spearman’s correlations between the CSNAT and caregiving burden, caregiving preparedness and quality of life scales; (4) internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: The CSNAT demonstrated good face validity and good content validity. CSNAT scores showed clear positive correlations with caregiving burden and negative correlations with preparedness for caregiving and quality of life. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.899), although such reliability testing is not recommended for this tool. Conclusions: The Chinese version of the CSNAT is a valid tool that is appropriate for identifying needs of family caregivers of cancer patients in home-based hospice care.

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Transcultural adaptation and psychometric properties of Family Quality of Life Survey for caregivers of people with neurodegenerative disease: a study of Spanish families who live in the rural Spain-Portugal cross-border

Background: Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are one of the main causes of disability and dependence that have a great impact both on the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families. A majority of people with NDs receive care and support from the family, but there is no tool in Spain with which to measure whole-family QOL. The aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the FQOLS-Dementia into Spanish to assess FQOL among family members of individuals with NDs who live in the Spain-Portugal cross-border area. Method: The Spanish version was translated and adapted following the international guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation tests. A sample of 300 family caregivers was interviewed, applying an adapted version of the Family Quality Survey (FQOLS-Dementia). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the factor structure, and convergent validity was examined with Pearson's correlation coefficients of the global FQOL with the domains. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha. Results: The domain structure of the FQOLS-ND showed a good fit. In the convergent validity, it was found that the total score and the subscale domain scores were associated with the global FQOL score, except for the Values domain. Internal consistency of nine domain subscales was strong (α = 0.80 to 0.91), and excellent for the total FQOL (α = 0.85) and the global FQOL (α = 0.87). Conclusion: The FQOLS-ND presented good validity and reliability in caregiver families with individuals with ND, so its application shows its usefulness in detecting areas of improvement and intervention strategies for FQOL in the Spain-Portugal cross-border area. 

 

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Trajectories of Informal Caregiving to the Oldest-old: A One-year Follow-up Study

Objectives: This study aimed to analyze caregivers and care recipients’ health characteristics and caregiving context changes during a one-year follow-up. Methods: A total of 204 informal caregivers and oldest-old care recipients ( ≥ 80 years) were assessed on two occasions, 12 months apart. Information was retrieved on the dyad’s sociodemographic profile, caregiver’s health/caregiving outcomes, care recipients’ dependency level, and caregiving context. Descriptive analysis was performed for all variables and comparisons between the two moments using paired t tests or McNemar tests. Results: Caregiving hours, caregiver burden, and negative aspects of caregiving got significantly worse over one year. The number of unmet needs, in-home services utilization, and self-perception of mental health improved. Care recipients declined in their functional and health status and on their cognitive performance. Conclusions: This study provides information about caregiving trajectory changes over one year and stresses a probable caregiver adaptation even when facing increasing caregiving demands.

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Towards a middle-range theory of ‘Stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia’ (SoCA-Dem): findings from a meta-study on mixed research

Background: Most people with dementia and their informal carers live at home and strive to create a stable care situation for as long as possible. This preference of dyads is consistent with the global policy of ageing in place. Therefore, we aimed to develop a middle-range theory of stability guided by two research questions: How is stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia constituted? What are the essential factors influencing stability? Methods: Within the 'Stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia' project (SoCA project) at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), we conducted a meta-study on mixed research. The analytical steps of meta-data analysis, meta-method and meta-theory are merged in an integrative synthesis. Eligible publications were identified through systematic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO; last searched on 3 January 2017), backward/forward citation tracking and snowballing. All publications were screened against predefined inclusion criteria and evaluated through a quality appraisal. The analytical approach was thematic synthesis. Results: 99 publications were included. The middle-range theory conceptualises stability as a complex phenomenon comprising three components including eight concepts that are dynamically inter-related. The conceptual model visualises: (1) the trajectory of the dementia care arrangement, which involves a cyclic process of change and balancing over time; (2) the characteristics of the care arrangement, including needs, the carer role, the dyadic relationship and resources; and (3) the context, which is determined by society and culture and the respective healthcare system. The relevance of each concept in relation to stability changes over time. The forming of each concept is actively shaped by the informal carer. Discussion: This middle-range theory provides a thorough understanding of the stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia and can be used to guide future research and practice. This meta-study was funded by the DZNE and registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016041727).

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Supporting family carers of people with dementia: A discrete choice experiment of public preferences

Background: Community-based care for people with dementia is mainly provided by family carers, many of whom experience decreased mental, physical and financial well-being due to their caring role. Many countries are now implementing ageing-in-place policies that have increased pressure on family carers as care-work is redistributed from residential to community-based settings. Family caring responsibilities for people with dementia are made even more complicated by the economic, social and cultural expectations that underpin existing provision. Support for family carers is, therefore, an important policy topic across many countries. Objectives: The focus of this paper is on the propensity of citizens to support enhanced care for family carers in Ireland, as demonstrated by their willingness-to-pay additional taxation to fund different combinations of carer support measures, developed through careful and sustained dialogue with multiple stakeholders, especially family carers themselves. Methods: We carried out a discrete choice experiment (DCE) with 509 members of the general public in Ireland between January and February 2021. Results: Using mixed logit models, our findings show that citizens value four key attributes: regular caring breaks for family carers (day-care and long-break respite); financial compensation (carer's allowance); and emotional support (carer peer support groups). We also estimated the welfare impact of moving from current provision to enhanced support packages for family carers of people with dementia. The welfare gains accumulate to €1035.80 for the most complete levels of provision across the four support attributes. Conclusions: Overall, respondents in this paper showed empathy and understanding towards family carers of people with dementia through their willingness to contribute to funding additional services and supports. 

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Support Intervention for Families and Caregivers of Palliative Care Patients (QI701)

Objectives: 1. Develop a streamlined, routine psychosocial spiritual assessment among families and caregivers of palliative care patients. 2. Develop streamlined, routine psychosocial spiritual needs intervention among families and caregivers of palliative care patients. Background: Complicated grief is intense, debilitating grief for more than six months after loss and is predicted by pre-loss depressive symptoms and unmet psychosocial needs. Per the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care, families are at risk and their psychosocial-spiritual needs should be met to improve outcomes. Aim Statement: This initiative aims to develop a streamlined, routine psychosocial spiritual assessment and intervention of families and caregivers' needs to enhance support. Methods: A validated, confidential, 13-question tool (The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine's Chart Abstraction Checklist-Psychosocial Spiritual Assessment, edited with permission) was used to assess families of inpatient palliative care patients (n=46) over a three-month period. Identified needs were appropriately referred to a social worker, chaplain, or care manager. These assessments measured the number of needs identified and relationships among needs (p<0.05 is statistically significant). Results: Of those assessed, 97.8 percent had a need that required follow-up. A moderately significant relationship was established between those who felt they were coping well and those who reported the perception of a good support system (X2 =6.893, p=.009, Cramer's V of .387). Conclusions and Implications: Performing routine assessments resulted in a significant identification of unmet needs. Those who have greater perceived support reported coping well. Routine psychosocial spiritual assessments and appropriate interventions on caregivers should be continued with a focus on those who have a lack of a support system.

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Support groups for family caregivers of persons with dementia in India

Background: A caregiver support group was initiated at the Schizophrenia Research Foundation, Chennai, India. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate this service for 100 caregivers of persons with dementia, identify the needs met and explore the facilitating factors and barriers for participation. Findings: The support group met the information, emotional and counselling needs of caregivers. Trust between members was a key facilitating factor. Lack of help at home to support the person with dementia, distance from the venue and work commitments were barriers to caregiver participation. Conclusion: The study found that support groups fulfil an important need for caregivers by providing information and peer support.

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Suicidality in family caregivers of people with long-term illnesses and disabilities: A scoping review

Background: An emerging body of international research suggests family caregivers may be a high-risk group for suicide, but the evidence has not been synthesised. Methods: Forty-eight peer-reviewed journal articles were included in this review, spanning low-, middle-, and high-income countries and a variety of illnesses and disabilities. Findings: The proportion of caregivers experiencing suicidal ideation ranged from 2.7% to 71%, with evidence of suicide attempts, deaths by suicide, and deaths by homicide-suicide also reported. Risk and protective factors varied across studies and there was little consideration of differences by caregiving relationship, type of illness/disability, or country. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence to warrant concern for caregivers around the world and prompt action in policy and practice, but more rigorous research is required to draw clear, nuanced conclusions about risk and inform evidence-based prevention and intervention.

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Study of physical, psychological, and spiritual impact of family caregiver in home-based stroke treatment: A systematic review

Background: Family support during stroke treatment at home is crucial. However, post-stroke patients’ long-term care will be a problem for families, reducing the level of life satisfaction and physical burden for caregivers. Furthermore, families may experience depression. AIM: Analyzing family conditions related to physical, psychological, and spiritual conditions that receive home-based health worker interventions. Methods: Study implemented systematic review design with Prisma guidelines, initially with the identification of article sources, following by article screening, checking the eligibility of studies then appraised the selected articles. Three databases were used, Ebsco, PubMed, and PROQUEST. Only studies using quasi-experimental, pre-experimental, and RCT designs were included in this study. Furthermore, those articles were published between 2014 until 2019, full type article and conducted anykind of home intervention for stroke patients and/or family member. Keywords that were employed “Stroke, Apoplexy, Cerebrovascular Accident, Vascular Accident, Home Care Services, home care, Home Health Care, Domiciliary Care, Physical, Physics, Psychological Factors, Psychological Side Effects, Psychosocial Factors, Spirituality.” Totally, 19,528 articles were obtained. Finally, only six eligible articles met review requirements. Results: Implementation of home-based care lowered the physical fatigue of the family. In psychological responses showed that home-based care could reduce the incidence of depression and anxiety levels. Another impact was that the family felt helped because patients could more independently do their activities. Furthermore, the family always supported to motivate the patients to do their daily tasks. Conclusion: Home-based interventions for stroke patients can reduce depression, anxiety, and fatigue for the family caregiver. 

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Strong Carers, Strong Communities: a cluster randomised controlled trial to improve wellbeing of family carers of older people in remote Aboriginal communities

Introduction: Unpaid carers have a crucial role in supporting older people with cognitive impairment and disability, but their own health and wellbeing are often impacted. There are limited data on how carer strain, depression and empowerment may be improved for carers. Methods: This was a cluster randomised controlled trial to compare the effect of a carer support program developed with a community-based participatory action research (PAR) approach to the delivery of information sessions to 100 carers of people aged 45 years or more living in four remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Results: The mean age of carers was 38.3±14.9 years, 76% were female and 77% were children or grandchildren of the care recipient. Carer strain and empowerment measures did not change significantly between baseline and follow-up. A statistically significant decrease in depression scores was observed in the PAR group. However, decreases were observed in both the PAR and control groups, and the change in scores did not differ significantly between groups. Depression scores decreased most in those who had not attended high school. Overall, the proportion of participants meeting criteria for depression decreased from 18.8% at baseline to 8.3% at follow-up. Conclusion: A carer support program was of equivocal benefit, although this research demonstrates that the wellbeing of carers in remote Aboriginal communities can potentially be markedly improved by outreach strategies. 

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Spouse and Adult-Child Dementia Caregivers in Chinese American Families: Who Are More Stressed Out?

Background: Though many studies have explored differences between spouses and adult children in dementia care, empirical evidence is lacking on racial- and ethnic-minority populations. Methods: To fill this research gap, this study examined care tasks, caregiver burden, and depressive symptoms of Chinese spouse and adult-child caregivers in dementia care. Guided by the stress process model, this study asked 3 questions: Do spouse and adult-child caregivers take up different care tasks and experience different levels of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms? Does gender moderate the differences between spouse and adult-child caregivers? Whether care tasks and burden mediate the association between being a spouse/adult-child caregiver and depressive symptoms? Data were collected from a questionnaire-based survey of Chinese Americans who provided care for their family members with dementia in New York City. The analytical sample included 126 Chinese spouse or adult-child caregivers. Care tasks was indicated by intensity of 8 types of care tasks. Caregiver burden and depressive symptoms were measured by Zarit's Burden Interview and the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Linear regression, interaction term (spouse/adult-child caregiver by gender), and path analysis were conducted to address the 3 questions. Results: The results of linear regression show no significant difference in care tasks between the 2 groups, but spouse caregivers had significantly higher levels of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms than adult children. Wives had higher levels of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms than husbands, daughters, and sons. Caregiver burden mediated the association between being a spouse caregiver and higher depressive symptoms, whereas care tasks did not shape such association. Conclusions: This study highlighted the emotional stress of Chinese American older adults in providing care for their spouses. The findings indicate the necessity of developing culturally meaningful activities to support Chinese American spouse caregivers.

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Sociodemographic aspects and health care-related outcomes: a latent class analysis of informal dementia care dyads

Background: Studies revealed the importance to assess dementia care dyads, composed of persons with dementia and their primary informal caregivers, in a differentiated way and to tailor support services to particular living and care circumstances. Therefore, this study aims first to identify classes of dementia care dyads that differ according to sociodemographic, care-related and dementia-specific characteristics and second, to compare these classes with regard to healthcare-related outcomes. Methods: We used data from the cross-sectional German DemNet-D study (n = 551) and conducted a latent class analysis to investigate different classes of dementia care dyads. In addition, we compared these classes with regard to the use of health care services, caregiver burden (BIZA-D), general health of the informal caregiver (EQ-VAS) as well as quality of life (QoL-AD) and social participation (SACA) of the person with dementia. Furthermore, we compared the stability of the home-based care arrangements. Results: Six different classes of dementia care dyads were identified, based on best Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), significant likelihood ratio test (p < 0.001), high entropy (0.87) and substantive interpretability. Classes were labelled as “adult child parent relationship & younger informal caregiver”, “adult child parent relationship & middle aged informal caregiver”, “non family relationship & younger informal caregiver”, “couple & male informal caregiver of older age”, “couple & female informal caregiver of older age”, “couple & younger informal caregiver”. The classes showed significant differences regarding health care service use. Caregiver burden, quality of life of the person with dementia and stability of the care arrangement differed also significantly between the classes. Conclusion: Based on a latent class analysis this study indicates differences between classes of informal dementia care dyads. The findings may give direction for better tailoring of support services to particular circumstances to improve healthcare-related outcomes of persons with dementia and informal caregivers.

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Sociodemographic and clinical variables related to the overburden of the informal caregivers of patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

Objective: To increase our knowledge of the patient variables related to the overburden of the caregivers of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with severe COPD who have informal caregivers. We performed a multivariate analysis of sociodemographic (economic situation, care, dependence, social risk, and use of social services) and clinical (degree of dyspnea, previous hospitalizations, disease impact, pulmonary function, and comorbidity) factors and related these to the burden of informal caregivers, as evaluated using the Zarit scale. Results: The study included 91 patients, age 72.6±8.7 years and 80 were male (89.7%); the mean modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) score was 2.5±0.8; mean FEV1 was 39.5 ± 13.2%; and 70 patients (76.9%) were dependent for basic activities. Of the informal caregivers, 90 (90.9%) were women, 49 (49.4%) were partners or spouses, and 29 (29.6%) were daughters. The mean Zarit questionnaire score was 51.4±14.2, with 63 of carers (69.2%) perceiving some overburden, and 34 (37.4%) describing the overburden as mild–moderate. The variables related to informal caregiver overburden in the multivariate study were the previous use of social resources [OR = 8.1 (95% CI = 1.03–69.9); p = 0.04], degree of mMRC dyspnea 3–4 [OR =4.7 (95% CI = 1.7–13.2); p = 0.003], and two or more admissions for AEPOC in the previous year [OR = 4.5 (95% CI = 1.7–13.2); p = 0.003]. Of the informal caregivers of patients who had presented two or more of these variables, 92.3% perceived an overburden. Conclusion: The variables associated with overburden are easily accessible in patient medical records, or can be obtained by interviewing patients or their relatives. This informa-tion would allow to detect and assess the overburden of informal caregivers to provide an early warning of this problem. © 2021 Fernández-García et al.

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Sociocultural Influences on the Feeling of Loneliness of Family Caregivers of People with Dementia: The Role of Kinship

Background: The extent to which familism, dysfunctional thoughts, and coping variables contribute to explaining feelings of loneliness in caregivers, controlling for kinship, is analyzed. Methods: Participants were 273 family caregivers of people with dementia. Sociodemographic variables, familism, dysfunctional thoughts, coping strategies for requesting and receiving help, perceived social support, and leisure activities were assessed. The fit of a theoretical model for explaining the effect of cultural and psychological variables on feelings of loneliness in each kinship group was tested. Results: No significant differences in the distribution of loneliness by kinship were found. Higher levels of familism are associated with more dysfunctional thoughts, that are linked to more maladaptive strategies for coping with caring (e.g., less social support and fewer leisure activities). This in turn is associated with higher scores in the feeling of loneliness. The model bore particular relevance to the group of daughters, husbands, and sons, yet not in the case of wives. Conclusions: Sociocultural and coping factors associated with the caring process seem to play an important role in explaining feelings of loneliness in caregivers. Sociocultural factors associated with the care process seem to play an important role in explaining feelings of loneliness in caregivers.

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Societal perceptions of caregivers linked to culture across 20 countries: Evidence from a 10-billion-word database

Background: Caregivers play an indispensable role in society. In 2017, 41 million family caregivers in the United States provided approximately 34 billion hours of care to their aging parents, spouses, partners and friends. The estimated economic value of their unpaid contributions amounted to $470 billion. Despite their invaluable contributions, caregivers often operate in a reality of inadequate social support. Little is known about the factors linked to the societal perceptions of caregivers, and our study seeks to contribute by filling this gap. Importantly, whether society honors or stigmatizes caregivers is critical as it could impact caregiving decisions and either exacerbate or ameliorate caregiver burden. Methods: We leveraged an online media database of 10 billion words collated from over 28 million articles, across 20 countries, to analyze societal perceptions of caregivers. Results: Of the 20 countries, 18 evidenced neutral to positive perceptions of caregivers. Bangladesh and Ghana had the most positive perceptions, while Sri Lanka and Tanzania had the most negative perceptions. Aging demographics and culture (individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance) were significantly associated with perceptions of caregivers. Conclusions: Findings suggest that positive perceptions of caregivers can be better cultivated when caring is lauded as a virtuous act that aids in reducing the care deficit. This study is among the first to analyze the societal perceptions of caregivers globally, and lays the groundwork to design culturally sensitive interventions that increase society’s appreciation for caregivers.

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The Socialization of Unpaid Family Caregivers: A Scoping Review

Background: As unpaid family caregiving of older adults becomes increasingly prevalent, it is imperative to understand how family caregivers are socialized and how they understand the caregiving role. Methods: This PRISMA-ScR-based scoping review examines the published literature between 1995–2019 on the socialization of potential and current unpaid family caregivers of older adults. Results: Of 4,599 publications identified, 47 were included. Three perspectives of socialization were identified: (1) role acculturation ; (2) role negotiation and identification ; and (3) specialized role learning. The findings show how socialization involves different contexts (e.g., cultures), imperatives for action (e.g., circumstances), socialization agents (e.g., family), processes (e.g., modeling), and internal (e.g., normalization) and external (e.g., identification) consequences for caregivers. Conclusions: Future research could fruitfully explore how caregivers manage key turning points within the socialization process, disengage from the caregiving role, and negotiate the socialization and individualization processes within diverse cultural and funding contexts.

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Social support and quality of life among rural family caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in Sichuan Province, China: mediating roles of care burden and loneliness

Objective: To explore the relationship between social support and quality of life (QoL) among family caregivers of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) and examine the mediating roles of care burden and loneliness. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2017 and May 2018. A random sample of 256 family caregivers of persons with SMI in rural areas of Sichuan Province, China was recruited for participation. Survey data on socio-demographics, social support, care burden, loneliness, and QoL were collected via in-person interviews. Multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Results: The majority (72.7%) of family caregivers of persons with SMI in this study reported having low QoL. Social support was positively associated with QoL and negatively associated with care burden and loneliness. The findings suggested the mediating roles of care burden and loneliness on the association between social support and QoL. Conclusion: The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting QoL among family caregivers of persons with SMI. The findings can help inform the design of future interventions aimed at enhancing social support, reducing care burden and loneliness, which may be helpful to improve caregivers' QoL. Future study is required to find a causal path to promote QoL among family caregivers of persons with SMI. 

 

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Social Support and Family Functioning in Chinese Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Background: Families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reported poorer family functioning. Social support might strengthen family functioning, but limited research to date has focused on this association in China. Methods: This study conducted a cross-sectional survey of Chinese families that have children with ASD to examine the relationship between social support and family functioning. Caregivers of children with ASD from Sichuan province in China (N = 167) were surveyed concerning their perceived social support and family functioning. The Social Support Rating Scale was used to investigate caregivers’ perceived social support from three dimensions: subjective support, objective support, and the utilization of support. A Chinese version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale was used to investigate their perceptions of family cohesion and adaptability. The Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression were used for analyses. Results: The results suggested that social support was positively related to family cohesion and adaptability. Of the three sub-domains of social support, both subjective support and the utilization of support were positively associated with family cohesion and adaptability. Conclusion: The study’s findings evidenced the importance of different types of social support and could be used to develop a targeted support service for families that have children with ASD to improve their family functioning and sustain the family unit.

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Social Isolation Among Spousal and Adult-Child Caregivers: Findings From the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

Objectives: The caregiving outcomes of spousal and adult-child caregivers are widely studied since they are the most common source of support provided to adults. However, the literature on social isolation among spousal and adult-child caregivers is very limited. In order to further elaborate and specify unique caregiving outcomes, this study focuses on social isolation, both longitudinally and comparatively between spousal and adult-child caregivers. Methods: This study was based on the Baseline and Follow-up 1 data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. A total of 5,226 participants (1,293 spousal caregivers and 3,933 adult-child caregivers) were selected. The Linear mixed models were used to examine the effect of caregiver type and caregiving intensity on social isolation over the course of survey. Results: Spousal and adult-child caregivers reported greater social isolation over time, and spousal caregivers exhibited a steeper increase in social isolation from Baseline to Follow-up 1 than adult-child caregivers. Also, an increase in caregiving hours resulted in greater social isolation. Finally, male spousal or adult-child caregivers were more likely to be socially isolated over time than their female counterparts. Discussion: The findings of this study contribute to the existing literature on caregiving outcomes by demonstrating an association between family caregiving and social isolation. The results indicate a strong need for intervention programs that aim to enhance social connectedness among family caregivers, and especially for those who perform intensive caregiving, are older age, and are from a lower socioeconomic status.

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Social Interactions between Family and Community-Based Service Providers in Dementia Caregiving

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial experiences in community-based dementia caregiving by assessing the characteristics of social interactions between family caregivers and community-based service providers and associated psychological responses. Methods: Two independent groups of participants (family caregivers and community-based service providers) completed a one-time survey to report their social interactions and psychological states. A linear regression model was fit for each outcome (satisfaction, 10-item CES-D) while controlling for significant relevant covariates. Results: Higher perceived levels of collaboration were associated with higher job satisfaction and lower depression score among service providers, and higher satisfaction with providers among family caregivers. Higher perceived social support from the provider was associated with higher satisfaction among family caregivers. Conclusions: Participants reported varying levels of provider-family collaboration. The extent of collaborations and support exchange may have implications on the psychological well-being of those providing care to individuals with dementia including families and providers. Clinical implications: It may be beneficial to identify providers and families who perceive low levels of collaboration and implement intervention to facilitate positive social interactions. Developing organizational culture and payment systems that value high-quality social interactions may help enhance the psychological well-being of service providers and satisfaction among families who receive their services. 

 

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Smiles behind the masks: A systematic review and narrative synthesis exploring how family members of seriously ill or dying patients are supported during infectious disease outbreaks

Background: Infection control measures during infectious disease outbreaks can have significant impacts on seriously ill and dying patients, their family, the patient-family connection, coping, grief and bereavement. Aim: To explore how family members of patients who are seriously ill or who die during infectious disease outbreaks are supported and cared for during serious illness, before and after patient death and the factors that influence family presence around the time of death. Design: Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data sources: CINAHL, Medline, APA PsycInfo and Embase were searched from inception to June 2020. Forward and backward searching of included papers were also undertaken. Records were independently assessed against inclusion criteria. Included papers were assessed for quality, but none were excluded. Findings: Key findings from 14 papers include the importance of communication and information sharing, as well as new ways of using virtual communication. Restrictive visiting practices were understood, but the impact of these restrictions on family experience cannot be underestimated, causing distress and suffering. Consistent advice and information were critical, such as explaining personal protective equipment, which family found constraining and staff experienced as affecting interpersonal communication. Cultural expectations of family caregiving were challenged during infectious disease outbreaks. Conclusion: Learning from previous infectious disease outbreaks about how family are supported can be translated to the current COVID-19 pandemic and future infectious disease outbreaks. Consistent, culturally sensitive and tailored plans should be clearly communicated to family members, including when any restrictions may be amended or additional supports provided when someone is dying.

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Self-reported changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and screen time among informal caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Background: Informal caregivers providing unpaid assistance may be vulnerable to changes in health behaviors due to modifications in caregiving during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this cross-sectional study explored self-reported changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and screen time among informal caregivers providing care for older adults aged 50+ during the pandemic. Methods: Study participants were recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and reported their perceived changes (increased a lot, increased a little, remained the same, decreased a little, decreased a lot) in moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), sedentary behavior, and screen time (weekday and weekend) during the pandemic. For analytic purposes, response categories were categorized into three-level ordinal variables—increased (increased a lot, increased a little), no change (remained the same), decreased (decreased a little, decreased a lot). Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the likelihood of changes (vs. no change) in MPA, VPA, sedentary behavior, and screen time (weekday, weekend) based on caregiving and demographic characteristics. Results: In total, 2574 individuals accessed the study link, 464 of whom did not meet eligibility requirements. In addition, people who completed 80% or less of the survey (n = 1171) and/or duplicate IP addresse (n = 104) were excluded, resulting in an analytic sample of n = 835. The sample was 69% male, had a mean age of 34 (SD = 9.7), and 48% reported increased VPA, while 55% reported increased MPA. The majority also reported increased sedentary behavior, as well as increased screen time. Respondents living with their care recipient were more likely to report increased weekday screen time (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% CI 1.11–2.16) and sedentary behavior (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.28–2.53) than respondents not living with the care recipient. Those living with their care recipient were also more likely to reported increased MPA (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.32), and VPA (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.09–2.15), but also more likely to report a decrease in VPA (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.14–2.70). Conclusion The majority of respondents reported that their MPA, VPA PA, sedentary behavior, and screen time had changed during the pandemic. Living with the care recipient was associated with both positive and negative changes in behavior. Conclusions: Future research can explore factors associated with these reported changes in behavior.

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Self‐care experiences of Pakistani patients with COPD and the role of family in self‐care: A phenomenological inquiry

Background: Self‐care enables patients in improving quality of life and reducing hospital admissions. Research explored the experiences of patients about breathlessness, sleep problems and complication management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the self‐care experiences and the role of the family in self‐care are underexplored. Objectives: This study aimed to understand the self‐care experiences of patients with COPD and explore the role of the family in self‐care. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological inquiry was used, and 13 patients were interviewed in 2019 from two hospitals in Pakistan. The inclusion criteria were patients above 30 years of age at any stage of COPD, who received a confirmed diagnosis of COPD and were receiving the treatment, and engaged in self‐care at their homes or communities. The interviews lasted for 35–60 min. Ricoeur's interpretation theory was used for data analysis comprising steps explanation, naive understanding and in‐depth understanding. Results: Self‐care emerged as a complex individual and familial endeavour affected by personal, social and economic factors. Poverty was one of the core determinants of self‐care. Patients emphasised the spiritual, cultural and traditional approaches to self‐care. Conclusions: Future research is warranted to develop better understanding of spiritual and cultural self‐care and how these dimensions of self‐care affect patients' self‐care behaviours.

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Rural-Urban Differences in Caregiver Burden Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic among a National Sample of Informal Caregivers

Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to explore potential associations between changes to caregiver burden (CB) due to the COVID-19 pandemic and rural-urban status using a nationally representative sample of 761 informal caregivers. Methods: Tertiles of two measures of rural-urban status were used: Rural-Urban Commuting Areas (RUCAs) and population density. Bivariate and multivariable binary and ordinal logistic regression were used to asses study objectives. Results: Using RUCAs, rural informal caregivers were more than twice as likely as urban informal caregivers to report a substantial increase in CB due to COVID-19 (OR 2.27, 95% CI [1.28–4.02]). Similar results were observed for population density tertiles (OR 2.20, 95% CI [1.22–3.96]). Having a COVID-19 diagnosis was also significantly associated with increased CB. Conclusions: Understanding and addressing the root causes of rural-urban disparities in CB among informal caregivers is critical to improving caregiver health and maintaining this critical component of the healthcare system. 

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Relieving distressed caregivers (ReDiCare study): study protocol of a randomized pragmatic trial

Background: Providing care for someone with a disease or chronic condition can have a negative psychological, physical, social, and economic impact upon informal caregivers. Despite the socio-economic relevance and more than three decades of caregiver intervention research only very few translational efforts of successful interventions are reported. Still less of these interventions have been implemented into routine services. Objectives: The aim of the ReDiCare study (German acronym BerTA) is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped counselling approach for burdened caregivers delivered by care counsellors of two long-term care insurances and registered psychotherapists. Methods/design: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial with 572 caregivers of older adults (≥ 60 years) receiving benefits of one of the two participating long-term care insurances. Participants are assigned (t0) to either the ReDiCare intervention or a control group receiving routine care and counselling. Data are collected at baseline (-t1), 3-month (t1), 9-month (t2) and 15-month (t3). The 9-month post-intervention assessment (t2) is the primary endpoint to evaluate the results on the primary and secondary outcomes, measured by self-reported questionnaires. Depressive symptoms measured with the CES-D are the primary outcome. The main secondary outcomes are physical complaints, utilization of psychosocial resources, caregiver self-efficacy and burden, positive aspects of caregiving and perceived care quality. A process evaluation, including audio tapes, self-report questionnaires and documentation will be conducted to examine internal and external validity of the intervention. Data on direct and indirect costs are collected for the (health) economic evaluation, using a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Discussion: While comparable previous caregiver interventions have been developed and evaluated for specific caregiver groups (e.g. dementia caregivers, stroke caregivers), the ReDiCare study will indicate whether a stepped approach will be effective also in a broader group of caregivers. The intervention is one of the very few translational studies in caregiver intervention research and will provide valuable insights into relevant factors for training, intervention protocol adherence, effectiveness, and costs for future implementation steps. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German Clinical Trials Register), DRKS00014593 (www.drks.de, registered 14 May 2018) and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, DRKS00014593 (https://apps.who.int/trialsearch/).

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Relationship between social cohesion and the care burden of primary family caregivers in central Tokyo, Japan

Objectives: To clarify how the care burden of primary family caregivers is associated with social cohesion in an urban area of Tokyo, Japan.Study designCross‐sectional study. Methods: A questionnaire survey of primary family caregivers was conducted in Tokyo in 2015. Social cohesion was examined using the social capital indicators of Kondo et al, and the care burden of primary family caregivers was assessed by the Zarit Care Burden Interview Scale in Japanese short version (J‐ZBI_8). Data were analyzed by multiple regression models. Ethics approval was obtained to carry out this research. Results: Seventy‐nine caregivers responded to the questionnaires. After excluding 6 caregivers who did not respond appropriately to the questionnaire, 73 caregivers were included in the analyses. The average age of the primary family caregivers was 68.9 ± 12.7 years old, and that of the patients receiving care was 83.1 ± 10.0 years old. “Receipt of instrumental support” was significantly associated with reduced burden of care for family caregivers as assessed by the J‐ZBI_8 score (P = .027). Conclusion: This study suggested that social cohesion was significantly associated with reduced burden of care for primary family caregivers. Especially, the results suggested that “social support: receipt of instrumental support” was associated with a lower burden of care after adjustment for confounding factors. It is important to understand family structure and social community differences such as informal social support for future policy making.

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Relationship Between Quality of Life of Children With Cancer and Caregiving Competence of Main Family Caregivers

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the caregiver's proxy-report of the quality of life (QoL) of children with cancer and the main family caregiver's competence, and to examine the role of said competence and other care-related variables in their proxy-reported QoL of children with cancer. Method: This was a cross sectional, correlation design study conducted with 97 main family caregivers of children between the ages of 8 and 12 years with cancer residing in Colombia. The following variables were collected: main family caregiver and child sociodemographic characteristics (Survey for Dyad Care; GCPC-UN-D), The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Cancer Module, and the Competence Instrument (caregiver version). Results: The mean of the children's QoL was 102.0 points, and the caregivers' competence score was 211.24. Caregiver's competence (t = 5.814, p <.01), marital status (t = 1.925, p <.05), time as a caregiver (t = 2.087, p <.05), number of hours spent caring for the child (t = 2.621, p <.05), and caregiver's previous caring experiences (t = 2.068, p <.05) were found to influence caregiver's proxy-report of the QoL of children with cancer. Conclusions: High competence in main family caregivers positively influence caregiver's proxy-report of the QoL of children with cancer. Study results also suggest that nurses should consider the caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics such as marital status, time as a caregiver, number of hours spent caring for the child, and caregiver's previous experiences because those aspects influence main family caregivers' proxy-report about their children's QoL.

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Reciprocity between older adults and their care-givers in emigrant households of Kerala, India

Background: The felt obligation to return a benefit, termed reciprocity, has been identified as motivating care exchanges between older adults and their younger family members. Within the context of large-scale emigration of young adults from the Indian state of Kerala, this study examines how left-behind older adults and their family care-givers recognise, interpret and give meaning to reciprocal exchanges, expectations and obligations in their care relationship. Methods: Employing a social exchange perspective, we qualitatively explore the norm of reciprocity through in-depth interviews of 48 participants (older adults and their care-givers) from emigrant households. Findings: Older adults and their care-givers identified reciprocal notions in their care exchange relationship that provided an interpretive framework for describing expectations, motivations, obligations and experiences across care-giving relationships. Spousal care-givers derived reciprocal motives and mutual care obligations through the institution of marriage. Adult children recognised filial duties and responsibilities and were in principle prepared to provide care to their parents. Reciprocating the support received and the likelihood of intergenerational transfers motivated care exchanges from adult children to their older parents. Daughters-in-law executed transferred filial roles from their emigrant husbands and bore a larger burden of care. Primary adult care-givers relied on the 'demonstration effect', hoping that children observe the care-giving process and emulate it later. Conclusions: Imbalances and non-reciprocity in the care exchange led to frustrations and threatened the care relationships.

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A randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of a family-centered HIV care model on viral suppression and retention in care of HIV-positive children in Eswatini

Introduction: A family-centered care model (FCCM) providing family-based HIV services, rather than separate adult/pediatric services, has been proposed to increase pediatric retention and treatment adherence. Materials and methods: Eight health-care facilities in the Hhohho region of Eswatini were randomized to implement FCCM (n = 4) or continue standard-of-care (SOC) separate adult/pediatric clinics (n = 4). HIV-positive children and caregivers were enrolled; caregiver interview and child/caregiver chart abstraction were done at enrollment and every three months; pediatric viral load was evaluated at enrollment and every six months through 12 months. Because of study group differences in 12-month viral load data availability (89.4% FCCM and 72.0% SOC children had 12-month viral load), we used three separate analyses to evaluate the effects of FCCM on children's viral suppression (<1,000 copies/mL) and undetectable virus (<400 copies/mL) at 12 months. In the first analysis, all children with missing viral outcome data were excluded from the analysis (modified intent to treat, mITT). The second analysis used inverse probability of missingness weighted logistic regression to estimate the effect of FCCM on 12-month viral outcomes compared to SOC (weighted mITT). For the third approach, missing virologic outcome data were imputed as virologic failure (imputed ITT). We also examined factors associated with viral suppression at 12 months using multivariable logistic regression. Results: We enrolled 379 HIV-positive children and 363 caregivers. Among all children at enrollment, viral suppression and undetectability was 78.4% and 73.9%, respectively, improving to 90.2% and 87.3% at 12 months. In mITT and weighted mITT analyses, there was no significant difference in children's 12-month viral suppression between FCCM and SOC groups (89.2% and 91.6%, respectively). Using imputed ITT, there was a modest increase in 12-month viral suppression in FCCM versus SOC children (79.7% and 69.8%, respectively, p = 0.051) and 12-month undetectability (78.7% and 65.7%, respectively, p = 0.015). Among the 255 children suppressed at enrollment, more FCCM versus SOC children (98.0% versus 95.3%) were suppressed at 12-months, but this was not statistically significant in mITT or weighted mITT analyses, with a marginally significant difference using imputed mITT analysis (p = 0.042). A higher proportion of children suppressed at enrollment had undetectable viral load at 12 months in FCCM versus SOC children (98.0% versus 92.5%), a statistically significant difference across analytical methods. Among the 61 children unsuppressed at enrollment, achieving suppression was higher among SOC versus FCCM children, but this difference was not statistically significant and included only 38 children; and there were no significant differences in detectable viral load at 12 months. There were no significant differences between study groups in retention or ART adherence at 12 months for children or caregivers. Factors associated with lack of viral suppression/detectability at 12 months included lack of viral suppression at enrollment and having a younger caregiver (age <25 years). Conclusions: FCCM in Eswatini was associated with a modest increase in viral suppression/undetectability at 12-months; 12-month retention and adherence did not differ by study group for children or caregivers. High levels of suppression and retention in both groups may have limited our ability to detect a difference. Trial registration: NCT03397420; ClinicalTrials.gov. 

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Quality of life of children with spinal muscular atrophy and their caregivers from the perspective of caregivers: a Chinese cross-sectional study

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive motor neuron disease leading to dysfunction of multiple organs. SMA can impair the quality of life (QoL) of patients and family. We aimed to evaluate the QoL of children with SMA and their caregivers and to identify the factors associated with QoL in a cross-sectional study conducted in China. Methods: We recruited 101 children aged 0–17 years with SMA and their caregivers from a children’s hospital in China. Twenty-six children had type I SMA, 56 type II and 19 type III. Each child’s QoL was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Neuromuscular Module (PedsQL NMM), which was completed by the child’s caregivers. The caregiver’s QoL was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module (PedsQL FIM). Information on sociodemographic characteristics, disease-specific characteristics, and treatments were collected using the proxy-reported questionnaire. Two-sample t tests and one-way ANOVA were used to compare differences in average scores of QoL across subgroups. Results: Children with type III SMA had a higher average Total score of PedsQL NMM and higher average scores in domains Neuromuscular disease and Family resources than children with type I or type II SMA (p < 0.001). Caregivers of children with type III SMA reported higher average scores in the domains of Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive functioning of the PedsQL FIM than those of children with types I or II SMA (p < 0.05). In addition, disease-related characteristics (e.g. limited mobility, stable course of disease, skeleton deformity, and digestive system dysfunction) and respiratory support were associated with lower average scores of PedsQL NMM and PedsQL FIM (p < 0.05). Exercise training, multidisciplinary team management and use of the medication Nusinersen were each associated with higher average scores in both PedsQL NMM and FIM (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated factors that may impair or improve QoL of children patients with SMA and their parents. Particularly, QoL was relatively poor in children with type I and type II SMA as well as in their caregivers compared to those with type III SMA. We strongly recommend that standard of care in a multidisciplinary team be strengthened to improve the QoL of SMA patients. Our study called for increased attention from clinical physicians on measuring QoL in their clinical practices in order to enhance the understanding of impacts of SMA and to make better decisions regarding treatment.

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Quality of life and associated factors among adults living with cancer and their family caregivers

Background: This study examined the association of needs, health literacy, and quality of life among adult Nigerians with cancer and family caregivers. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted involving 240 adults with cancer and family caregivers attending a tertiary hospital. More than two‐thirds of participants reported moderate or high needs. Results: Information (90.8%) and spiritual support (85%) were the domains of highest need among adults with cancer. Family/social support (85%) and spiritual support (81.7%) ranked the highest among family caregivers. A negative correlation was found between needs and quality of life. Stepwise regression analysis showed that needs and literacy explained 36% of the variance in adults with cancer's quality of life and 28% of the variance in family caregivers’ quality of life. Spiritual need accounted l for 9.5% and 9.1% of variation for adults with cancer and family caregivers, respectively. Conclusions: Findings suggest that interventions with a focus on social/family and spiritual needs may improve wellbeing of adults with cancer and caregivers in Nigeria. This research are generalizable to other low‐income countries where family values and spirituality are often a strong feature of daily life.

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Quality of life among caregivers of children with epilepsy: A cross‐sectional study at Eastern Nepal

Objective: To assess the quality of life among caregivers of children with epilepsy in a tertiary care center of eastern Nepal. Methods: A cross‐sectional study was conducted among primary caregivers of children with epilepsy, who accompanied their child in child neurology clinic. Consecutive sampling was done, and 106 respondents were interviewed. Data were collected using World Health Organization Quality of Life‐BREF (WHOQOL‐BREF) scale and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were applied. Results: Mean WHOQOL‐BREF score was 82.25 {standard deviation (SD) ±12. 11}. Transformed scores (0‐100) for each domain were 57.98 ± 14.55 in physical, 55.87 ± 13.16 in psychological, 53.12 ± 13.42 in social, and 52.52 ± 13.04 in environmental domain. Mean score for overall perception of quality of life (QOL) was 2.71 ± 0.79 and was 3.12 ± 0.75 for overall perception of health. Living below poverty line (P = .03) and poor seizure control status of children (P = .46) were significantly associated with lower total QOL score. Living below poverty line was significantly associated with low social relationship (P = .003) and environment domain (<0.001) scores. Conclusions: Epilepsy has a multifaceted impact on the lives of affected people. Caring children with epilepsy is associated with enormous psychosocial effects on parents and family members. Caregivers' QOL may affect the treatment and outcome of epilepsy in children. Given the consideration to scarcity of this kind of literature in Nepalese context, this study was conducted.

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A qualitative study on the needs of cancer caregivers in Vietnam

Background: Vietnam has experienced a rapid increase in cancer incidence with many cancers (70%) being diagnosed at a late stage. The majority of physical and psychosocial care is provided by caregivers with minimal professional input. Due to limited resources in hospitals and social and cultural norms regarding caregiving in Vietnam, caregivers provide a range of supportive functions for family members diagnosed with cancer. Objectives: This study sought to provide empirical evidence on the self-identified unmet needs of caregivers of inpatients in national oncology hospitals in Vietnam. Methods: Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers (n = 20) and health care providers (n = 22) in national oncology hospitals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Data was collaboratively analysed using thematic analysis. Findings were validated through key stakeholder group discussions with both caregivers and healthcare providers across multiple regions in Vietnam. Results: Analysis demonstrated that the burden of informal care is high with many caregivers managing patient’s severe and complex health needs with minimal support. Caregivers highlighted four main areas of critical need: (i) challenges in providing long term care, particularly in hospital and in-patient settings, such as accessing comfortable facilities, accommodation and finance; (ii) information needs about cancer, treatment, and nutrition; (iii) support for the emotional impact of cancer; and (iv) training about how to provide care to their family members during treatment and recovery phases. Conclusions: Caregivers provide invaluable support in supporting people with a cancer diagnosis, particularly given wider systemic challenges in delivering cancer services in Vietnam. Increasing visibility and formal support is likely to have both a positive impact upon the health and wellbeing of caregivers, as well as for cancer patients under their care. Given its absence, it is critical that comprehensive psychosocial care is developed for caregivers in Vietnam. 

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Qualitative research of informal caregivers’ personal experiences caring for older adults with dementia in Lithuania

Background: In many communities around the world, informal caregivers of older adults with dementia represent an essential, yet often underappreciated, source of long-term care. The present study aimed to determine the personal experiences of such caregivers, which could be instrumental for developing means of improving the quality of care for both care receivers and their informal caregivers. Methods: Five semi-structured focus-group discussions were held. The participants (n = 31) were all informal caregivers of older adults with dementia. The focus-group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive approach was used, and thematic data analysis was applied. Results: Four thematic categories were identified: learning caregiving through personal experience; implications of caregiving on social wellbeing; caregivers’ contradictory emotions regarding care delivery; and addressing challenges regarding care provision. Conclusions: This study revealed, among the informal caregivers, a variety of experiences, contradicting feelings, and problem-solving strategies relating to the care of older adults with mental disorders. Becoming an effective caregiver involves professional and psychological development. Developing caregiving skills, supportive environment and positive attitude can help facilitate providing care. Caregiving largely impacts the emotional, physical, and social wellbeing of the person; thus, comprehensive approaches are needed to prevent burnout and associated social disadvantages.

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A qualitative exploration of the unmet information needs of Chinese advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers

Background: Studies in the West have demonstrated that appropriate informational support is a vital component of cancer care, with positive effects on both patients and their informal caregivers. Since little is known about the information needs of advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers in China, where ‘silence as virtue’ is much more valued and the communication style is less open, this study was therefore conducted to elaborate the information needs of advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers as well as to explore their perceptions and experiences regarding their unmet information needs in the Chinese context. Methods: This sub-study of a previous cross-sectional survey utilized a qualitative descriptive study design. The approach involved semi-structured interviews that followed an interview guide to collect data. Eligible participants were the advanced cancer patients and informal caregivers who had participated in the previous cross-sectional survey and reported unmet information needs. Each interview was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Seventeen advanced cancer patients and 15 informal caregivers with unmet information needs participated in the semi-structured interviews, with ages ranging from 32 to 63 years old for patients and from 32 to 70 for informal caregivers. Four categories were extracted from the interviews with the patients and caregivers: (1) types of unmet information needs; (2) reasons for information needs not being met; (3) preferences for the provision of information; and (4) meaning and role of information. Each category had two to four sub-categories for both the patients and the caregivers, which were similar but not completely the same. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the provision of appropriate information could promote informed decision-making and greater satisfaction with treatment options, reductions in psychological disturbances, and enhanced confidence and ability in self-management and capacity in caregiving. Moreover, information on Traditional Chinese Medicine and food therapy should be increased, particularly for patients at the follow-up stage, while the amount of information on prognosis should be flexible as it could increase patients’ and caregivers’ psychological burden. Healthcare professionals were the most preferred information provider, although their heavy workload resulted in time constraints. In this case, they should provide information to patients and caregivers together as a ‘whole unit.’ At the same time, the value of separate conversations should also be recognized as some caregivers preferred to conceal unpleasant information from the patient.

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Psychosocial Factors Predicting Resilience in Family Caregivers of Children with Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background: Chronic diseases in childhood can affect the physical and mental health of patients and their families. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors that predict resilience in family caregivers of children with cancer and to define whether there are differences in the levels of resilience derived from these sociodemographic variables. Methods: Three hundred and thirty family caregivers of children with cancer, with an average age of 32.6 years were interviewed. The caregivers responded to a battery of tests that included a questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, the Measuring Scale of Resilience, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Inventory of Quality of Life, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, an interview of caregiver burden and the World Health Organization Well-Being Index. Results: The main findings indicate that family caregivers of children with cancer reported high levels of resilience, which were associated positively with quality of life, psychological well-being and years of study and associated negatively with depression, anxiety and caregiver burden. The variables that predicted resilience in families of children with cancer were quality of life, psychological well-being, depression and number of children. Family caregivers who were married and Catholic showed higher resilience scores. We conclude that being a caregiver in a family with children with cancer is associated with symptoms of anxiety and with depressive episodes. Conclusions: These issues can be overcome through family strength, well-being, quality of life and positive adaptation processes and mobilization of family resources.

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Psychosocial and economic impact of rheumatic diseases on caregivers of Mexican children

Background: Pediatric rheumatic disease (PRD) patients and their caregivers face a number of challenges, including the consequences of the PRD in patients and the impact on multiple dimensions of the caregivers’ daily lives. The objective of this study is to measure the economic, psychological and social impact that PRD has on the caregivers of Mexican children. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study including primary caregivers of children and adolescents with PRD (JIA, JDM and JSLE) during April and November, 2019. A trained interviewer conducted the CAREGIVERS questionnaire, a specific, 28-item multidimensional tool validated to measure the impact on different dimensions of the lives of caregivers. Sociodemographic, clinical, and healthcare system data were collected for further analysis. Results: Two hundred participants were recruited (women 169, 84.5%, aged 38 [IQR 33–44] years); 109 (54.5%) cared for patients with JIA, 28 (14%) JDM and 63 (31.5%) JSLE. The healthcare system was found to be determinant on the impact of the disease. The emotional impact was higher in all the participants, regardless of the specific diagnoses. The social dimension showed significant differences regarding PRD, healthcare system, time to reach the center, presence of disability, active disease, cutaneous and systemic manifestations, treatment and partner. Financial and work impacts were more frequent in those caring for JSLE and less so in those with a partner. Family relationships changed in 81 caregivers (25 [12.5%] worsened and 56 [28%] improved). No variables affecting spirituality were found. For caregivers without a partner, the social networks impact increased. Conclusion: The influence of sociodemographic factors can be devastating on families with children with a PRD. These data will help physicians to identify the areas with the greatest need for intervention to achieve comprehensive care for caregivers and their patients.

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Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale in family caregivers of patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Spanish validation study

Background: Psychosocial adjustment to a complex and disabling long‐term condition like Parkinson´s disease is a complex, dynamic, cyclical and interactive process. Family caregivers, face multiple challenges that require a significant effort in terms of psychosocial adjustment, which must be considered by healthcare professionals in order to provide a holistic care. The patients’ self‐report version of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS‐SR), which has been validated in Spain for use in Parkinson's disease, is designed to evaluate the psychosocial adjustment of patients. Objectives: Our purpose was to validate the Spanish PAIS‐SR version for caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: An open, national cross‐sectional study with one point‐in‐time evaluation and retest was carried out in 450 family caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease. Data were collected in Spain from April 2016 to September 2017. Results: The psychometric analysis performed showed that the Spanish version of the PAIS‐SR for caregivers presents adequate indicators of reliability, internal and external validity, and is structured according to the seven‐domain model proposed by the author of the instrument.

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Psychometric properties of the turkish version of the revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy

Background: The self-efficacy of caregivers is an important matter that merits investigation, and this requires that the concept of self-efficacy be measured with a valid, reliable instrument. Materials and Methods: This research examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy. A sociodemographic form and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy were employed to collect data from April through December 2019. A total of 250 family caregivers were included in the study, which assessed the content validity, construct validity and reliability of the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy. Results: All 18 items had significant item-to-total correlations (p <0.05). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.82 for the total scale, 0.76 for the self-efficacy in obtaining respite subscale, 0.82 for the self-efficacy in responding to disruptive patient behaviours subscale and 0.96 for the self-efficacy in controlling upsetting thoughts about caregiving subscale. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy is a valid, reliable measurement tool and suitable to the Turkish culture. 

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Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) Among Family Caregivers of People with Schizophrenia in China

Background: The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is one of the most widely used scales for social support. Although previous studies have shown good reliability and concurrent validity, conflicting evidence exists on its factor structures. Aim: To validate the MSPSS among caregivers of people with schizophrenia in China and assess its factor structure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 449 family caregivers in 12 communities for psychometric testing, eg, internal consistency reliability, test–retest reliability, construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The MSPSS showed good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95, good test–retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.91, and kappa ranging from 0.62 to 0.71. Concurrent validity was supported by its negative correlations with perceived stress, and significant positive correlations with caregiving rewarding feelings, family functioning, and coping. EFA yielded a two-factor structure (family vs non-family), while CFA generally supported a three-factor structure (family, friends, and significant others). Conclusion: Our findings show good psychometric properties of the MSPSS among caregivers of people with schizophrenia in China. EFA yields two-factor structure and CFA yields three factors consistent with the theory underlying the measure’s development.

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A psychometric evaluation of the Caregiver Contribution to Self-Care of Heart Failure Index in a Thai population

Background: Caregivers are major contributor to the self-care of patients with heart failure. The Caregiver Contribution to Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (CC-SCHFI) measures these contributions across three scales: self-care maintenance (symptom monitoring and treatment adherence); self-care management (dealing with symptoms); and confidence in contributing to the self-care (self-efficacy in managing self-care) of patients with heart failure. Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting family members with heart failure in Thailand, yet no validated tool exists to measure their contribution. We examined the psychometric properties of the CC-SCHFI in a Thai population. Methods: The CC-SCHFI was translated into Thai using a standard forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the CC-SCHFI in 100 family caregivers of heart failure patients in Southern Thailand. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity, and factor score determinacy coefficients were computed to evaluate internal consistency reliability. Results: The Thai version of the CC-SCHFI demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (composite reliability of each scale ranged from 0.76 to 0.99). Reliability estimates were adequate for each scale (McDonald’s omega ranged from 0.75 to 0.96). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure of the instrument, with good fit indices for all three scales (comparative fit index = 0.98–1.00; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.00–0.07). Conclusions: The Thai version of the CC-SCHFI appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring caregiver contributions to self-care maintenance and self-care management as well as contributing to caregiver confidence in the self-care of Thai heart failure patients.

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Psychological distress and burden of care among family caregivers of patients with mental illness in a neuropsychiatric outpatient clinic in Nigeria

Background: The wellbeing of family caregivers of mentally ill persons has often been ignored, despite that family caregivers can be predisposed to psychiatric morbidities and burden in caring for their mentally ill family members. This study examined the levels of psychological distress and burden of care experienced by family caregivers who care for their mentally ill relatives in Edo State, Nigeria. Methods: This study assessed psychological distress using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Burden of care was measured using the 22-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was done to determine factors associated with burden of care and psychological distress, while factor analysis was used to determine the underlying forms of burden of care and psychological distress among participants. Results: Caregivers studied were relatives of patients diagnosed for depression (25.1%), substance use disorder (22.2%), schizophrenia (20.2%) and bipolar affective disorder (11.1%). Approximately 15% experienced no-to-mild burden, 51.3% mild-to-moderate burden and 34.0% high-or-severe burden. Nearly halve (49.0%) of participants experienced psychological distress. Severe rate of psychological distress was observed among subjects caring for patients with schizophrenia (60.7%), epilepsy (60.0%), substance use disorder (52.2%) and depression (49.0%). High burden of care was more preponderant among caregivers of relatives with mental retardation and epilepsy (50% each) and schizophrenia (39.3%). Having a higher educational qualification and being self-employed was a predictor of psychological distress. Gender of caregiver and the diagnosis schizophrenia among relatives of caregivers predisposed to burden of care. Three factors including social and emotional dysfunction, psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction were identified as components of psychological health through factor analysis. On the burden scale, six factor components were identified as: personal strain, role strain, intolerance, patients’ dependence, guilt and interference in personal life. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychological morbidity and burden of care among family caregivers providing care for persons with mental illness.

 

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Psychiatric morbidity among informal caregivers of children suffering from intellectual developmental disorders

Objective: To assess the presence of psychiatric morbidity and associated socio-demographic factors among informal caregivers of children suffering from intellectual developmental disorders. Method: The analytical cross-sectional study was conducted at the Neurology Department of a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019, and comprised informal caregiver of children diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorders presenting at the paediatric or neurology outpatient clinics of the hospital. Intellectual developmental disorder was diagnosed by consultant neurologists or psychiatrists or paediatricians on the basis of International Classification of Diseases-11 criteria. Psychiatric morbidity in the informal caregiver was assessed using the 12-item general health questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS 23, and binary logistic regression was applied to assess association. Results: Of the 500 informal caregivers, 323(64.6%) showed psychiatric morbidity. Increasing age and comorbid epilepsy among the patients were significantly related to the presence of psychiatric morbidity among the informal caregivers (p<0.05). Conclusion: Majority of informal caregivers of children with learning difficulties were found to have psychiatric morbidity. 

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Protocol for a patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) survey of patients discharged during the COVID-19 pandemic and their family caregivers

Introduction: In the Swiss canton of Valais, the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected on 28 February 2020. Discharged patients’ and their family caregivers’ experiences in relation to safety, quality of care, trust and communication during the COVID-19 hospitalisation period remain unexplored. The study aims to collect the patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) survey of patients discharged during the COVID-19 pandemic and their family caregivers. Methods and analysis: Patients aged ≥18 years, hospitalised between 28 February and 11 May 2020 and then discharged home, plus their family caregivers will be invited to complete a self-administrated questionnaire made up of 14 closed questions and 1 open-ended question. The questionnaire will include items on the patient’s hospital trajectory and assess the interpersonal trust placed in nurses and physicians based on Krajewska-Kułak et al’s Trust in Nurse Scale and Anderson et al’s Trust in Physician Scale. Participants’ perceived stress will be assessed using Cohen et al’s Perceived Stress Scale. Feelings of safety will be examined based on Dryhurst et al’s questionnaire on Risk Perception During Pandemics. After ethical clearance, data will be collected using a postal paper questionnaire and via an online web link. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be computed, and the open question will undergo a qualitative thematic analysis. We will analyse perceptions of the different hospital trajectories experienced by patients undergoing surgery with and without a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ethics and dissemination: The Human Research Ethics Committee of Vaud (2020-02025) authorised this study. Gathering experiences and learning about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the social determinants of health among discharged patients and families fit in well with the Triple Aim framework and the PREMs survey. The study will formulate recommendations to support interventions in the face of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic and their effects on patients’ and their family caregivers’ experiences.

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Profile and needs of primary informal caregivers of older patients in Belgian geriatric day hospitals: a multicentric cross-sectional study

Background: With the improvement of life expectancy, the world faces increasing demands for care of older persons. In this manuscript, we define the characteristics of primary informal caregivers (PIC) of patients aged 75 years and older admitted to geriatric day hospitals (GDH) in Belgium. A PIC is defined as the person who most often provides care and assistance to persons who need to be cared for. We describe PIC socio-demographic characteristics, satisfaction, burden and wishes about caring; the type of assistance provided and received, their self-rated health, socio-demographic and medical characteristics of proxies, in particular the presence of behavioural disorders. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 25 GDH. Participants Four hundred seventy-five PIC of patients ≥75 years and their proxies. PIC completed a questionnaire at the GDH assessing burden by Zarit Burden Index-12 (ZBI-12), self-rated health, social restriction due to caregiving and financial participation. We compared the characteristics of PIC with high and low burden, and the characteristics of spouses and adult children PIC. We also analyzed factors associated with a high burden in a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: PIC were mainly women (72%), adult children (53.8%) and spouses (30.6%). The mean age was 64 ± 14 years for PIC and 84 ± 5 years for care recipients. PIC helped for most of Activities in Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental ADL (iADL). The median ZBI-12 score was 10 [IQR 5–18]. In multivariable regression analysis, a high burden was positively associated in the total group with living with the relative (p = 0.045), the difficulty to take leisure time or vacation (p < 0.001), behavioral and mood disorders (p < 0.001;p = 0.005), and was negatively associated with bathing the relative (p = 0.017) and a better subjective health status estimation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Primary informal caregivers, who were predominantly women, were involved in care for ADL and iADL. A high burden was associated with living with the relative, the difficulty to take leisure time or vacation and the relative’s behavioral and mood disorders. Bathing the relative and a subjective health status estimated as good as or better than people the same age, were protective factors against a high burden.

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Prevalence of psychological disorders among caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities and motor disabilities in Shiraz

Introduction: The prevalence of mental disorders plays an important role in identifying the state of mental health of the community and estimate the required facilities at any time. Objectives: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychological disorders in caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities and motor disabilities in Shiraz. Methods: The research was descriptive and cross-sectional survey. The statistical population consisted of all mothers of children with disabilities who were admitted to welfare centers and clinics of Shiraz in 2019. Of these families, 35 mothers with children with intellectual disability and 35 mothers with children with motor disability were selected as the sample group. SCL-90-R (1976) was used to collect of data. For analyze the data, MANOVA test was used. Results: The results of this study showed that the most common psychological disorders in caregivers of children with intellectual disability were aggression (hostility), hypersensitivity to interpersonal relationships, anxiety and depression, and in caregivers of children with motor disabilities were physical complaints, sensitivity to interpersonal relationships, paranoid thoughts and anxiety. Conclusions: According to the findings of this research, it can be concluded that caregivers of children with special needs in terms of mental health are not in a favorable situation, which is due to the lack of proper adaptation with the disability of their child and the failure to meet their needs.

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Pressure Injury Prevention Knowledge Among Family Caregivers of Patients Needing Home Care

Background: One of the complications that patients in need of home healthcare might experience is pressure injury. Given that a significant part of the care of these patients is performed by their family caregivers, they must have sufficient knowledge about prevention and treatment of pressure injuries. Methods: We investigated the knowledge related to pressure injuries among family caregivers of patients needing home care who were at risk of pressure injury. Family caregivers of patients in Iran who needed home care services and were at risk of developing pressure injuries based on the Braden scale were invited to participate. A special questionnaire designed by Arboledas and Pancorbo-Hidalgo was used to assess the caregivers' level of knowledge. This questionnaire consists of 23 items, and with total scores between 23 and 46. A higher score indicates a higher level of knowledge about pressure injuries. A total of 323 family caregivers participated, most of whom were female. Results: The mean total score of caregivers' knowledge about pressure injuries was 34.5 ± 3.4 (ranging 23 to 42). Most of the participants (n = 290) stated they did not receive adequate education related to pressure injuries. Among the demographic variables, a significant relationship was observed between the level of caregivers' knowledge with the level of education, younger age, offspring, admission in intensive care units, and male sex (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Family caregivers did not have sufficient knowledge about pressure injuries. Most of them did not receive the necessary education during the time of their patient's hospitalization. This issue should be considered by healthcare providers, and the necessary interventions should be considered to improve the situation.

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Predictors of health service use by family caregivers of persons with multimorbidity

Background: Informal caregivers of patients with multiple chronic conditions are socially good, promoting the sustainability of a large part of home care provision. However, this very demanding activity causes health problems that increase their own need for health services. This study analyses the use of health services by informal carers, comparing it with the use made by the general population with similar characteristics. Methodology: Cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the Malaga-Valle Guadalhorce Primary Health Care District (Spain). Healthcare demand and perceived health were measured in the family caregivers, compared to the general population. Strobe Statement for observational studies has been used to strength the report of the results. Results: Final sample consisted of 314 family caregivers together with a subsample of 2.290 non-caregivers taken from data of the National Health Survey. This subsample was paired by gender with our sample. Formal caregivers make fewer annual visits to the health services, with respect to the general population, regardless of the perceived level of health. The difference of the means between those who perceive their health as very poor was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.20) consultations with the family doctor, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.26) consultations with medical specialists and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.52 to 1.87) emergency room attention. Three independent factors were identified that predispose to the increased use of health services: background of greater education achievement (OR 8.13, 95% CI: 1.30 to 50.68), non-cohabitation with the care recipient (OR 3.57, 95% CI: 1.16 to 11.11) and a more positive physical quality of life component (OR 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.09). Discussion and Implications: Intrinsic components of the caregiver reveal their independent relationship with the provision of informal care and the use of health services. A broader vision is needed for the factors that influence the health of these caregivers to develop multipurpose interventions and improve the consistency and effectiveness of the health services offered to the caregiver. 

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Predictors of Family Caregiver Burden in Shanghai

Background: This study explored predictors of family caregiver burden against the backdrop of the rapidly aging population and gradually weakening family care in urban China. Methods: It used a unique sample from the 2017 survey on older adults with functional disability and their family caregivers in Shanghai, China. A multi-pronged approach and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were employed to identify predictors of family caregiver burden. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that approximately 25% of caregivers felt stressed. Many independent variables related to caregivers, care recipients, their relationship, and social support had statistically significant impacts on caregiver burden. This study also found that caregiver educational level, caregiver family economic status, and the number of other caregivers had significant moderating effects on the correlation between older people's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) and family caregiver burden. Conclusions: Policy implications derived from those findings were also discussed.

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Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Family Caregivers of Patients with Dementia in Java, Indonesia

Objective: Depressive symptoms are common mental health problems among the family caregivers of patients with dementia. However, little is known about the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the family caregivers of patients with dementia in Indonesia. This study aimed to examine: 1) the factors predicting depressive symptoms, 2) the mediating role of social support in the relationship between burden and depressive symptoms, and 3) the association between depressive symptoms and healthcare utilization among family caregivers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 250 family caregivers of patients with dementia recruited from four hospitals in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected by Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI); the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), the Mastery scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, hierarchical multiple linear regression, and Baron and Kenny’s regression method were used to analyze the data. Results: The results revealed that about a quarter of the participants (24.8%) experienced depressive symptoms. Caregiver burden, mastery, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, and social support explained 45.5% of the variance in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among family caregivers (R2=0.455). Social support also partially mediated the association between caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. There was no association between depressive symptoms and the use of healthcare services among the family caregivers. Conclusion: The findings revealed that social support is a mediating factor affecting the relationship between caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. Interventions targeting social support to help alleviate caregiver burden would be effective in helping reduce depressive symptoms in the family caregivers of patients with dementia. 

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Pilot test of a learned resourcefulness program for older family caregivers in Taiwan

Background: Learned resourcefulness, a theory-based education intervention, can be applied to provide strategies to improve the health status and reduce caregiver burden for older family caregivers. Methods: We developed a culturally relevant SOURCE program and designed a pilot study to its effect and feasibility for older family caregivers living in Taiwan. Using a quasi-experimental study with one-group, pre-test and post-test design, we recruited a convenience sample of 30 older family caregivers who received home-care services from a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The older family caregivers participated in and completed the four-week SOURCE program. Effectiveness and feasibility data were collected after the completion of the program. Findings: Results indicated that the SOURCE program significantly improved caregiving burden (t = 3.05, p = .005) and revealed that the program was helpful and useful to older family caregivers. The next step will be to use the SOURCE program with more older family caregivers. 

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Physical, Psychological, Social, and Spiritual Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Their Caregivers: A Scoping Review

Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults, and it has been shown to cause considerable symptom burden in both patients and their caregivers. Recently, studies have focused on quality-of-life (QOL) measures and the relationship with health outcomes. However, to date, the breadth of QOL domains and measures is not well represented in the literature, diminishing the ability to form specific questions and to develop a systematic review. Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to investigate and analyze articles related to CLL patient and caregiver physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being published between January 1, 2015, and June 15, 2020. These articles will be used to provide an evidence base for the development of an integrative education tool to empower patients and their caregivers following a CLL diagnosis and throughout the continuum of care. Methods: This scoping review considered all studies that addressed physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being of patients diagnosed with CLL or their caregivers. A 3-step search strategy was undertaken: (1) an initial limited search of PubMed; (2) an extensive search using all identified keywords and index terms; and (3) a hand search of the reference lists of included articles. This review was limited to studies published in English between January 1, 2015, and June 15, 2020. Reviewers extracted data independently; disagreements that arose between the reviewers were resolved via discussion or with a third reviewer. Results: A total of 5629 articles were screened, 937 full-text publications were reviewed, and 75 relevant articles were identified. Most studies focused on physical well-being. Several review articles discussed treatment algorithms and consideration for treatment of patients with CLL. No articles evaluating the patient/ caregiver relationship were identified, and only a single study was designed to assess caregiver health status. Conclusion: The most commonly evaluated QOL component was physical well-being, whereas only a single article discussed spiritual well-being. Social well-being was discussed in 4 articles. Overall, 8 articles spanned the psychological and physical domains. Inclusion of all 4 QOL components will be beneficial for developing a patient education platform for patients and their caregivers following a diagnosis of CLL and throughout the care continuum.

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Perceptions of Care Quality during an Acute Hospital Stay for Persons with Dementia and Family/Carers

Objectives: to report on acute hospital care experiences for persons with dementia and family/carers in a pilot study (PiP) of person-centred care compared with usual care. Methods: participants were recruited from one acute aged care ward and one mixed medical/surgical ward. One-on-one interviews occurred soon after discharge using a semi-structured interview guide framed by person-centred principles whereby the person is: V—valued; I—treated as an individual; P—perceived as having a unique identity; and S—supported socially and psychologically. Data were analysed deductively with reference to these a priori principles. Results: 11 consented persons with dementia and 36 family/carers participated. A total of eight core VIPS concepts were derived from the data. While many occasions of person-centred care occurred, there was variability in staff expertise, interest and aptitude for dementia care work. Neglect of person-centred principles more frequently occurred for the usual care group, where staff failed to place the person and their family/carer at the centre of service. Conclusions: person-centred services for persons with dementia requires that hospital executive equip staff with the relevant knowledge, skills and support to adhere to person-centred care guidelines. Hospitals must address workplace cultures and procedures that favour organisational systems over person-centred services.

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Perceived caregiving preparedness and quality of life among Indonesian family caregivers of patients with life-limiting illness

Background: Family caregivers play an important role in palliative care. However, family caregivers often report that they felt insufficiently prepared to become a caregiver. This lack of preparedness may lead to a decline in the caregiver s quality of life (QoL), and they may not be able to provide sufficient palliative care to their family member. Aims: To investigate the preparedness of family members to become caregivers alongside their QoL. Method: A correlational cross-sectional study design was used. A sample of 104 family caregivers completed a World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief to assess the QoL of participants. The Caregiving Inventory (CGI) was used to assess how prepared family members felt to become care-givers, and the CGI also included questions related to the patient s socio-demographic status and illness. Correlation analysis was used to address the research questions. Caregivers were caring for a family member with a life-limiting illness in a suburban district of Indonesia. Findings: The 104 family caregivers had a relatively low score for both QoL and caregiving preparedness. A caregiver feeling more prepared was associated with a higher QoL. The study also found a positive correlation (r value, between 0.236 0.481) between perceived caregiving preparedness, including its factors, and domains of QoL. Conclusion: A person s preparedness to become a caregiver is significantly associated with all QoL domains: physical, psychological, social and environmental. Family members can be better prepared to become a caregiver with training and information about personal care and symptom management. 

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Perceived Benefits and Burdens of Participation for Caregivers of Cancer Patients in Hospice Clinical Trials: A Pilot Study

Context: Hospice is a service for those with a life expectancy of six months or less. Family caregivers suffer from depression and anxiety as they care for their loved one until they die. Little is known about how research participants decide to consent to participate in clinical trials in the hospice setting. Objectives: This pilot study sought to answer two research questions: 1) In what way do demographic characteristics, mental health, and perceived caregiving experience impact the decision by caregivers to participate in hospice clinical trials? 2) In what ways do the perceived physical, psychological, economic, familial, and social dimensions of caregivers' lives influence their decision to participate in hospice clinical trials? Methods: The characteristics and stated reasons for consent of hospice caregivers participating in a clinical trial were compared with individuals who refused clinical trial consent and only consented to this pilot study. Demographic, mental health, and perceptions of caregiving experience were measured as influencers to the consent decision. Recruitment calls were recorded and coded using framework analysis to identify perceived benefits and burdens impacting the decision to consent to the clinical trial. Results: Overall, trial participants were more often adult children to the patient (55% vs. 21%, P = 0.005), younger (56 vs. 63 years, P = 0.04), and employed (47% vs. 24%, P = 0.02) as compared with those who did not consent to participate in the trial. Reported levels of depression, anxiety, and quality of life were not significantly different between those who chose to participate in the clinical trial and those who participated only in this pilot study; however, caregiver burden was higher for those consenting to the clinical trial (4.05 vs. 7.16, P < 0.0001). Perceived benefits expressed by both groups were largely psychological as participants felt positive about contributing to science. Burdens expressed by both groups were predominately physical as they related to hesitation to participate in the intervention because of technology or the burdens of caregiving. Conclusion: The benefits and burdens model for clinical trial participation is applicable to the caregiver experience in the hospice setting. Understanding the perceptions and dimensions of benefits and burdens to potential study participants is critical to not only the intervention design but also the tailoring of recruitment contacts and informed consent process.

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Parkinson’s symptoms and caregiver affiliate stigma: A multinational study

Background and Objective: Research has documented the stigma that individuals with degenerative neurological diseases experience, but caregivers also experience stigma by association (i.e., affiliate stigma). In order to shed light on the stigma of caregivers of people with degenerative neurological diseases, the current study aimed to explore cross-cultural differences in the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caregiver affiliate stigma, as well as the relationship between PD symptoms and caregiver affiliate stigma. Applications for Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. Methods: Survey data were collected in PD clinics at public, academic medical centers. Informal caregivers of an individual with PD from the US (n = 105) and from Mexico (n = 148) participated in the study. Caregivers completed a questionnaire that included the MDS Unified PD Rating Scale to describe the symptoms of the individual with PD, as well as the Affiliate Stigma Scale and demo-graphic information. Results: A series of multiple regressions was run to examine whether PD symptoms were associated with affiliate stigma and if these differed by country. These regressions suggested that different patterns of PD symptoms predicted affiliate stigma in each country. Stigma was higher in the US compared to Mexico, and the relationship between bowel/bladder symptoms and affiliate stigma was significantly stronger in the US. Conclusion: Symptoms of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases are related to affiliate stigma experienced by caregivers, and these relationships may differ cross-culturally. Negative public attitudes concerning bowl and bladder issues and the physical symptoms that accompany PD re-main a source of stigma for caregivers and families, particularly in the US. Interventions for caregivers of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases should include strategies for coping with stigma concerning bladder and bowel problems, as well as other physical and mental health issues. 

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Parents' and caregivers' satisfaction with community‐based rehabilitation (CBR) services for children with disability in east coast states in Peninsular Malaysia

Background: The Community‐Based Rehabilitation (CBR) services under the Malaysian Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development have provided two types of services for disabled children: centre‐based and home‐based care since 1984. Methods: A cross‐sectional study was conducted among parents and caregivers with children receiving treatment at CBRs on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, to determine the level of satisfaction with the services provided. Respondents were recruited via multi‐staged sampling, and simple randomisation at CBR level. Respondents self‐administered the Physical Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (PTSQ) and provided sociodemographic data. Results: A total of 297 respondents were recruited and all the questionnaires were returned complete, making the response rate 100%. Total satisfaction scores and factors influencing respondents’ satisfaction for both groups were analysed. The mean total satisfaction score for centre‐based and home‐based were 84.69 (SD = 10.01) and 75.30 (SD = 12.23; t = 7.160, p ≤ .001) respectively. Ninety‐eight per cent of centre‐based and 89% of home‐based respondents were satisfied with the current services. There were significantly mean differences in the satisfaction level of respondents of different states respectively (Kelantan mean 84.92 10.83, Terengganu mean 77.49 11.16 and Pahang mean 77.47 12.93, p ≤ .001). Factors associated with satisfaction were education (p = .002), occupation (p = <0.001), monthly income (p = .001) and source of income (p = .001). Conclusions: In conclusion, majority of parents and caregivers were satisfied with current services provided at CBR and satisfaction with services was dependent on CBR centre location and education and financial earning capacity.

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Parent Experiences With Electronic Medication Monitoring in Pediatric Asthma Management: Qualitative Study

Background: Electronic medication monitoring (EMM) is a digital tool that can be used for tracking daily medication use. Previous studies of EMM in asthma management have been conducted in adults or have examined pediatric interventions that use EMM for less than 1 year. To understand how to improve EMM-enhanced interventions, it is necessary to explore the experiences of parents of children with asthma, recruited from outpatient practices, who completed a 12-month intervention trial. Objective: The objective of our study was to use qualitative inquiry to answer the following questions: (1) how did using an EMM-enhanced intervention change parents'/caregivers’ experiences of managing their child’s asthma, and (2) what do parents recommend for improving the intervention in the future? Methods: Parents were recruited from the intervention arm of a multicomponent health intervention enhanced by Bluetooth-enabled sensors placed on inhaler medications. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children aged 4-12 years with asthma. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and inductively analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results: Interview participants reflected an even mix of publicly and privately insured children and a diverse racial-ethnic demographic. Parents discussed 6 key themes related to their experience with the EMM-enhanced intervention for the management of their child's asthma: (1) compatibility with the family's lifestyle, (2) impact on asthma management, (3) impact on the child’s health, (4) emotional impact of the intervention, (5) child’s engagement in asthma management with the intervention, and (6) recommendations for future intervention design. Overall, parents reported that the 12-month EMM intervention was compatible with their daily lives, positively influenced their preventive and acute asthma management, and promoted their child's engagement in their own asthma management. While parents found the intervention acceptable and generally favorable, some parents identified compatibility issues for families with multiple caregivers and frustration when the technology malfunctioned. Conclusions: Parents generally viewed the intervention as a positive influence on the management of their child's asthma. However, our study also highlighted technology challenges related to having multiple caregivers, which will need to be addressed in future iterations for families. Attention must be paid to the needs of parents from low socioeconomic households, who may have more limited access to reliable internet or depend on other relatives for childcare. Understanding these family factors will help refine how a digital tool can be adopted into daily disease management of pediatric asthma.

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Overcoming Challenges to Surrogate Decision Making for Young Adults at the End of Life

Surrogate decision makers (SDMs) are challenged by difficult decisions at the end of life. This becomes more complex in young adult patients when parents are frequently the SDMs. This age group (18 to 39 years old) commonly lacks advanced directives to provide guidance which results in increased moral distress during end of life decisions. Multiple factors help guide medical decision making throughout a patient's disease course and at the end of life. These include personal patient factors and SDM factors. It has been identified that spiritual and community group support is a powerful, but inadequately used resource for these discussions. It can improve patient-SDM-provider communications, decrease psycho-social distress, and avoid unnecessary interventions at the end of life.

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The role, impact, and support of informal caregivers in the delivery of palliative care for patients with advanced cancer: A multi-country qualitative study

Background: Cancer is increasing in its prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. Informal caregivers are key to supporting engagement and interaction with palliative care services, but limited literature on their role impedes development of supportive interventions. Aim: We aimed to understand the role, impact, and support of informal caregivers of patients with advanced cancer when interacting with palliative care services in Nigeria, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Design: Secondary analysis of qualitative interview transcripts. The dataset was assessed for fit and relevance and framework approach was used. Setting/participants: Interview transcripts of informal caregivers included participants aged over 18 years of age recruited from palliative care services across participating countries. Results: A total of 48 transcripts were analyzed. Mean age was 37 (range 19–75) with equal numbers of men and women. Five themes emerged from the data: (1) caregivers are coordinators of emotional, practical, and health service matters; (2) caregiving comes at a personal social and financial cost; (3) practical and emotional support received and required; (4) experience of interacting and liaising with palliative care services; and (5) barriers and recommendations relating to the involvement of palliative care. Conclusions: The role of informal caregivers is multi-faceted, with participants reporting taking care of the majority of medical, physical, financial, and emotional needs of the care recipient, often in the face of sacrifices relating to employment, finances, and their own health and social life. Efforts to develop comprehensive cancer control plans in sub-Saharan Africa must take account of the increasing evidence of informal caregiver needs.

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The Role of Beliefs and Psychological Factors in Caring of Patients With Cancer

Background: Cancer affects not only the patient but also family members as informal caregivers. In order for family caregivers to achieve balance and improve their caregiving roles, it is essential to identify the beliefs and psychological aspects affecting them. Methods: The present study was carried out qualitatively with a descriptive phenomenological design in 2020. The main participants in this study were selected from one of the major referral centers for cancer patients in West Azerbaijan Province, located in northwestern, Iran. Twenty-two family caregivers were selected through a purposive sampling method. Findings: Data analysis showed that the 3 main themes of “emotional and religious preconceptions,” “feeling committed to caring for beloveds,” and “resilience” played a prominent role in family caregivers. These factors led to caregivers' commitment to and responsibility for care. Holistic care necessitates consideration of all aspects of human life. The results of this study led to an understanding of the complex tendencies and feelings of family caregivers. Conclusions: Based on the results, it was found that care is influenced by beliefs, religious preconceptions, sociocultural, and psychological factors. Identifying these variables helps medical staff share planning, interventions, and counseling with family caregivers and address issues that affect them.

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The Relationship Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Saliva C-Reactive Protein and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm in Latina Breast Cancer Survivors and Their Informal Caregivers: A Pilot Study

Introduction: To date, no study has explored associations between objective stress-related biomarkers (i.e., inflammatory markers, diurnal rhythm of cortisol) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Latina breast cancer survivors and their informal caregivers (i.e., family, friends). Method: This cross-sectional feasibility study assessed saliva C-reactive protein, saliva diurnal cortisol rhythm (cortisol slope), and self-reported HRQOL (psychological, physical, and social domains) in 22 Latina survivor–caregiver dyads. Feasibility was defined as ≥85% samples collected over 2 days (on waking, in afternoon, and in evening). Associations between biomarkers and HRQOL were examined with correlational analyses. Results: Collection of saliva was feasible. Strongest associations were observed between survivor evening cortisol (as well as cortisol slope) and fatigue, a component of physical HRQOL. Discussion: Associations presented may help promote investigations of mechanisms linking stress-related biomarkers and HRQOL in Latina breast cancer survivor–caregiver dyads, which will facilitate development of culturally congruent interventions for this underserved group.

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The place of family caregivers for older adults with Alzheimer’s disease: a literature review in Brazil and the United States

Background: This is a review of the literature on family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease from 2013 to 2017 available in the BVS, Scopus, and PubMed databases. Methods: The descriptors used (translated from Portuguese) were Alzheimer’s disease, caregivers, elderly health, by combination. Findings: Of the 163 papers analyzed, after applying the relevance test, we selected 26 papers presented from five thematic units: 1- Literature reviews; 2- Prevalence profiles of AD caregivers; 3- Qualitative research that analyzes the feelings and sufferings of caregivers; 4- Comparative studies and objective tests; 5- Evaluation studies of intervention programs. The comprehensive and comparative analysis of the investigations highlighted differences and similarities, advantages, and disadvantages of the samples and methodologies adopted in Brazil and the US. The articles analyzed factors that influence family caregivers’ impact with Alzheimer’s disease, identifying the affective bonds involved, the expected reciprocity, the physical, emotional, and social costs associated with a prolonged chronic illness and requiring increasingly complex care. Conclusions: Family caregivers and older adults with AD require a broad, accessible, or articulated support network inside and outside the family.

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The Perceptions of Nurses and Nursing Students Regarding Family Involvement in the Care of Hospitalized Adult Patients

Background: Over the past few decades, there have been concerns regarding the humanization of healthcare and the involvement of family members in patients' hospital care. The attitudes of hospitals toward welcoming families in this respect have improved. In Arab culture, the main core of society is considered to be the family, not the individual. Objectives: The objective behind involving family in patient care is to meet patients' support needs. Consequently, this involvement affects nurses and their attitudes toward the importance of family involvement in patient care. Objectives: To describe nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of family involvement in the care of hospitalized adult patients in Saudi Arabia. Design: This study used a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design. The data were collected using a convenience sampling survey via social media. Results: A total of 270 participants (staff and students) took part in this study, including 232 (85.9%) females and 38 (14.1%) males. Moreover, a high percentage of participants (78.8%) acknowledged that family presence strongly affected the improvement of the patient's condition. However, 69.3% of participants thought that involving family members during special care processes or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) would be traumatizing for these individuals. Moreover, there was a significant diffidence between the attitudes of the nurses and nursing students toward family involvement and the number of years of employment (F = 3.60, p < 0.05). On the contrary, there were insignificant differences between the attitudes of the nurses and nursing students toward family involvement and their gender, nationality, age, education level, and years of work experience in Saudi Arabia (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between nurses' years of employment and their support of family involvement in patient care (ß = −0.20, SE = 0.08, t = −2.70, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Nurses with more experience showed no support for family involvement in patient care. We have to consider the clinical barriers that affect nurses' support for family involvement in patient-centered care, such as hospital polices, guidelines, and the model used for family-centered care integration in the hospital system to facilitate the interaction between healthcare providers and family members.

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The Patterns of Caregiving Activities for Family Caregivers of Older Adults in Hong Kong: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

Objectives: This study identified the classes (i.e. patterns) of caregivers' activities, based on their engagements in caregiving activities, and explored the characteristics and the caregiver burden of these classes. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey on the profiles of family caregivers of older adults in Hong Kong. A latent class analysis approach was adopted to classify family caregivers (N = 932) according to their routine involvements in 17 daily caregiving activities: 6 activities of daily living (ADLs) and 8 instrumental activities of daily living activities (IADLs) in addition to emotional support, decision making, and financial support. Multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regression illuminated the characteristics of the classes and compared their levels of caregiver burden. Results: The family caregivers fell into 5 classes: All-Round Care (High Demand, 19.5%), All-Round Care (Moderate Demand, 8.2%), Predominant IADLs Care (High Demand, 23.8%), Predominant IADLs Care (Moderate Demand, 32.5%), and Minimal ADLs and IADLs Care (Low Demand, 16.0%). These classes exhibited different characteristics in terms of care recipients' cognitive statuses and caregiver backgrounds. The levels of caregiver burden differed across classes; the All-Round Care (High Demand) class experienced the highest levels of caregiver burden. Discussion: This study contributes to existing scholarship by turning away from a predefined category of care tasks to explore the patterns of caregiving activities. By identifying caregiving activity patterns and understanding their associated characteristics and caregiver burden, prioritizing and targeting caregiver support interventions better is possible.

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Older Caregivers With HIV: An Unrecognized Gap in the Literature

Background: Although the number of older people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing, prior research has focused on older PLWH as care recipients and psychosocial factors (e.g., stigma, social support) associated with their HIV care. Literature on HIV caregiving mainly focuses on family members providing care to PLWH or children of parents with HIV. There is a gap in the literature in terms of older PLWH's roles as caregivers to their family members. Thanks to combination antiretrovirals that helpPLWHlive longer and have healthier lives, many olderPLWHnow find themselves in a position to provide care to family members. To help olderPLWHage successfully, it is important to understand their role as caregivers while they juggle responsibilities with their own health care needs. Objectives: This article elucidates this gap in the literature on older PLWH who are caregivers and provides direction for a research agenda and potential clinical implications.

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Non-spousal family support, marital status, and heart problems in adulthood

Background: Support from one's spouse has long been documented as a significant determinant of health for married individuals. However, non-spousal family support may play an important role in health particularly for unmarried individuals. Objectives: Therefore, this study examined whether the association between non-spousal family support and diagnosis of heart problems differed by marital status and whether gender and education moderated these associations. Results: Data came from the first two waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. This study selected respondents who participated in both waves of MIDUS and were not diagnosed with a heart problem at Wave 1 (N = 3,119). Participants reported whether they had any heart trouble. Discrete-time event history analysis was used to examine the risk of heart problems between MIDUS Waves 1 and 2. A higher level of non-spousal family support was associated with a lower risk of developing a heart problem only among unmarried women and unmarried individuals with high school education or less, and not for married individuals. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of considering specific sources of family support when studying heart health, and the health-protective role of non-spousal family support for those who are not married.

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Needs of Dementia Family Caregivers in Spain during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Background: We explored the experience from caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) during mandatory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. Methods: An online survey, which studied the perceptions of the main problems and consequences experienced during confinement, was answered by 106 family caregivers of PwD. Results: Results showed that family caregivers of PwD experienced psychological problems, like anxiety, mood, sleep, or eating disorders during confinement and felt less supported when they had to handle challenging behaviors or offer meaningful activities. Conclusions: An innovative multi-Tiered supportive approach is needed which considers a post-pandemic reality and ensures the continuity of quality care for PwD and their family careers. 

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Namaste care delivered by caregivers of community‐dwelling older adults with moderate to advanced dementia: A mixed methods study protocol

Aim: The aim of this study is to adapt and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a multisensory, psychosocial intervention called Namaste Care delivered by family and friend caregivers of community‐dwelling older adults with moderate to advanced dementia. Design: A multiphase mixed methods design combining quantitative and qualitative methods will be used. Methods: This study is composed of two phases. Phase 1 is guided by a qualitative description approach. Small group workshop sessions with 8–10 caregivers of community‐dwelling older adults with moderate to advanced dementia will be conducted to adapt Namaste Care. In Phase 2, 10–20 caregivers will receive training and implement the adapted Namaste Care approach at home. A one group, before‐after design will be used to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of the approach over 3 months. Feasibility will be assessed using quantitative measures and acceptability will be explored using qualitative methods. Outcomes to evaluate preliminary effectiveness include quality of life (QoL), positive perceptions of caregiving, self‐efficacy, and caregiver burden. Discussion: There are currently few skill‐building interventions that can be delivered by caregivers of people with moderate to advanced dementia at home. Caregivers should be involved in developing programs to enhance program relevance. This research will be the first to explore the feasibility of implementing the Namaste Care approach at home by caregivers. Impact: Study results will provide important information about the feasibility and preliminary effects of an adapted form of Namaste Care. This program has the potential to improve the QoL of caregivers and may prevent hospitalization or long‐term care placement of older persons with moderate to advanced dementia. The revised Namaste Care program supports building the skills of caregivers so that their needs and the needs of older persons with dementia living at home are being addressed.

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‘My wife is my doctor at home’: A qualitative study exploring the challenges of home-based palliative care in a resource-poor setting

Background: Family caregiving is common globally, but when a family member needs palliative and end-of-life care, this requires knowledge and expertise in dealing with symptoms, medication, and treatment side effects. Caring for a family member with advanced prostate cancer in the home presents practical and emotional challenges, especially in resource-poor contexts, where there are increasing palliative cases without adequate palliative care institutions. Aim: The study explored palliative and end-of-life care experiences of family caregivers and patients living at home in a resource-poor context in Ghana. Design: This is a qualitative study using thematic analysis of face-to-face interviews at two-time points. Participants: Men living with advanced prostate cancer (n = 23), family caregivers (n = 23), healthcare professionals (n = 12). Findings: Men with advanced prostate cancer face complex issues, including lack of access to professional care and a lack of resources for homecare. Family caregivers do not have easy access to professional support; they often have limited knowledge of disease progression. Patients have inadequate access to medication and other practical resources for homecare. Caregivers may be overburdened and perform the role of the patient’s ‘doctor’ at home-assessing patient’s symptoms, administering drugs, and providing hands-on care. Conclusion: Home-based care is promoted as an ideal and cost-effective model of care, particularly in Westernised palliative care models. However, in resource-poor contexts, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of this model. This study revealed the scale of challenges family caregivers, who lack basic training on aspects of caring, face in providing home care unsupported by healthcare professionals.

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The Mutual Effects of Perceived Spiritual Needs on Quality of Life in Patients with Advanced Cancer and Family Caregivers

Background: Perceived spiritual needs may increase when patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers are confronted with the challenges of physical and psychological distress. Given the intertwined relationships between patients and family caregivers, their interdependence should be considered to understand how perceived spiritual needs affect the quality of life of their own and of their partner. Methods: This study used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model as the conceptual model to investigate the mutual effects of perceived spiritual needs on the quality of life in patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers after being admitted to hospice. Findings: This cross-sectional study used the baseline data of a large clinical trial and identified that patients with cancer and their family caregivers perceived similar spiritual needs associated with the community and outlook needs and had fewer unmet spiritual needs. After controlling for partner effects, perceived outlook needs shown in patients significantly predicted their own functional well-being and social/spiritual well-being. Outlook and community needs perceived by family caregivers also significantly predicted their own mental health. Conclusion: Although partner effects were not shown as expected, the findings provide insight into the mutuality of spirituality and demonstrate the necessity of providing timely and ongoing spiritual assessment and care. 

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Modifiable factors associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia among patients residing at home: The impacts of patient, caregiver and environmental variables

Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the modifiable factors of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among patients residing at home in terms of patient, caregiver and environmental factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 193 patients with dementia residing at home and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of the Department of Neurology in a tertiary (the highest level) hospital in China from November 2018 to May 2019 was performed. Results: Exacerbated BPSD were associated with patient (old age, high education level, increased dementia severity, and the use of psychotropic drugs), caregiver (low positive aspects and high expressed emotion) and environmental (poor home environment) factors. The use of psychotropic drugs by the patient, positive aspects and expressed emotions of the caregiver, and home environment were modifiable factors that provided evidence for the direction of intervention for BPSD among patients residing at home.

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Modeling types of informal care dyads by gender, primary condition, and relative age

Background: While women remain the majority of caregivers, gender parity is reported among Millennials, people of color, and LGBTQ caregivers. Such dynamics of care dyads are rarely explored in relationship with caregiver selection, social support, or care outcomes, and without standardized measures we are uncertain whether this trend is associated with youth, demographic changes, or a societal shift. Methods: Utilizing the Caregiving in the US 2015 data set, this exploratory, quantitative study examines relationships between gender, primary condition, and two social designations around age (kinship generations and birth cohorts) to develop a preliminary categorization of informal caregivers in the United States by reviewing descriptives and correlations, then testing with multivariate regression. Results: A model combining Millennial caregivers, same-generation dyads, and two primary conditions (mental illness and stroke) successfully predicts variance as to whether a dyad will comprise one woman caring for another woman, the most common dyad. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the interconnectedness of caregiving generational models, suggesting that categorizing dyads from such variables is viable. This study deepens inquiry into intergenerational caregiving and makes a case for generationality and caregiving to be studied together.

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mHealth-Supported Delivery of an Evidence-Based Family Home-Visiting Intervention in Sierra Leone: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Background: Past trauma and exposure to violence have been related to poor emotion regulation and household violence, which can have persistent mental health effects across generations. The Family Strengthening Intervention for Early Childhood Development (FSI-ECD/called Sugira Muryango in Rwanda) is an evidence-based behavioral home-visiting intervention to promote caregiver mental health, positive parenting practices, and early childhood development among families facing adversity. In Sierra Leone and other lower- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) technology has the potential to improve health care delivery and health outcomes. Objective: This study aims to (1) apply a user-centered design to develop and test mHealth tools to improve supervision and fidelity monitoring of community health workers (CHWs) delivering the FSI-ECD and (2) conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial of the FSI-ECD to assess feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects on caregiver mental health, emotion regulation, caregiving behaviors, and family violence in high-risk families with children aged 6-36 months in comparison with control families receiving standard care. Methods: We will recruit and enroll CHWs, supervisors, and families with a child aged 6-36 months from community health clinics in Sierra Leone. CHWs and supervisors will participate in 1 problem analysis focus group and 2 user interface/user experience cycles to provide feedback on mHealth tool prototypes. Families will be randomized to mHealth-supported FSI-ECD or standard maternal and child health services. We will collect quantitative data on caregiver mental health, emotion regulation, caregiving behaviors, and family functioning at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow up. We will use a mixed methods approach to explore feasibility and acceptability of mHealth tools and the FSI-ECD. Mixed effects linear modeling will assess FSI-ECD effects on caregiver outcomes. Cost-effectiveness analysis will estimate costs across FSI-ECD versus standard care. Results: Funding for this study was received from the National Institutes of Mental Health on August 17, 2020. Institutional Review Board approval was received on September 4, 2020. Data collection is projected to begin on December 15, 2020. Conclusions: This study will provide important data on the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of mHealth-supported delivery of an evidence-based family home-visiting intervention in a postconflict LMIC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04481399; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04481399. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/25443

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Mental Health and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Examining the Roles of Familism, Social Support, and Stigma in Latinx Caregivers

Background: Those caring for someone diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorder are at risk of experiencing depression and anxiety. However, limited research has examined risk and predictive factors associated with internalizing symptomatology in caregivers from ethnic and culturally diverse backgrounds. Aims: We aimed to identify predictive factors for internalizing symptomatology. Methods: Using standardized scales, anxiety and depression levels were measured in a predominantly Latinx sample along with their endorsed levels of familism, perceived social, and support affiliate stigma. Multivariate regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses that familism, perceived social support, and affiliate stigma are associated with self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, separately. Results: The results indicated a significant effect of perceived social support and affiliate stigma on depression and anxiety symptoms, but no such effect of familism. Findings indicate that higher perceived social support scores predicted lower rates of anxiety and depression in caregivers. Conversely, higher affiliate stigma scores predicted higher rates of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Results provide important clinical implications when working with Latinx families and caregivers of a family member diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorder.

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Mediating effects of family functioning on the relationship between care burden and family quality of life of caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities in Mongolia

Background: Intellectual disabilities are characterized by constant and complex needs for care that place a heavy burden on the families of affected individuals and affect their overall quality of life. We evaluated the mediating effects of family functioning on the relationship between care burden and the family quality of life of caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities in Mongolia. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 150 caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities from October 2017 to November 2017. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of family functioning. Results: Family functioning had a partial mediating effect (β =.702, p <.001) on the relationship between care burden and family quality of life. Conclusion: Family functioning should be considered when developing a social support intervention to improve family quality of life among caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities.

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Measuring the Burden on Family Caregivers of People With Cancer: Cross-cultural Translation and Psychometric Testing of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment--Indonesian Version

Background: The Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) is considered one of the well-developed instruments for measuring the multidimensional burden of family caregivers. To date, there is no available validated instrument to assist healthcare professionals in measuring the caregiver's burden in Indonesia. Objective: To translate the CRA from English into Indonesian and to conduct psychometric testing of this CRA--Indonesian version (CRA-ID) with family caregivers of patients with cancer. Methods: Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing were conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to check, explore, and confirm the best model for the CRA-ID; internal consistency was also measured. Results: A total of 451 respondents participated, of whom 40 were involved in the feasibility testing. Confirmatory factor analysis with the original factors of the CRA revealed that the fit was not satisfactory, and adaptation was needed. Through exploratory factor analysis, the best model fit was developed, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed again. Five factors from the original instrument were confirmed with an explained variance of 54.89%.Almost all items in the CRA-ID appeared to have a similar structure as the original version. Cronbach's α's ranged between .64 and .81. Conclusions: The CRA-ID appeared to be feasible, valid, and reliable for measuring the burden of family caregivers of patients with cancer in Indonesia. Implications for Practice: Nurses can use the CRA-ID to measure family caregivers' burden. Its availability in the Indonesian language enhances the opportunity to conduct international comparisons of family caregiver burden using the same instrument.

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Living with Long Term Conditions from the Perspective of Family Caregivers. A Scoping Review and Narrative Synthesis

Background: When living with one or more long term conditions (LTCs), both the patient and the family experience the impact of the condition at different levels. The family’s needs and perceptions should be considered in the process of caring for people with LTCs. The aim of this review is to understand “the process of living with LTCs” from a family perspective. Methods: A scoping review and narrative synthesis were conducted using a systematic methodology in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science and PsycINFO, in English and Spanish, including evidence from 2018. Results: A total of 28 articles were included in the review. Acceptance, coping, self-management, integration, and adjustment were key attributes in the process of living with LTCs from the perspective of family caregivers that interrelated in a dynamic way through different mechanisms: being aware of the changing situation, personal networks, information and education, personal conditions, attitude to life and communication. Conclusions: The five attributes that comprise living with LTCs from the perspective of the family caregiver are closely connected of to those of patients living with LTCs; however, self-management and integration have a different meaning and application.

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The Lived Experience of Patients and Family Caregivers in Managing Pneumoconiosis

Background: The daily challenges of patients with pneumoconiosis and their caregivers in living with and providing care for this disease remain unexplored. Methods and findings: As guided by the interpretive description, we found that pneumoconiosis patients suffered from highly anxiety-provoking symptoms and physical debilitation, which evoked high levels of distress and sense of impending death. The reduced functional capacity disrupted patients' role functioning and self-esteem. The perceived stigma of the embarrassing symptoms and treatments further disrupted their self-concept and social lives. Providing care for pneumoconiosis patients was demanding and burdensome, which jeopardized family caregivers' physical, emotional, and social well-being, and the relationship strain with the patients added further frustration to them. The perceived caregiving gain supported them to fully engage in daily caregiving. Conclusions: To improve the well-being of pneumoconiosis patients, a comprehensive empowerment-based dyadic care model is required to optimize adaptive behavioral changes and self-esteem, and improve self-efficacy in disease management for this cohort.

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The lived experience of family members who care for children with cancer: An interpretative phenomenological approach

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of family carers in the care of children with cancer. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach was conducted, informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Methods: Fourteen interviews were conducted with family members: mothers (n = 9), grandmothers and fathers (n = 5). Fourteen family carers were voluntarily enrolled from a public children's oncology department in Bethlehem in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. Findings: Three major themes emerged from the data analysis. The first theme was the caring experience, which included three subthemes: changing priorities over time, information given about children's illness, and parents suffering due to treating irritable children. The second theme was the challenges to effective care, which illustrates the most significant challenges faced during caring, including the effects of family relations and emotional support. The final theme was around the support system; family carers found several resources to support them in their children's care, including other parents' experiences with similar diseases, the hospital environment, and their religious beliefs. Conclusions: This study informs parents and healthcare providers about the daily lived experiences of family carers. Healthcare providers can fulfil a significant role in giving emotional support and relief to family carers. However, they will need continuous practise to equip them with the communication skills they require to deal with the family carers in these difficult situations. 

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Learning to change: Transformative outcomes of programmes and activities for family caregivers of people with dementia in Taiwan

Background: This study explored the transformative outcomes of programmes and activities for family caregivers of people with dementia in Taiwan. Methods: Transformative learning theory was used to examine the relationship between participation and positive outcomes. A group of nonparticipants was included to provide a complete picture of the transformative learning process. In this qualitative study, 18 participants were interviewed with audio recording, and the data were transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed to determine the themes and subthemes in the results. Findings: The results revealed that participation in programmes and activities was not the single factor leading to transformative outcomes; family support, self-adjustment, the ability to cope, and coordinated intervention in accordance with individual preferences and needs also facilitated transformative outcomes for nonparticipants. Conclusions: Further studies should focus on interventions modifying factors of perceived caregiver burden, for instance, by providing psychological support to informal caregivers, offering programmes and activities targeting the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia, and supporting quality of life. 

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The Latino Family Caregiving Experience Along the Trajectory of Dementia

Background: The number of people affected by dementia continues to increase. Dementia is progressive and affects the ability of the person to care for themselves with time. The persons living with dementia have cognitive changes that worsen over time and affect their physical function. Latino families are known for being a collectivist culture who value family. There are studies that describe the experience of caregivers caring for someone with dementia; however, vi few are focused on multiple family members. There is also a need for further research, specifically on Latino families going through this experience. Methods: Qualitative descriptive design with grounded theory strategies was used for this study. The Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework was used as a sensitizing framework. Bilingual and monolingual (Spanish/English) Latino/Hispanic dementia caregivers were recruited. A total of 11 families were interviewed. Constant comparative analysis was used. Initial codes were created and then grouped into categories which were further broken into themes. Results: Five categories emerged from the data analysis. These categories included: (a) culture in caregiving, (b) learning about dementia, (c) relationships, (d) emotional responses, and (e) challenges and strengths. Each category had an impact on family caregivers throughout the trajectory of dementia. Culture was shown to have a large impact on the overall experience. Conclusions: This study contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding Latino family dementia caregivers. These findings facilitate a better understanding of the experiences of these families. One of the more significant findings was that of conflict within these families and how it affects the caregiving experience. In time, this information can enable the creation of interventions for this population and improve their experiences. These interventions, in turn, can promote better outcomes for caregivers and their loved ones. 

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Is the grass greener on the other side? The health impact of providing informal care in the UK and the Netherlands

Background: Facing rapidly ageing populations, many Western countries aim to stimulate informal care provision as a way to meet the growing long-term care (LTC) demand. While various studies report the impact of providing informal care on the health of caregivers, it is less clear whether and to what extent this impact differs across countries. Methods: Using propensity score matching we match caregivers to similar non-caregiving individuals using four waves of the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation and the UK Household Longitudinal Study. The samples consist of 8129 Dutch and 7186 UK respondents, among which respectively 1711 and 1713 individuals are identified as caregivers. We explore whether the health impact of providing informal care differs by country once similar caregivers, in terms of the intensity of provided care, are compared. Results: In both countries we find negative mental health effects of providing informal care. While these effects slightly differ by country, the main differences arise between subgroups of caregivers. Individuals that provide more than 20 hours of informal care per week, and those who face a double burden of care and full-time employment experience the most severe negative mental health effects. Conclusions: These results indicate that health effects of providing informal care are mediated by the specific caregiving context, allowing policymakers to use information on this context to provide targeted aid. In addition, it suggests that previously reported differences of caregiving effects across countries could be driven by differences in the population of informal caregivers which are shaped by countries’ LTC policies. 

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Is informal care sufficient to meet the long-term care needs of older people with disabilities in China? Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey

Background: Rapid demographic shifts and socio-economic changes are fuelling concerns over the inadequate supply of informal care - the most common source of care-giving for older people in China. Unmet long-term care needs, which are believed to cause numerous adverse effects on health, continue to increase. Methods: Drawing data from the 2015 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey, this study explores the relationship between informal care provision and unmet long-term care needs among older people in China. We first examine the availability of informal care among older people with disabilities. We then analyse whether a higher intensity of informal care leads to lower unmet needs. Findings: Our findings suggest that the majority of older people with disabilities receive a low intensity of care, i.e. less than 80 hours per month. Besides, a higher intensity of informal care received could significantly lower the probabilities of unmet needs for the disabled older adults who have mainly instrumental activities of daily living limitations. Our study points out that informal care cannot address the needs of those who are struggling with multi-dimensional difficulties in their daily living. Conclusions: Our findings highlight a pressing need for the government to buttress the formal care provision and delivery systems to support both informal care-givers and disabled older people in China. 

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Involving families in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation

Introduction: Psychiatric rehabilitation promotes recovery in individuals with mental disabilities. Its mission is to engage patients and families or caregivers in a collaborative treatment process. The vision of recovery is more likely to become a reality when patients and families are actively involved in treatment. Numerous factors have converged during the past decades to facilitate development and refinement of evidence-based approaches for strengthening families coping with mental disorders. Objectives: To review current knowledge on the importance of involving families in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation, addressing effectiveness of family interventions, role of family coping skills in neutralizing stress and vulnerability, and family burden of mental illness. Methods: Non-systematic review of literature through search on PubMed/MEDLINE database for publications up to 2020. Textbooks were consulted. Results: Given the unpredictability of major mental disorders, families assume responsibility for extensive monitoring and supervision of a severely and chronically mentally ill relative. Clinical, social, family and economic benefits are achieved by adding psychosocial family interventions to a comprehensive array of services required by patients. Family interventions are not stand-alone modalities: they are coordinated with pharmacotherapy, illness management, crisis intervention, clinical case management, skills training and supportive services. Family interventions show benefits, such as fewer psychotic/affective episodes of exacerbation or relapse by the patient, reduced hospitalizations and improved family morale and less emotional burden. Conclusions: The new and effective family interventions do not stigmatize families as being ‘sick’ or in need of therapy to ‘straighten them out’. Family interventions are viewed as conferring added therapeutic protection to the patient and relatives.

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Internet Access and Usage Among Stroke Survivors and Their Informal Caregivers: Cross-sectional Study

Background: Web-based interventions have shown promise for chronic disease management but have not been widely applied to populations with stroke. Existing barriers may inhibit the adoption of web-based interventions among stroke survivors and necessitate the involvement of informal caregivers. However, limited information is available on internet accessibility and usability among stroke survivors and their caregivers. Objective: This study aims to investigate internet access and usage in a cohort of stroke survivors and their caregivers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 375 participants (248 stroke survivors and 127 caregivers). Descriptive statistics were generated using cross-tabulation. Comparisons with categorical data were conducted using the chi-square test, whereas the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparisons involving ordinal variables. Results: Overall, 86.1% (323/375) of the participants reported having internet access. Caregivers were more likely than stroke survivors to access the internet (N=375, χ21=18.5, P<.001) and used text messaging (n=321, χ21=14.7, P<.001). Stroke survivors and caregivers with internet access were younger than stroke survivors and caregivers without internet access. The highest number of participants who reported internet access were non-Hispanic White. Smartphones were the most common devices used to access the internet. Email was the most common type of internet usage reported. Patients who survived for >12 months after a stroke reported higher internet access than those who survived <3 months (P<.001). The number of hours per week spent using the internet was higher for caregivers than for stroke survivors (P<.001). Conclusions: Future feasibility and acceptability studies should consider the role of the informal caregiver, participant age, race and ethnicity, the use of smartphone apps, email and text correspondence, and the amount of time elapsed since the stroke event in the design and implementation of web-based interventions for populations with stroke.

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Intention to use respite services among informal care-givers of frail older adults in China: the role of care needs change

Background: Population ageing in China calls for evidence-based solutions, especially in terms of fulfilling long-term care needs among frail older adults. Respite services are identified as effective resources for alleviating care-giver burden and promoting the wellbeing of both older adults and their family care-givers. However, respite care is often under-used in China. Objectives: This research aimed to examine factors associated with intention to use respite services among informal care-givers in Shanghai, mainland China. Methods: This study was part of the Longitudinal Study on Family Caregivers for Frail Older Adults in Shanghai. Pairs of older adults and their care-givers (N = 583) who successfully completed the 2013 and 2016 waves were included in the data analysis. Two logistic regression models were conducted, one with time-invariant and one with time-variant factors. Results: The model with time-variant factors had greater explanatory power than the original Andersen model with time-invariant factors influencing intention to use respite services among care-givers. Care-givers had higher odds of intending to use respite services if they had higher care-giving burden, were caring elderly people who experienced care-giver transitions, or were caring for elderly people with increased function of ambulation or decreased function of feeding. Conclusion: The findings imply that change in functional health was a significant determinant of intention to use respite care. Relevant policy and service implications will be discussed.

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Integrated health and social care in the community: A critical integrative review of the experiences and well‐being needs of service users and their families

Background: A need for people‐centred health and social support systems is acknowledged as a global priority. Most nations face challenges in providing safe, effective, timely, affordable, coordinated care around the needs and preferences of people who access integrated health and social care (IHSC) services. Much of the current research in the field focuses on describing and evaluating specific models for delivering IHSC. Fewer studies focus on person‐centred experiences, needs and preferences of people who use these services. However, current international guidance for integrated care sets a precedence of person‐centred integrated care that meets the health and well‐being needs of people who access IHSC services. Methods: This integrative literature review synthesises empirical literature from six databases (CINAHL; MEDLINE; AMED; TRIP; Web of Science and Science Direct; 2007–2019). This review aims to better understand the experiences and health and well‐being needs of people who use IHSC services in a community setting. Results: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and results were thematically analysed. Three overarching themes were identified, including relationships, promoting health and well‐being and difficulty understanding systems. Findings of this review indicate that relationships hold significance in IHSC. People who access IHSC services felt that they were not always involved in planning their care and that there was a lack of clarity in navigating integrated systems; subsequently, this impacted upon their experiences of those services. However, service user and informal carer voices appear to be underrepresented in current literature and studies that included their views were found to be of low quality overall. Conclusions: Collectively, these findings support the need for further research that explores the person‐centred experiences and needs of people who access IHSC.

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Institutionalization of older French adults with dementia: Role of the informal carer's degree of kinship

Background: The institutionalization of a patient with Alzheimer's disease or other dementia (ADOD) is the last resort for the latter's family and/or caregivers. We hypothesized that the degree of kinship between the patient and his/her caregiver would influence the likelihood of institutionalization. Objective: To assess the association between institutionalization of patients with ADOD and the degree of kinship with the family caregiver. Methods: A cross‐sectional study of patients with ADOD aged 75 or over attending a memory center in France for the first time between 2011 and 2014, as recorded in the French National Alzheimer Database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with institutionalization after adjustment for age, sex, the Mini‐Mental State Examination score, educational level, and type of dementia. Results: A total of 52,874 patients were included. The primary caregiver was most often a child (54.8%) or the spouse (36.7%). Compared with the "spouse" reference category, all the other caregiver categories were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of institutionalization; the odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was 4.68 [3.67–5.92] when the carer was a grandchild, 5.48 [4.93–6.09] for a child, 4.93 [4.11–5.91] for a daughter‐/son‐in‐law, 8.76 [7.15–10.70] for a sibling, and 8.93 [7.48–10.65] for a niece/nephew. Conclusion: The likelihood of institutionalization of older patients with ADOD varied with the degree of kinship. Compared with the "spouse" reference category, the likelihood was higher for all other types of caregivers but was especially high when the caregiver was not a direct descendant of the patient.

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Informal Family Caregiving at the End of Life: A Discursive Analysis

Background: Shifts in locations and levels of care and changing demographics have created a high demand for informal family caregivers. The U.S. healthcare system could not sustain the financial or human resources necessary to meet the needs of care recipients who are dying without the assistance of informal family caregivers. End-of-life caregivers pay a price— emotional, social, financial, and physical—throughout the caregiving process. Many factors contribute to the cost of caregiving, such as caregiver distress and burden. Despite the extensive scientific literature on caregiving at the end of life, necessary evidence to inform nursing science in ways that adequately and appropriately support and sustain those healthy informal family caregivers providing end-of-life care remains unknown. No research to date has approached this problem from a linguistic standpoint. Methods: This study used discourse-based analysis to examine a qualitative secondary dataset to understand which aspects of self (caregiver) and other (care recipient) are revealed through caregiver discourse and how a caregiver’s perception of self and the care recipient change over time. Principles of discourse analysis were applied to develop an analytic framework and explore the linguistic cues (i.e., grammar, reference, identity, deixis, stance, indexicality and agency) expressed by a caregiver in their role as caregiver. Findings: Findings demonstrated the usefulness of a discourse-based analytic method as a new approach in the reuse of large qualitative secondary datasets. In addition, linguistic cues were revealed about how a caregiver perceives self and the care recipient over time. Results established an analytic framework that can be applied to a larger sample of this dataset to more deeply and precisely reveal discursive cues within one End-of-Life Caregiving Trajectory (expected-death) and across all three trajectories (expected-death, unexpected-death and mixed-death). Understanding a caregiver’s discursive cues may give clinicians the ability to better identify subtle yet important expressions of caregivers’ perception of self and others in the caregiving role. Conclusions: Further analysis is needed to identify how these linguistic patterns can lead to interventions that support informal family caregivers. Timely and appropriate interventions in times of uncertainty can mitigate negative outcomes for the caregiver and care recipient, resulting in a healthy caregiving workforce.

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Informal Caregiving and Strains: Exploring the Impacts of Gender, Race, and Income

Background: Informal caregivers are those who provide care for others without compensation. In the US, 85 % of elderly individuals receive care from an informal caregiver, and this number is expected to increase. Caregivers often experience different types of strain, stemming from physical, emotional, and financial demands. Methods: Guided by intersectionality theory, this study explores the relationships between informal caregiving strains and gender, race, and income, along with various control variables, including age, marital status, education, number of hours spent providing care, and employment status. Data from the 2015 Caregiving in the US survey (N = 1248) were used. Results: Findings indicated male informal caregivers reported more financial strain compared to females. White women reported more emotional strain than women of color, and those with higher incomes reported less financial strain. Gender, race, and income were not significantly related to physical strain among informal caregivers. Conclusions: Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. 

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Informal caregivers’ quality of life and management strategies following the transformation of their cancer caregiving role: A qualitative systematic review

Objectives: Globally, informal caregivers caring for cancer patients meet challenges within their caregiving role, which significantly influence their quality of life. This qualitative systematic review aimed to analyze how cancer caregiving influence the quality of life of informal caregivers and the management strategies of informal caregivers for their role as cancer caregivers. Methods: Following the enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement, Wanfang database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, and grey literature in English and Chinese from 1 May 2009 to 31 December 2019 were searched. Quality of included studies was assessed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2018) Qualitative Checklist and thematic synthesis was conducted. Results: Of the 8,945 studies identified, 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. One analytical theme relating to the QoL of informal caregivers following cancer caregiving was identified: “challenges of caregiving”. In terms of the management strategies to the role of cancer caregivers, two analytical themes were identified: “self-adjustment” and “seeking for formal and informal support”. Conclusions: Cancer caregiving influences informal caregivers’ QoL significantly and informal caregivers develop diverse coping strategies to deal with the difficulties occurred while balancing the relationship between their own lives and caregiving. However, professional and policy support remain inadequate for informal caregivers that require the need for improvement in terms of health care professionals and policymakers. 

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Informal Caregivers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Multi-Centre, Exploratory Study of Burden and Difficulties

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND) is a systemic and fatal neurodegenerative condition for which there is currently no cure. Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting the person with ALS, and it is essential to support their wellbeing. This multi-centre, mixed methods descriptive exploratory study describes the complexity of burden and self-defined difficulties as described by the caregivers themselves. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with informal caregivers from centres in the Netherlands, England, and Ireland. Standardised measures assessed burden, quality of life, and psychological distress; furthermore, an open-ended question was asked about difficult aspects of caregiving. Results: Most caregivers were female, spouse/partners, and lived with the person with ALS for whom they provided care. Significant differences between national cohorts were identified for burden, quality of life, and anxiety. Among the difficulties described were the practical issues associated with the caregiver role and emotional factors such as witnessing a patient’s health decline, relationship change, and their own distress. The mixed-methods approach allows for a more nuanced understanding of the burden and difficulties experienced. Conclusion: It is important to generate an evidence base to support the psychosocial wellbeing and brain health of informal caregivers.

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Informal Care of Dependent Older People—Support Services and Funding Schemes

This chapter is dealing with aspects regarding informal care of dependent older people. Based on the analysis of the information obtained from the good practice and the informal care regulatory status in Romania, the authors proposed a set of support services and funding schemes that could be implemented in our country as follows: care leave and care allowance; palliative care leave; prolonged care leave; the employment of a personal assistant under the terms of the Framework Law no. 153/2017; allowance for long-term care; pension for severe dependence; flexible working arrangements for the informal caregiver; the possibility of early retirement up to 2 years before reaching the standard retirement age, without penalizing the amount of pension rights; respite care. The methodology was based on the good practices research, using qualitative and quantitative information from bouth primary and secondary sources of information.

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Informal care in the context of long-term health care for the elderly in Slovenia: A qualitative study

Background: Slovenia is an aging society. Social security expenditures for the elderly are rising steadily, and the majority of Slovenians are firmly convinced that the state must provide elder care. This situation means that informal caregivers face many challenges and problems in their altruistic mission. Objectives: To explore the experiences and feelings of informal caregivers and to provide an understanding of how informal caregivers support the elderly and what challenges and difficulties they face in Slovenian society. Methods: The study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with 10 caregivers. In addition to descriptive statistics, we conducted a qualitative study using the qualitative content analysis method. Findings: We identified four themes among health caregivers’ experiences with challenges and problems in providing long-term health care for the elderly. Caregivers pointed out that they are mostly left to themselves and their altruistic mission of giving informal long-term care to their elderly relatives and friends. Systemic regulation of the national public health care system is the source of many problems. Other social systems determine and limit the position of informal caregivers in Slovenia. Conclusions: This qualitative study should be understood as useful stepping-stone to future research and real improvement in this area.

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Informal care and the impact on depression and anxiety among Swedish adults: a population-based cohort study

Background: As the population is ageing, the need for informal caregivers increases, and thus we need to know more about the effects on caregivers. This study aims to determine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between perceived limitation of informal caregiving and mental health of caregivers. Methods: This population-based cohort study was based on the Swedish Psykisk hälsa, Arbete och RelaTioner (PART) study, and 9346 individuals aged 18–65 were included. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and Swedish registers. Informal care was defined as care given to a family member. Self-reported and diagnosed depression and anxiety were included as outcomes. Covariates included sex, age, social support and socio-economic position. Ordinal logistic regression and Cox regression were performed to determine the associations between caregiving and anxiety or depression. Results: Self-reported depression and anxiety was only increased among those experiencing limitations (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 2.00, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.63–2.47 for depression; aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.57–2.74 for anxiety) compared to those not giving care, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) were increased for diagnosed depression (aHR 1.97, 95% CI 1.27–3.05) and for diagnosed anxiety (aHR 1.86, 95% CI 1.06–3.25) among those giving care and experiencing limitations, compared to those not giving care. No significant associations were found in caregivers without limitations. Conclusion: Caregivers experiencing limitations showed a significant association with short- and long-term anxiety and depression. This study implies the importance of exploring the degree to which informal caregiving can be provided without adding burden to caregivers.

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Influence of gender determinants on informal care and health service utilization in spain: Ten years after the approval of the equality law

Background: The existence of gender inequalities in health, in the use of health services, and in the development of informal care has been demonstrated throughout scientific literature. In Spain, a law was passed in 2007 to promote effective equality between men and women. Despite this, different studies have shown that the previous gender inequalities are still present in Spanish society. Objectives: For all these reasons, the objective of this paper is to study the differences by sex in informal care and in the use of emergency care, and to identify the existence of gender inequalities in Spain 10 years after the adoption of the aforementioned equality law. Methods: In this case, we development a cross-sectional study based on the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey of the Spanish population aged 16 and over. To analyze the influence of gender determinants on informal care and emergency care utilization, logistic regressions were performed, model 1 was adjusted for age, and model 2 was further adjusted too by the variables of the Andersen care demand model. Results: The results showed that informal care and the use of the emergency care continues to be higher in women than in men. Informal care in women was related to a higher level of education. In emergency care, the older the age, the lower the probability of utilization, and living in a rural municipality was related to a higher probability of utilization for both sexes. Conclusions: Finally, we concluded that there is still a need for studies that analyze gender inequalities in different contexts, such as the informal care and the use of health services. This is especially relevant in Spain, where economic changes have led to a change in roles, mainly for women, and new management strategies are needed to achieve equity in care and effective equality between men and women. 

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The Influence of Family Caregivers’ Experience of Interprofessional Care on Their Participation in Health Checkups as Preventive Health Behavior in Japan—A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Background: The role of family caregivers has been vital, especially in superaging societies like Japan’s. The caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care is a key aspect in their evaluation of the quality of integrated care. We sought to explore whether family caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care is associated with their own participation in health checkups as preventive health behaviors. Methods: We used cross-sectional data obtained during the development of the Japanese version of the Caregivers’ Experience Instrument (J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS). Participants who had provided care for at least one year were surveyed (n = 251). We assessed family caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care using J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS and their participation in health checkups. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS total score was significantly associated with the caregivers’ participation in health checkups [odds ratio per 1-point increase = 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.09]. Two domain scores (attention for the patient and attention for the caregiver) of J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS were significantly associated with the outcome. Conclusions: Family caregivers with more positive experiences of interprofessional care were more likely to participate in health checkups. These results support the significance of family caregivers’ experience of care, which may promote preventive health behaviors.

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The Influence of Confucianism on the Perceptions and Process of Caring Among Family Caregivers of Persons With Dementia: A Qualitative Study

Background: Scant evidence reveals the influences of Confucianism on family caregiving in dementia. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of Confucianism on the perceptions and process of caring among the Chinese family caregivers. Method: A qualitative study was conducted using semistructured interviews with 15 Chinese family caregivers of persons with dementia in three elderly care centers in Hong Kong. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, while a thematic analysis was performed to analyze the transcript at the latent level. Results: Three themes emerged from the interviews: (a) setting family as a top priority, (b) growth and development in families, and (c) enhancing family relationships. Discussion: Our findings provided insights into how Confucianism influences the experience of family caregivers in caring persons with dementia in Chinese communities. These findings help develop culturally adapted interventions to improve the support for family caregivers of persons with dementia.

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Influence of a Child’s Cancer on the Functioning of Their Family

Background: A child’s cancer affects their entire family and is a source of chronic stress for a sick child, as well as for their parents and siblings. It deprives them of the feeling of security; introduces uncertainty, fear and anxiety; and destabilises their life. It mobilises the family since they have to reconcile the treatment and frequent appointments at the hospital with the hardships of everyday life. The emotional burden they have to deal with is enormous. Recognition of the needs of such a family allows for the implementation of support, psychosocial care and psychoeducation, as well as the provision of reliable information. Patients and Methods: A population survey was conducted between 2015 and 2020. Caregivers of children diagnosed with cancer were invited to participate in the study to assess their problems and needs. Results: All respondents in their legal status were parents of children with cancer. The study included 800 people, where women accounted for 85% and men accounted for 15%. The mean age of the mother was 38.09, SD = 7.25, and the mean age of the father was 41.11, SD = 7.03. The occurrence of problems negatively correlated with both the age of the parents (p < 0.0001) and the level of education (p < 0.0001). Parents who admitted having financial problems more often reported problems of a different kind; moreover, financial problems were more often reported by parents of children who were ill for a longer time (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Parents of children suffering from cancer reported numerous psychological, social and somatic problems. The identification of problems through screening should translate into specific interventions, thus creating support for the families of children with cancer. Promoting coping with difficult emotions and the ability to solve problems when a child is ill has a positive effect on the functioning of the family.

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The importance of familiarity with caregiving for public caregiver stigma: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Germany

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between familiarity with caregiving and public stigma towards informal caregivers of older individuals. Material and methods: The sample for this Online-Survey was identified using a quota-system based on German micro census data (N=1037; aged 18 years and older, living in Germany). Familiarity with caregiving was assessed by asking whether the participant has experience in or has friends or relatives with experience in informal or professional caregiving for individuals aged 65 years or older. Public caregiver stigma was assessed by analyzing the emotional, behavioral and cognitive reactions towards caregivers as described in a vignette. Results: Adjusted regressions analyses indicated that experience in providing informal care was associated with increased appreciative feelings and statements, and decreased social distance. Experience in providing professional care was associated with increased devaluing statements. Having friends or relatives who have experience in informal caregiving was associated with decreased social distance. Having friends or relatives who have experience in professional caregiving was associated with decreased devaluing feelings, increased appreciative feelings and decreased social distance. Conclusions: Results indicate that familiarity with caregiving, through one's own informal care experience or through contact with informal or professional caregivers, reduced public stigma towards informal caregivers. Moreover, experience with informal care or contact with professional caregivers increased appreciation of informal caregivers. However, increased negative stigmatizing statements were indicated among participants with experience in professional caregiving. Fostering contact and cooperation between informal caregivers and non-caregivers, as well as with professional caregivers may help reduce stigmatizing reactions. 

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Importance of Day-Care Centers in Dementia Care: A case Study From India

The caregivers of persons living with dementia (PLwD) have to provide full-time caregiving to the individual, in addition to other responsibilities in their own life. Providing care to a PLwD affects their quality of life and mental health. In such a context, clinicians have to guide caregivers in decreasing caregiver's burden through appropriate referrals. Day-care centers can be one such service, which is illustrated with the support of a case here.

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The impacts of caregiving intensity on informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from a national survey

Background: Provision of informal care may adversely affect health, daily and social activities of the informal caregivers, but few studies have examined these effects in relation to caregiving intensity. This study examined the predictive factors associated with the effects of caregiving roles on health, daily and social activities of informal caregivers, accounting for caregiving intensity. Methods: Data of adults aged 18 years and over from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019 were used. Respondent’s demographic, socioeconomic, health, and caregiving-related characteristics were described using complex samples analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors affecting health, daily and social activities of caregivers, accounting for caregiving intensity. Results: Five point one percent of adults in Malaysia provided informal care. High intensity caregivers were more likely to be actively employed and provided longer duration of care compared with low intensity caregivers. For low intensity caregiving, females, those aged 35–59 years, and those with long-term condition were more likely to have negative effects on health. Daily activities of non-Malays were more likely to be affected, while no factor was found significantly associated with effect on social activities. For high intensity caregiving, caregivers aged 60 and over, those received training and those without assistance were more likely to have negative effects on health. Daily activities of those without assistance were more likely to be affected. Social activities of non-Malays, those received training and those providing care for 2 years or more were more likely to be affected. Conclusions: Our study indicates that both low- and high-intensity caregivers have common features, with the exception of employment status and care duration. Caregiving, regardless of intensity, has a significant impact on caregivers. In order to reduce the negative consequences of caregiving responsibilities, all caregivers need assistance from the community and government, that is customised to their needs. By addressing the factors contributing to the negative effects of caregiving, a continuation of informal caregiving can be sustained through policies supporting the growing demand for informal care necessitated by an ageing population and higher life expectancy in Malaysia.

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Impact of Social Isolation on People with Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

Background: People with dementia and their family caregivers may face a great burden through social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be manifested as various behavioral and clinical symptoms. Objective: To investigate the impacts of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Methods: Two semi-structured questionnaires were applied via telephone to family caregivers of people diagnosed with dementia in three cities in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, in order to assess clinical and behavioral changes in people with dementia and in their caregivers. Results: In general, 321 interviews were conducted. A significant decline in memory function has been reported among 53.0%of people with dementia. In addition, 31.2%of individuals with dementia felt sadder and 37.4%had increased anxiety symptoms. These symptoms of anxiety were greater in individuals with mild to moderate dementia, while symptoms of agitation were greater in individuals with severe dementia. Moreover, compulsive-obsessive behavior, hallucinations, increased forgetfulness, altered appetite, and increased difficulty in activities of daily living were reported more frequently among individuals with moderate to severe dementia. Caregivers reported feeling more tired and overwhelmed during this period and these symptoms were also influenced by the severity of dementia. Conclusion: Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a series of negative behavioral repercussions, both for people with dementia and for their family caregivers in these three South American countries. 

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Impact of relative mental illness on caregivers

Introduction: Belarus is undergoing legislative shifts towards community-based mental health care. Responding effectively to support this process requires an understanding of the experiences and challenges facing families caring for a relative affected by mental illness. Objectives: To identify how caring for a person with severe mental illness impacts on family carers, and what carers identify as their support needs. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 17 caregivers of people affected by severe mental illness (diagnosis of F06.8, F20, F25, F7, and/or F 84) in Belarus between March - June 2019. Results: Care-giving for a family member was usually undertaken on a full time basis with no option for respite. Whilst caring did, in cases, strengthen family solidarity, it also resulted in intensive stress and burnout, financial pressures, and high levels of family tension, exacerbated when the person living with mental illness was perceived as a potential safety risk. High levels of societal stigma meant that care-givers commonly felt unable to discuss their circumstances, travel in public spaces, or participate in community activities. Stigma also deterred carers from seeking professional support. Priorities for support amongst carers included better information, public awareness raising and sensitization, advocacy to support patient integration into social and economic life, peer support and respite for family carers, and an increase in mental health specialists. Conclusions: Caregiving affected family carers on multiple levels with predominantly negative consequences. Priorities identified by carers need to be considered and acted upon if community-based care is to become an effective option.

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The impact of psychoeducational interventions on the outcomes of caregivers of patients with heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Heart failure is a global health care problem that causes a significant economic burden. Despite medical advancements, it's prognosis remains poor as many patients with heart failure experience symptoms that negatively impact Quality of Life. Caregivers are often responsible for helping and supporting family members manage their heart failure symptoms at home. In addition to managing their own medical problems and maintaining social and personal lives, significant burden and stress can occur. At present, caregivers receive little guidance or information to support them in their caregiving role. Objectives: This review aims to determine the impact of psychoeducational interventions on the outcomes of caregivers of patients with heart failure. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data source Five electronic databases: PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and SCOPUS were searched from June 2007 to August 2019. Review methods The conduct and reporting of this review was based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the risk of bias amongst randomised controlled trials, and the Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess risk of bias in one quasi-experimental study. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria, consisting of seven studies, with a total sample size of 953 participants. The pooled result from two studies, conducted in America and China, reported that psychoeducational interventions significantly reduced depression at six months' follow-up (SMD -0.82; 95% CI -1.17 to -0.47; p = 0.73, I2 =0%). The pooled result from two studies conducted in Sweden and Taiwan showed a significant improvement in heart failure knowledge at six months' follow-up (SMD 0.97; 95% CI 0.70 to 1,25; p < 0.00001, I2 =0%). Finally, pooled results from three studies conducted in Sweden, China and Taiwan found a significant improvement in Quality of Life at 3 months' follow- up (SMD 0.25; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.48; p = 0.03). The three most common intervention components included: group based educational sessions, telemonitoring and telephone support, and written resources. Conclusions: There was no specific type of psychoeducational intervention found to have a significant impact on caregiver outcomes, as interventions were heterogeneous consisting of multiple components. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of individual and combined components to identify the ideal intervention format and design for caregivers of patients with heart failure.

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The impact of ovarian cancer on individuals and their caregivers: A qualitative analysis

Objective: Ovarian cancer remains an understudied cancer with poor prognosis, few effective treatments and little understanding of the how individuals and their families face the challenges and uncertainty following diagnosis. This study synthesized the subjective experiences of individuals and their caregivers in the face of the uncertainty produced by the disease. Methods: Qualitative data were obtained from the Ovarian Cancer Australia 2017 Consumer Survey. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on responses from 219 individuals with ovarian cancer and 78 caregivers. Results: Nine themes were identified from the individual's responses and seven themes from the caregivers. For both groups, the uncertainty created at diagnosis led to a cascade of complex responses. For the individuals, uncertainty gave rise to fears for the future, which were exacerbated by unmet healthcare needs or treatment‐related difficulties. For some individuals, these fears led to disruption to their lives, isolation and emotional distress. For others, helpful coping styles and social support protected them from these negative consequences. For caregivers, the processes were similar, but uncertainty predominantly led to feelings of hopelessness and “survivor guilt.” Conclusions: Our results identified processes that may guide future interventions and research targeting unmet needs and protective factors for individuals with ovarian cancer and their caregivers. Findings also suggest the potential to facilitate effective support between individuals and their caregivers.

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Impact of medical home-consistent care and child condition on select health, community, and family level outcomes among children with special health care needs

Objectives/Methods: Using the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN), we investigated the impact of medical home-consistent care and child condition on five outcomes for CSHCN (n = 32,299). Results: Models suggested that medical home-consistent care predicted increased odds of preventive services receipt, no unmet health or family support needs, ease of use of community-based services, and shared decision-making. Despite these positive effects, disparities persisted based on insurance, condition complexity, and household income. Conclusions: These findings illustrate the positive impacts of medical home-consistent care on children yet remind health professionals of the unique family circumstances that ultimately impact health and wellbeing.

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The Impact of Long-Term Care Policy on the Percentage of Older Adults With Disabilities Cared for by Family Members in China: A System Dynamics Simulation

Background: This study examined the impact of current and future long-term care (LTC) policies on the family caregiving burden in China. System dynamics (SD) methodology was used to construct an LTC delivery system model that simulates the demand of LTC, living options, and LTC service use for disabled older adults. Methods: The model was based on three policy variables including the proportion of payment from LTC insurance, the growth rate of beds in LTC institutions, and the time to adjusting the capacity of community-based care. Results: Results showed that the percentage of older adults with disabilities cared for by family members was projected to increase from 92.6% in 2015 to 97.8% in 2035, assuming no policy changes; under the mixed policy scenario, this percentage would reduce significantly to 63.8% in 2035. Conclusions: These findings illustrate that changes in LTC policy and delivery system have a significant impact on family care.

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Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health and Well-Being of Latinx Caregivers of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire world in unprecedented ways. However, populations that have had a history of marginalization have experienced a more profound impact. One such group is Latinx families of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the Unites States. Methods: In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and well-being of Latinx caregivers of children with IDD. Results: Specifically, we (1) identified which social determinants of health are correlated with maternal caregivers perceived general health, mental health, and well-being; (2) explored the impact of the pandemic on families’ overall eating and physical activity routines; and (3) identified emergent themes from caregivers’ experiences during the pandemic. Thirty-seven Latinx caregivers participated in three interviews in which several validated instruments were administered. The results indicated that perceived social support, annual family income, food security, and receipt of financial benefits were correlated with fewer depressive symptoms. Annual family income was also significantly correlated with perceived general health. Most caregivers reported that the pandemic had placed a strain on their economic situation; increased their isolation; and disrupted their child’s therapeutic supports, online education, eating routines, and engagement in physical activity. Meanwhile, some caregivers reported positive changes as a result of the pandemic. Conclusions: Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

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Impact of COVID-19 on the Health and Well-being of Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Rapid Systematic Review

Background: In December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19, raised worldwide concern. Since then, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively influenced health and wellness across the globe and caused nearly three million deaths. This study focuses on informal caregivers of people with dementia, a disease that affects about 50 million older adults worldwide and requires much caregiving support. Objective: Examine the current literature on the impact of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of informal caregivers for people with dementia. Method: This rapid review was conducted across five electronic databases for quantitative and qualitative articles published through March 15, 2021. Results: The 10 studies included in this review reported quantitative descriptive data from across the globe; however, no studies existed from the U.S. or East Asia countries. All of the studies examined the psychological rather than physical impact of COVID-19 and highlighted risk and protective factors in the areas of psychosocial (resilience, neuropsychiatric, and social isolation), sociodemographic (gender and education), and environmental (home confinement, living arrangement, and dementia stage). Conclusion: COVID-19 has had a considerable negative impact on the psychological well-being of informal caregivers of people with dementia, namely causing more depression and anxiety than pre-pandemic. 

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Impact of Alzheimer’s Dementia on Caregivers and Quality Improvement through Art and Music Therapy

Background: Dementia is a general term for a series of medical conditions that affect the brain and evolve progressively. According to the literature, there are over 200 subtypes and causes of dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) being the most common in elderly people. AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative condition that leads to a decline in mental function, enough to disrupt daily life. Thinking skills slowly deteriorate, which, in advanced stages, makes it impossible to perform simple tasks. Besides the change in the quality of life of AD patients and their families, there is a considerable alteration in the quality of life of their caregivers, whose health can be negatively affected by the development of mental and somatic disorders. Methods: This article reviews the literature in order to reveal the benefits of applying non-pharmacological interventions such as music and art therapy to improve quality of life. This article also aims to shed light on the impact of this disease on the caregiver’s life. Findings: Music and art therapy have produced reliable results in the treatment of patients with AD, and the best effects are related to increased socialization and the maintenance of social status.

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Identifying the Unmet Supportive Care Needs, with Concomitant Influencing Factors, in Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients in China

Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the unmet needs of cancer caregivers and to identify the possible predictors of their supportive care needs in China. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 449 cancer patients' family caregivers' dyads. Patients provided general information and Karnofsky performance status (KPS); caregivers provided general information and completed a survey of Chinese version of the Supportive Care Needs Survey-Partners and Caregivers Scale. The independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyze the factors that influence the needs of caregivers. Results: A proportion of caregivers who had no needs were 5.6%. A proportion of caregivers with ≥ 5 moderate or high unmet needs and with ≥ 10 moderate or high unmet needs were 77.7% and 63.2%, respectively. Healthcare services and information needs and communication and relationship needs were the most prominent areas of caregivers' unmet needs. The item "Finding out about financial support and government benefits for you and/or the person with cancer" was the highest level of unmet needs at 78.6%. The level of unmet needs was related to the patient's physical function (KPS score), caregiver's educational levels, financial burden of healthcare, as well as the level of burden related to caregiving (working status, caring for others, caregiving experience, and total caregiving time). Conclusions: The level of unmet needs of family caregivers of cancer patients in China was higher. In clinical practice, more attention should be paid to family caregivers who take care of the patient with poor physical function, those who are highly educated, faced with higher financial burden of healthcare, and are currently working, as well as those who need to take care of others, spend more time caregiving, and have no caregiving experience.

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"I Wish I Could Die So I Would Not Be in Pain": A Qualitative Study of Palliative Care Needs Among People With Cancer or HIV/AIDS in Vietnam and Their Caregivers

Background: Although cancer and HIV/AIDS are common causes of death in Vietnam, limited data exist on their palliative care needs. As palliative care becomes part of Universal Health Coverage, evidence is needed to scale up appropriate care. Objectives: To elicit from people with cancer or HIV/AIDS in Vietnam, and their caregivers, the specific multidimensional symptoms and concerns that cause serious health-related suffering. Methods: Semistructured, qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with stage III or IV cancer patients, people with HIV/AIDS, and their caregivers at three cancer treatment centers and two HIV/AIDS treatment centers in northern, central, and southern Vietnam. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Sixty people were interviewed (21 cancer patients, 20 people with HIV/AIDS, 19 caregivers). Pain and other physical symptoms severely impacted their daily lives. Psychological distress-including sadness, depression, worry, and a feeling of having no future-was mentioned frequently, and it was exacerbated by disease progression and by social problems such as financial difficulties and, among people with HIV/AIDS, stigma. Caregivers also suffered physically and psychosocially. Spirituality emerged as a source of strength for patients. Findings: highlighted patients' and family caregivers' desire for more information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, a shift toward individual decision-making. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate common, multidimensional, and severe suffering among people living with cancer or HIV/AIDS and their caregivers in Vietnam. These qualitative data should guide development of optimum clinical assessment tools and palliative care services for these populations.

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'I try my best ... I try to relieve the burden of my mum': a narrative analysis of the everyday care-giving experiences for five intergenerational Singapore-Chinese families where one member has dementia

Background: Singapore is experiencing a rapid growth in its ageing population with most of the islands' inhabitants living in high-rise apartments due to the scarcity of land. The Chinese community living in Singapore comprises the largest ethnic group and they are more likely to live together under one roof in an intergenerational family grouping. Currently, there are gaps in understanding intergenerational Singapore-Chinese families and their approach to caring at home for a family member with dementia. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal qualitative study was to understand better this everyday care-giving experience. Methods: Using semi-structured biographical interviews and digital photographs to elicit family stories, five intergenerational Singapore-Chinese families were visited at home for a period of between six and 15 months. Each recruited intergenerational family was treated as a 'case'. Narrative analysis of the data was applied within and between cases and resulted in the emergence of three themes that represented various dynamics in the data. Findings: The three themes were identified as: (1) family values, which is about the cultural context in which everyday care takes place, the religious beliefs and practices of the intergenerational Singapore-Chinese families, and the practice of filial piety; (2) family support, which is about everyday access to family and service networks, including the contribution of the live-in maid in caring for the family member with dementia; and (3) family bonds, which is about the maintenance of intergenerational family relations in the Chinese family kinship system.

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I heard it on the radio: supporting Pacific family carers through the development of culturally appropriate resources, a descriptive qualitative study

Background: New public health approaches to palliative care highlight the role of communities in care, yet there is little evidence of studies on community-led initiatives in the palliative care context. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of this study, which took place in Auckland, New Zealand, was to (1) explore Pacific family carers' views on what they need to feel supported as they care for older family members at the end of life and (2) to devise a resource that reflects their views that may be used to raise community awareness about these needs. Methods: This was achieved using a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework in which a focus group was carried out and a work group formed to implement the focus group's recommendations that were informed by a thematic analysis of the focus group data. Findings: The analysis resulted in the foregrounding of four themes, with the focus of this paper being on the 4th theme, the centrality of spirituality for a group of Pacific caregivers. This emphasis was chosen due to it being an underexplored topic in the palliative care literature. Co-creating resources based on research with community members allows for the development of tailored approaches of significance to that community, in this instance, a music video.

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"I decide myself"- A qualitative exploration of end of life decision making processes of patients and caregivers through Advance Care Planning

Background: The Singapore national Advance Care Planning (ACP) programme was launched in 2011 with the purpose of ensuring that healthcare professionals are fully aware of patients' treatment preferences. There is little research assessing the performance of such programmes in ethnically diverse Asian countries; hence, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine patients and caregivers' experiences with the ACP programme. Method: We conducted interviews with 28 participants, thirteen of whom identified as proxy decision makers (PDMs) and the remainder as patients. Interviews focused on respondents' experiences of chronic illness and of participating in the ACP programme. Textual data was analysed through a framework analysis approach. Results: Participants' narratives focused on four major themes with 12 subthemes: a) Engagement with Death, factors influencing respondents' acceptance of ACP; b) Formation of Preferences, the set of concerns influencing respondents' choice of care; c) Choice of PDM, considerations shaping respondents' choice of nominated health spokesperson; and d) Legacy Solidification, how ACP is used to ensure the welfare of the family after the patient passes. These findings led to our development of the directive decision-making process framework, which delineates personal and sociocultural factors influencing participants' decision-making processes. Respondents' continual participation in the intervention were driven by their personal belief system that acted as a lens through which they interpreted religious doctrine and socio-cultural norms according to their particular needs. Conclusion: The directive decision-making process framework indicated that ACP could be appropriate for the Asian context because participants displayed an awareness of the need for ACP and were able to develop a concrete treatment plan. Patients in this study made decisions based on their perceived long-term legacy for their family, who they hoped to provide with a solid financial and psychological foundation after their death. 

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“I Could Not Manage This Long-Term, Absolutely Not.” Aging in Place, Informal Care, COVID-19, and the Neighborhood in Flanders (Belgium)

Background: Public health and care policies across OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries increasingly encourage aging in place, enabled by both formal care networks, and informal (family) care and social solidarity in the neighborhood. However, little is known about how a person’s neighborhood might affect their aging in place. The COVID-19 crisis unintendedly offered a good opportunity to observe the neighborhood’s role in the provision of care. Since formal care services were often limited during the lockdown, informal caregiving may have increased. However, intergenerational contacts in and outside of the household were strongly discouraged by governments worldwide, adding another layer of complexity to caregiving. Objectives: The aim of this qualitative study was to assess how informal caregivers in Flanders managed to provide care to their care receivers, and what role the neighborhood played in this provision of care. Methods: Sixteen qualitative Skype and telephone interviews with informal caregivers were conducted between June and December 2020 to understand their experiences and coping strategies. Findings: Overall, most respondents increased their frequency of caregiving during the first lockdown. They took on the extra care needs during the lockdown themselves, and did not actively invoke any kind of neighborhood support. The significance of the neighborhood seemingly remained limited. This was often not because no help was offered, but rather due to a sense of pride or the fear of infection, and an increased effort by family caregivers. 

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How Transitions in Dementia Care Trajectories Affect Health Problems in Partners: A Longitudinal Analysis With Linked Health and Administrative Data

Objectives: To evaluate whether the prevalence of health problems in cohabiting partners of people with dementia differs between the year before and the year after 3 transitions: the diagnosis of dementia, institutionalization, and the death of the person with dementia. Methods: Individuals with dementia and their partners were identified on the basis of data in the electronic health records (EHRs) of 451 Dutch general practices. EHRs were also the data source on their health problems, which were linked to the Dutch population registry and health administration data with demographic characteristics, date of institutionalization, and date of death. Differences in the prevalence of 16 groups of health problems and of specific health problems in partners during the year before and the year after the 3 transitions were examined using a generalized estimating equation. Results: About 1,110 partners of persons with dementia were identified. Problems related to the illness and/or loss of the person with dementia were significantly more prevalent in the year after the dementia diagnosis (32% vs. 17%) and in the year after the death of the person with dementia (59% vs. 41%) than in the years before. Unspecified health problems were more prevalent in the year after the diagnosis than in the year before (30% vs. 22%). After institutionalization, an increase was found in digestive problems and urological problems (30% vs. 18% and 24% vs. 17%). Conclusions: Transitions during the dementia care trajectory, namely, the diagnosis, institutionalization, and death of the person with dementia, significantly affect the cohabiting partner's health.

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How do middle-aged chinese men and women balance caregiving and employment income?

Background: Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Methods: Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45–60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Results: Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63 h per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. Conclusions: These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers. 

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Home Visit Based Mindfulness Intervention for Vietnamese American Dementia Family Caregivers: A Pilot Feasibility Study

Background: Healthcare disparities continue to exist among the Vietnamese American (VA) community and many factors (e.g., fear of social stigma) deter family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) from seeking assistance. Purpose: To pilot-test a language-specific and culturally appropriate mindfulness intervention to improve dementia VA family caregiver well-being. Methods: Bilingual, trained research assistants administered a mindfulness exercise (i.e., deep breathing) to family caregivers and provided continuous support and care resources through weekly home visits for a month. Weekly surveys measured changes in emotion, feelings of connectedness to the PWD, and mood (i.e., happiness) before and after the intervention. Results: A total of nine VA family caregivers of PWD participated in this pilot study. Positive affect showed an increasing trend (Mpre = 16.0 (SD = 3.48), Mpost = 17.1 (SD = 3.06)) and negative affect showed a decreasing trend (Mpre = 6.44 (SD = 3.31), Mpost = 5.22 (SD = 0.359)). Happiness showed an increasing trend (Mpre = 4.30 (SD = 0.767), Mpost = 4.44 (SD = 0.873)). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a home-based dementia family caregiver intervention with mindfulness exercises may potentially increase positive affect and decrease negative affect in Vietnamese American family caregivers of PWD. Similar interventions may help reduce caregiver burden in dementia family caregivers of other cultures.

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Health Promotion Behavior among Older Korean Family Caregivers of People with Dementia

Background: People adopt health promotion behaviors to promote their health as they interact within the environment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing health promotion behaviors among older adults caring for family members with dementia. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, data from 135 older adults who were the main caregivers were collected at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital in the capital city of South Korea between September and October in 2020. Sociodemographic characteristics, caregiver-related characteristics, dementia knowledge, fear of dementia, and health promotion behaviors were measured. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the level of health promotion behaviors differed by age, sex, educational level, monthly income, relationship with the family member with dementia, and cohabitation with family members with dementia. In the multivariate analysis, a hierarchical multiple regression model explained 33.9% of the variance. Sex, duration of caregiving, use of long-term care service, and fear of dementia predicted health promotion behavior. Conclusion: A strategic tailored care plan for target population is needed to improve the health promotion behavior of older adults caring for family members with dementia.

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Health care staff's strategies to preserve dignity of migrant patients in the palliative phase and their families. A qualitative study

Aims: To determine registered nurses' and care assistants' difficulties and strategies for preserving dignity of migrant patients in the last phase of life and their families. Background: Preserving dignity of patients in a palliative phase entails paying attention to the uniqueness of patients. Migrant patients often have particular needs and wishes that care staff find difficult to address, or meet, and hence the patient's dignity might be at stake. Methods: We performed five focus group discussions with care staff and one with key figures with diverse ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands (2018–2020). Thematic analysis was used. Results: Care staff creatively safeguarded the patient's dignity in daily care by attending to personal needs concerning intimate body care and providing non‐verbal attention. Care staff had difficulties to preserve dignity, when the patient's family engaged themselves in the patient's choices or requests. According to care staff, the interference of family impeded the patient's quality of life or threatened the patient's dignity in the last days, or family member's choices (seemingly) prevailed over the patient's wishes. Care staff safeguarded dignity by catering to cultural or religious practices at the end of life and employing cultural knowledge during decision making. Key figures emphasized to make decisions with patient and family together and to listen more carefully to what patients mean. Bypassing family was experienced as harmful, and repetitively informing family, about, for example, the patient's disease or procedures in the nursing home, was experienced as ineffective. Conclusion: To preserve the patient's dignity, attention is needed for relational aspects of dignity and needs of family, next to patients' individual needs. Impact: Care staff should be supported to employ strategies to engage family of migrant patients, by, for example, acknowledging families' values, such as giving good care to the patient and the importance of religious practices for dignity.

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Gendered caregiving and structural constraints: An empirical ethical study

Background: The pressing issue of aged care has made gendered caregiving a growing subject of feminist bioethical enquiry. However, the impact of feminism on empirical studies in the area of gendered care in Chinese sociocultural contexts has been less influential. Objectives: To examine female members’ lived experiences of gendered care in rural China and offer proper normative evaluation based on their experiences. Research design: This article adopted an empirical ethical approach that integrates ethnographical investigation and feminist ethical inquiry. This article focused on three cases of gendered caregiving for sick older members collected from a 6-month fieldwork conducted in a primary hospital in rural China.  Approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. Findings: The empirical work highlights caregivers’ voices of weiqu (a sense of unfairness) resulting from their constrained choice when being pressured to engage in caregiving, which is associated with a disadvantageous socio-institutional and structural backdrop in current rural China. Informed by the conception of structural injustice, the normative analysis of this article traced various forms of social norms, structural deficiencies and ageing welfare institutions, as they intertwine and transmit into additional care deficiencies against rural families and their female caregivers. Conclusion: This article identified the constraint of gender hierarchy and its intersection with external social structure that exacerbate gendered oppression and exploitation of female labour in rural China. Normatively, this article argues that the current configuration of rural family care, featured by structural impediments and exploration of female labour, is unjust. Some policy recommendations are proposed to empower caregivers and advance care for rural older people.

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Gender, Class and the Cost of Unpaid Care: An Analysis of 25 Countries

Background: This article examines the relationship between gender, class and unpaid care for children and elderly household members across twenty-five countries. Methods: Using the microdata files of the 2015–2017 Luxembourg Income Study, we demonstrate that household income quintile shapes the relationship between resident caregiving and a) women's diminished share of household income and b) the associated "wage penalty" women experience in paid employment, examining dual-headed heterosexual households and grouping countries at varying levels of GDP per capita. Results: Our analyses demonstrate that both eldercare and childcare have a negative impact on women's economic outcomes, yet the effects of both types of unpaid care vary across class. Overall, childcare has a larger impact for women in lower income households, while eldercare has a larger impact for women in higher income households. However, the wage penalties experienced by wealthier women due to either type of potential care responsibilities are considerably less than those experienced by women in poorer households. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that unpaid resident caregiving has effects that are both highly gendered and highly classed, leading to intersectional disadvantages for women performing unpaid care within poorer households across countries, and with effects that, in some cases, are further amplified within low-GDP countries. 

 

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Formal and Informal Care: Complementary or Substitutes in Care for Elderly People? Empirical Evidence From China

Background: To integrate the care resources of the elderly, while promoting the development of formal social care resources, some countries have gradually turned to the development of family informal care resources. In China, informal family care has a more important role, whereas social formal care resources are far from meeting the needs of older people. Thus, this strategy can only be effective if there is a clear complementary relationship between informal care and formal care. Methods: Empirical analysis is selected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) database, which conducted 10 follow-up surveys in 12 provinces and municipalities in China. A two-tier stochastic frontier (TSFA) model was used to analyze the relationship between three different kinds of formal care and informal family care. Results: The formal complementary and substitute effects on informal care eventually led to higher actual informal care level. The net effect of formal care on informal care is positive, and the complementary effects of formal care are still dominant even in different regions. Conclusions: Increasing informal care does not crowd out or reduce formal care; thereby, facilitating the return of care to families can effectively reduce public service expenditures. 

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‘Food for Life and Palliation (FLiP)’: a qualitative study for understanding and empowering dignity and identity for terminally ill patients in Asia

Objectives: With ‘eating’ posited as Singapore’s domestic pastime, food experiences for Singaporeans constitute national, social, ethnic and personal identities. However, though they form significant parts of Singaporean existence across the lifespan, studies and observations about food experiences for individuals at the end of life remain noticeably absent. Extant literature continues to focus on nutritional practice during illness and the active dying process, forgoing the rich lived experiences of food in the lives of patients and their families. The current work sought to qualitatively extricate through a constructivist phenomenological approach, the ‘food voices’ of Singaporean palliative care patients and their families. It also simultaneously aimed to assess the role of food in bolstering their subjective feelings of dignity and identity, while also considering resultant clinical implications. Setting: Homes of patients within the Singaporean palliative care setting. Participants: A subset of qualitative data (n=25) in the form of dyadic interviews with terminally ill patients and a family caregiver was generated from a larger family dignity intervention study that explored the experience of living and dying among Asian palliative care patients and their families. Results: Framework analysis with both inductive and deductive approaches informed by the a priori domain of food resulted in the generation of four major themes, each with three subthemes. These were organised into the Food for Life and Palliation model. They include: (1) feeding identity and familial bonds, (2) liminal subsistence in illness transition, (3) food becoming lineage, and (4) compassionate nourishment. Conclusions: Clinical implications are considered; including food-focused interventions that enhance dignity, promote meaning-making and facilitate legacy construction. Developmental suggestions are also directed at industry partners producing end-of-life nutrition products.

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Family relations of older people: Personal and practical support

Summary: In this study, we examined older people's views and experiences of family relations in Iceland. Objectives: The goal was to explore the frequency and kinds of contact, and the support older people received from their adult biological children and stepchildren. Methods: We performed cluster sampling covering community centers in municipalities nationwide in Iceland. The questionnaire was answered by 273 older people, including 193 women (75%) and 64 men (25%). The average age was 79 years. About 200 (74%) lived in the capital area of Reykjavik, while 70 (26%) lived in the countryside. Findings: Older people received more support from biological children than stepchildren. Specifically, differences were found in both frequency and quality of contact. The results revealed gender differences; daughters offering more help and support than sons. Older women have more frequent contact and closer relationships with their biological children than with other children. Relationships with stepchildren were weaker in all respects. These results are discussed in connection to structural and cultural factors, with a focus on the implications of changes in family structure, new communication styles, and effects of media. Applications: Although the increased frequencies of divorce and stepparenting can affect connections within families, communities commonly disregard the different needs of stepfamilies, sometimes called "stepblindness". Policy makers and professionals such as social workers need to concede different needs of older people in stepfamilies. Conclusions: Conclusions are drawn from the perspective of welfare policy issues, such as the need of more precise law provisions and implementations on social services for families.

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Family members of Veterans with mental health problems: Seeking, finding, and accessing informal and formal supports during the military-to-civilian transition

Introduction: For some Canadian Armed Forces Veterans who are released, the military-to-civilian transition (MCT) process may be complicated by significant mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety). Family members (i.e., spouses, adult children, parents) who serve as the primary caregivers for Veterans with mental health problems devote significant energy to seeking and finding social support as they navigate the MCT. Objectives: The primary purposes of this qualitative study were to 1) hear from these family members and learn about the obstacles to and successes in accessing formal and informal social supports during the MCT and 2) understand how accessing such supports was affected by the Veteran's mental health problems. Methods: A sequential, multiple qualitative design was used, involving both in-depth individual interviews and focus groups with English- and French-speaking family members (N =36) living in Eastern, Central, and Western Canada (i.e., individual, n = 27; focus groups, n = 9). Data coding was facilitated through the qualitative data analysis sot ware MAXQDA, and data analysis was conducted using grounded theory strategies. Results: Amid numerous indicators of significant resolve and commitment to health, family members revealed significant issues (e.g., mental health stigma of the Veteran, caregiver burden and burnout) that contributed to notable barriers in accessing both informal (i.e., extended family, friends, online support groups) and formal (i.e., Operational Stress Injury Social Support, Military Family Resource Centres) support systems helpful in navigating the MCT. Discussion: Results are discussed in the context of how the Veteran's mental health compounded barriers for family members who sought to access informal and formal support services that would provide comfort, financial aid, respite, and counsel to the Veteran family in the MCT. Conclusions: Building on the resilience of military-connected families, gaps in the systems of formal and informal care are discussed in the context of how bold and creative changes (e.g., proactive signposting) might facilitate the MCT for Veterans with mental health problems.

 

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Family Function, Quality of Life, and Well-Being in Parents of Infants With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Background: Survival for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) has improved dramatically. Little is known about early family function, quality of life (QOL), or well-being/adjustment for parents of infants with HLHS. Methods: Parent/family outcomes over time, predictors, and differences in 143 mothers and 72 fathers were examined. Results: Parents reported better family function compared with published norms, but 26% experienced family dysfunction. QOL and well-being were significantly lower than adult norms. QOL scores generally declined over time, whereas self-reported well-being improved. Responses from mothers and fathers showed different trends, with mothers having worse scores on most measures and at most time points. Being a single parent was a risk factor for poorer family function, but not for lower individual QOL or well-being. Family characteristics, stress, and coping skills were predictive of outcomes. Parents' psychosocial responses to the challenges of life with infants with HLHS change over time. Conclusions: Individually tailored psychosocial support is needed.

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Family Focused Therapy for Family Members of Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Case Reports of Its Impact on Expressed Emotions

Background: Caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) undergo a considerable amount of burden. In India, family caregivers are the primary source of support and care for their ill relatives. The burden faced by family members of patients with BD often results in physical and mental health consequences. This may lead to negative interaction patterns such as hostility, criticality, and overinvolvement, termed as expressed emotions (EE). Methods: Here, we report how we addressed the EE in family members, using a single-subject design that involved the family caregivers (n = 2) of two adults who presented with a diagnosis of BD with a current episode of mania. Results: An assessment of family caregivers, using the family questionnaire, revealed high EE. Family focused therapy (FFT) of 12 sessions was delivered over 3–4 weeks on an inpatient basis, with positive outcomes of reductions in EE and family stress and improved psychosocial functioning in patient that were sustained over 9–10 months. Conclusions: FFT can be an important add on psychosocial therapy to reduce EE and stress and to facilitate functioning and communication. 

 

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Family factors and health‐related quality of life within 6 months of completion of childhood cancer treatment

Objective: The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship represents a period of uncertainty for youth and their families, but factors associated with adaptation during this period are understudied. We evaluated associations among cancer and treatment‐related variables, family factors (family functioning, caregiver health‐related quality of life [HRQL], and caregiver distress), and patient HRQL after treatment completion. We assessed the indirect effects of neurocognitive difficulties on youth HRQL through family factors. Methods: One hundred fifty‐four caregivers (of patients’ ages 0–18 years) and 52 youth (ages 7–18 years) completed questionnaires assessing family factors, neurocognitive difficulties, and HRQL for patients within 6 months following treatment completion. Electronic health records were reviewed for cancer and treatment‐related information. Bootstrapping analyses assessed whether neurocognitive function had indirect effects on HRQL through family factors. Results: Family factors were associated with self‐ and caregiver reports of children's HRQL. Controlling for demographic, cancer, and treatment covariates, caregiver reports of their child's neurocognitive difficulties had an indirect effect on their reports of child physical HRQL through family functioning. Caregiver reports of their child's neurocognitive difficulties indirectly related to caregiver reports of child psychosocial HRQL through family functioning and caregiver HRQL. Indirect effects for self‐reported neurocognitive difficulties and HRQL were not supported. Conclusions: Findings highlight the need for routine psychosocial screening for youth and caregiver reports of family adjustment and HRQL during the transition off treatment. Providers are encouraged to offer interventions matched to specific needs for families at risk for poor family functioning to improve patient outcomes as they transition off treatment.

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Family dermatology life quality index in patients with pemphigus vulgaris: A cross-sectional study

Background and Aims: Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune intraepidermal vesiculobullous disease involving the skin and mucosa. It impacts the quality of life of both patients and their families. Methods: A total of 70 patients with pemphigus vulgaris (either outpatient or hospitalized) were enrolled using the simple sampling method between 2016 and 2017 from the dermatology clinic at Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. A validated Persian version of the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FLDQI) questionnaire was filled by a family caregiver. The questionnaire contained 10 items assessing the quality of life of the family. Demographic variables were recorded in a separate form. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51 ± 11.3 years and that of the family caregivers was 32 ± 8.8 years. The FLDQI score was higher (poorer quality of life) if the patient was male, older, had shorter disease duration or had fewer disease recurrences (P = 0.046, 0.01, 0.001 and >0.001, respectively). Higher scores were also obtained in the less-educated caregivers (P = 0.026) but there was no association with either gender or age (P = 0.399, 0.1). Conclusion: Pemphigus vulgaris significantly affects the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index. Education and counseling of family caregivers by various support groups such as Pemphigus Family Associations could be effective in improving the quality of life of the caregivers.<bold>Limitations: </bold>This study did not assess the effect of comprising domain analysis, severity of disease, patients' Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), mucosal involvement, response to treatment, outpatient or admitted status, socioeconomic status, or the quality of life among the various family members. 

 

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Family Caregiving During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected persons with existing chronic health conditions. The pandemic also has the potential to exacerbate the stresses of family caregiving. We compare family caregivers with noncaregivers on physical, psychosocial, and financial well-being outcomes during the pandemic and determine family caregivers most at risk for adverse outcomes. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 576 family caregivers and 2,933 noncaregivers from April to May 2020 in Pittsburgh, PA region with a national supplement. Outcome measures included concurrent anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social participation, and financial well-being and perceived changes due to COVID-19 (loneliness, financial well-being, food security). We also measured sociodemographic, caregiving contextual variables, and COVID-19-related caregiver stressors (COVID Caregiver Risk Index). Results: Controlling for sociodemographics, family caregivers reported higher anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, lower social participation, lower financial well-being, increased food insecurity (all p <.01), and increased financial worries (p =.01). Caregivers who reported more COVID-19-related caregiver stressors and disruptions reported more adverse outcomes (all p <.01). In addition, caregivers who were female, younger, lower income, providing both personal/medical care, and providing care for cognitive/behavioral/emotional problems reported more adverse outcomes. Discussion and Implications: Challenges of caregiving are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Family caregivers reported increased duties, burdens, and resulting adverse health, psychosocial, and financial outcomes. Results were generally consistent with caregiver stress–health process models. Family caregivers should receive increased support during this serious public health crisis.

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Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease during the COVID‐19 journey

As is the whole world, we are also fighting the coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic in Turkey, which complicates and affects all aspects of life. The pandemic can negatively psychosocially affect every segment of society. To successfully get through this pandemic, it is important to consider all individuals in society, including ourselves. Patients with Alzheimer's disease are considered vulnerable, more helpless; they do not have the capacity to make the right decisions and they need the care and help of someone else. The needs of relatives who provide care for these patients may have been forgotten during this pandemic.

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Family Caregiver Partnerships in Palliative Care Research Design and Implementation

The article discusses the effectiveness of family caregiver partnerships in the design and implementation of pediatric palliative care (PPC) research. Also cited are the importance of the perspectives of family caregivers, clinicians and researchers in improving research, and the principles of patient- and family-centered research like honesty, cultural competency, and transparency.

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Family Caregiver Access of Online Medical Records: Findings from the Health Information National Trends Survey

Over 40 million Americans provide unpaid support to an adult relative for tasks including accompanying them to doctor visits and/or supporting them in medical decisions. Over the past several years—and particularly amid COVID-19—there has been increasing interest and demand for caregivers to be more involved in communication with providers to support patient engagement and patient-centered care as evidenced by recent state and federal policy initiatives to expand support to caregivers. One way to improve communication between caregivers and providers is through an online medical record (patient portal), which enables patients to acquire important health information and communicate with medical providers. However, caregivers’ access to adult care recipients’ portals is limited and varies across healthcare organizations and states. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between socio-demographic attributes and responsibilities of caregivers and likelihood of (a) communicating with recipients’ providers and (b) accessing recipients’ online records.

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Family care for persons with severe mental illness: experiences and perspectives of caregivers in Uganda

Background: In low-income settings with limited social protection supports, by necessity, families are a key resource for care and support. Paradoxically, the quality of family care for people living with Severe Mental Illness (PLSMI) has been linked to support for recovery, hospital overstay and preventable hospital readmissions. This study explored the care experiences of family members of PLSMI with patients at the national mental hospital in Kampala, Uganda, a low income country. This study was undertaken to inform the development of YouBelongHome (YBH), a community mental health intervention implemented by YouBelong Uganda (YBU), a registered NGO in Uganda. Methods: Qualitative data was analysed from 10 focus groups with carers of ready to discharge patients on convalescent wards in Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital (BNRMH), Kampala. This is a subset of data from a mixed methods baseline study for YouBelong Uganda, undertaken in 2017 to explore hospital readmissions and community supports for PLSMI from the Wakiso and Kampala districts, Uganda. Results: Three interrelated themes emerge in the qualitative analysis: a range of direct, practical care provided by the caregiver of the PLSMI, emotional family dynamics, and the social and cultural context of care. The family care giving role is multidimensional, challenging, and changing. It includes protection of the PLSMI from harm and abuse, in the context of stigma and discrimination, and challenging behaviours that may result from poor access to and use of evidence-based medicines. There is reliance on traditional healers and faith healers reflecting alternative belief systems and health seeking behaviour rather than medicalised care. Transport to attend health facilities impedes access to help outside the family care system. Underpinning these experiences is the impact of low economic resources. Conclusions: Family support can be a key resource and an active agent in mental health recovery for PLSMI in Uganda. Implementing practical family-oriented mental health interventions necessitates a culturally aware practice. This should be based in understandings of dynamic family relationships, cultural understanding of severe mental illness that places it in a spiritual context, different family forms, caregiving practices and challenges as well as community attitudes. In the Ugandan context, limited (mental) health system infrastructure and access to medications and service access impediments, such as economic and transport barriers, accentuate these complexities.

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Family achievements in struggling with schizophrenia: life experiences in a qualitative content analysis study in Iran

Background: The challenges of living with and taking care of a patient with schizophrenia can lead to positive changes depending on the experiences and reactions of family caregivers. Such changes may directly affect the family performance and the patient’s recovery stage. Aims: Present study aimed to explain the positive experiences reported by family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 15 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia referring to one of the psychiatric hospitals in Zahedan, Southeast part of Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied and data analysis was conducted using conventional content analysis proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: Data analysis created a theme entitled “family achievements in struggling with schizophrenia”. This theme included four categories including Developing positive personality traits in family members, Strengthening family ties, developing insight into the life, and social mobility. Conclusions: The results provided insights that the experience of taking care of patients with schizophrenia led to positive consequences for family caregivers. Thus, it is recommended that psychiatrists or consultants help families rely on positive experiences and share these experiences with families with a newly-suffered patient.

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Faith-sensitive end of life care for children, young people and their families

This article is part of an at a glance series on palliation and end of life care in paediatrics and focuses on the provision of faith-sensitive end of life care. Particular religions are discussed, with some key points for care of patients from some of the most prevalent religions within the UK. This article is intended to give points for discussion and consideration, but health professionals are encouraged to speak to every patient and family on an individual level to ensure an understanding of their personal beliefs. Although there is a range of literature discussing faith during end-of-life care, there is litte that outlines the practical specifics and for this reason some of the supporting literature in this article is dated and, where possible, this has been supported with contemporary sources.

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Factors related to the use of religious coping by informal caregivers: an integrative review

Objectives: to identify the factors related to the use of religious coping in informal caregivers. Methods: integrative literature review carried out through a search in the databases LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL, in addition to the Virtual Health Library and SciELO. The study selected primary articles in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, using the descriptors Coping Behavior, Caregivers, Spirituality, and Religion, which were combined with each other and with synonyms. There was no time limit for the publications. Results: nine articles were selected. Factors related to the use of religious coping in informal caregivers included: having an advanced age, experiencing traumatic situations, being under overload, being a spouse or mother, caring for hospitalized individuals, or for those with chronic diseases and high degrees of dependence. Conclusions: the factors related to the use of religious coping are multifaceted and involve physical, psychological, psychosocial, and situational aspects.

 

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Factors influencing scales of burden, coping mechanisms, and quality of life in caregivers of hemodialysis patients in Andhra Pradesh, India

Background: Evaluation of factors influencing scales of burden, coping mechanisms, and quality of life (QOL) in caregivers of hemodialysis (HD) patients may lead to the revision of interventions aimed at the betterment of QOL of caregivers of HD patients. In this study, we investigated the influence of demographic, social, and clinical variables on burden, coping mechanisms, and QOL in caregivers of HD patients. Methods: In this prospective study, 150 caregivers of HD patients were recruited. Assessment of burden, coping strategies, and QOL were made by the Zarit Burden Interview, Revised Ways of Coping, and Short Form-36 QOL. The role of age, gender, and social and clinical variables on these constructs was investigated using multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The mean age was 43.86 ± 1.11 years. Males outnumbered females. Most were Hindu, married, primary school educated, unemployed, spouses, caring the patients, and suffering from chronic diseases for <5 years. In multivariate analysis of variance, effect of age on physical functioning (PF), general health (GH), and physical component summary (PCS) score (P < 0.01); gender on burden, distancing, seeking social support, role limitation due to emotional problem, and pain (P < 0.05); role limitations due to physical health, energy/fatigue (EF), emotional well-being, PCS, and mental component summary (MCS) score (P < 0.01); religion on PF (P < 0.05); marital status on burden and GH (P < 0.05); PF and PCS (P < 0.01); relationship of caregiver with the patient on PCS (P < 0.05); EF and MCS (P < 0.01); and presence of chronic diseases on GH and social functioning (P < 0.01) were observed. Conclusion: The role of demographic, social, and clinical variables should be taken into consideration while initiating therapies for reducing the burden and improving the QOL of caregivers.

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Factors facilitating positive outcomes in community-based end-of-life care: A cross-sectional qualitative study of patients and family caregivers

Background: Delivery of community-based end-of-life care for patients and family members has been recognized as an important public health care approach. Despite differences in different healthcare settings and the significance of a person-centered approach, little research has investigated facilitators of community-based end-of-life care from the perspective of service recipients. In particular, there has been limited exploration of strategies to ensure positive outcomes at an operational level. Aim: To explore factors facilitating positive end-of-life care provision in community-based settings and how these are achieved in practice, from the perspectives of patients and family caregivers. Design: A qualitative cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken through semi-structured interviews with patients and family caregivers subjected to thematic analysis. Setting/participants: Ten patients and 16 family caregivers were recruited from an end-of-life community care program provided by four non-governmental organizations in Hong Kong. Results: Seven core themes were identified: positive emotions about the relationship, positive appraisals of the relationship, care through inquiring about recipients’ circumstances, instrumentality of care (i.e. information, coaching on care, practical help, psychological support, multiple activities), comprehensiveness of care (i.e. diversity, post-death care, family-level wellbeing), structure of care (i.e. timely follow-up, well-developed system), and qualities of workers. Conclusions: Improvement in service quality might be achieved through alternating the perceptions or emotional reactions of care recipients toward care providers and increased use of sensitive inquiry. Comprehensive care and positive outcomes might be facilitated by addressing the dualities of care by providing diverse choices in pre-death and post-death care.

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Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in family caregivers of psychotic patients

Introduction: An association can be found between patient with psychosis and perpetrating acts of violence. So, the caregiving role can impact negatively on psychosis carer psychological health and wellbeing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in family caregivers of psychotic patients following exposure to aggression. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out involving 95 family caregivers of psychotic patients followed in psychiatry. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care. Sociodemographic and clinical data of patients were collected from medical records.We used the perceptions of prevalence of aggression scale (POPAS) to measure the frequency and severity of aggression directed at the respondent in the past and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to evaluate PTSD. Results: The caregivers were male in 51.6% and with low educational level in 46.3% of cases. A rate of 75.8% of caregivers reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of aggression. More than a half of caregivers (54.7%) reported potentially significant levels of PTSD. Decreased contact with patient (p=0.01), male gender (p=0.00), older age (p=0.00), living far from patient (p=0.00), parent relationship of caregivers (p=0.00), diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p=0.00) and poor adherence to treatment (p=0.00) in affected relatives were associated with the presence of PTSD following exposure to moderate to severe aggression. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for interventions to promote family psychoeducation and to provide psychosocial support for caregivers of patients in order to prevent the traumatic impact of violence on them.

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Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Background: The increase in the elderly population, chronic and degenerative diseases, as well as accidents at work and on the road in Malaysia would result in an increased demand for informal care. This paper aimed to determine the associated factors of informal caregiving and its effects on health, work and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia. Methods: The data from the 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage stratified random sampling design, was used in this research. The study included respondents who were 18 years and older (n = 11,674). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results: 5.7% of the adult population were informal caregivers. Provision of informal care were significantly associated with the female sex (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.21, 1.92]), those aged 36–59 years (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.15, 2.25]), and those who reported illness in the past 2 weeks (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.33]). The risk of having their health affected were associated with female caregivers (OR = 3.63, 95% CI [1.73, 7.61]), those who received training (OR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.10, 4.00]) and those who provided care for 2 years or more (OR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.08, 3.37]). The factors associated with the effects on work were ethnicity, received training and had no assistance to provide the care. In terms of effect on social activities, female caregivers (OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.04, 3.69]) and caregivers who received training were more likely (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.22, 3.93]) to have their social activities affected. Conclusion: Our study revealed that sex, age, and self-reported illness were factors associated with being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. Informal caregivers faced effects on their health, work, and social activities which may be detrimental to their well-being. This understanding is crucial for planning support for caregivers.

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Factors Associated with Health Check-up and Cancer Screening Participation among Family Caregivers of Patients with Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background: Providing care for patients with dementia can negatively influence the physical health and health behaviours of family caregivers. A better understanding of the factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation is vital for developing effective interventions. Thus, this study aimed to identify factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation among family caregivers of patients with dementia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the data of 2,414 family caregivers of patients with dementia collected by the Korea Community Health Survey in 2017. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and health status factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation among family caregivers of patients with dementia. Results: Health check-up and cancer screening rates among family caregivers of patients with dementia were 68.7% and 61.4%, respectively, which were significantly lower than the rates for individuals who were not caregivers of patients with dementia. Those with lower education levels had lower odds ratios (OR) for both health check-up (OR: 0.60) and cancer screening (OR: 0.59) participation. In addition, symptoms of depression were associated with lower participation (health check-up OR: 0.67; cancer screening OR: 0.65). Conclusions: More targeted disease prevention and management strategies must be developed for family caregivers of patients with dementia, particularly those with depressive symptoms and lower education levels. 

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Factors associated with caring behaviors of family caregivers for patients receiving home mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy: A cross-sectional study

Background: The number of patients on home mechanical ventilation (HMV) worldwide has been steadily rising as medical technological advanced. To ensure the safety and quality care of the patients receiving HMV with tracheostomy, caring behavior of family caregivers is critical. However, studies on caring behavior of family caregivers and its associated factors were remained unexplored. This study aimed to describe the caring behaviors of family caregivers for patients receiving home mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy and to identify factors associated with their caring behaviors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study for 95 family caregivers for patients with invasive home mechanical ventilation in South Korea. Caring behaviors were assessed by the Caring Behavior Scale with 74 items with 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results: Caring behaviors score of caregivers was 304.68±31.05 out of 370. They were significantly associated with knowledge on emergency care (β = 0.22, p = .011), number of required instruments for care (β = 0.21, p = .010), frequency of home visit care (β = 0.19, p = .017), experience of emergency situation for the last six months (β = 0.19, p = .009) and activities of daily living of patient (β = 0.27, p = .002). Conclusion: Development of standardized multidisciplinary discharge education for improving the caring capacity of caregivers is required for successful and healthy application of home mechanical ventilation.

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Factors associated with caregiving self-efficacy among primary informal caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore

Background: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are often associated with negative health outcomes. Self-efficacy in dementia caregiving has been reported to have protective effects on caregiver’s health. This study aims to examine the factors associated with the domains of caregiving self-efficacy among informal caregivers in Singapore, a country with a rapidly aging population and a 10% prevalence of dementia among older adults. Methods: Two hundred eighty-two informal caregivers were recruited and data including participant’s caregiving self-efficacy, sociodemographic information, perceived social support, positive aspects of caregiving, knowledge of dementia, as well as behavioral and memory problems of care recipients were collected. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for the 3-factor model of the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy (RSCSE), and multiple linear regressions were conducted using the RSCSE subscales as dependent variables. Results: Our CFA found that the RSCSE 3-factor model proposed by the original scale developer was an acceptable fit among informal caregivers in Singapore. Having established that the 3-factor model of the RSCSE was compatible among our sample, a series of multiple regressions were conducted using each of the factors as a dependent variable. Regressions revealed several factors that were significantly associated with caregiving self-efficacy. Importantly, outlook on life was positively associated to all 3 domains of the RSCSE, while social support was positively associated with self-efficacy in obtaining respite and controlling upsetting thoughts. Conclusion: The 3-factor model of the RSCSE was found to be an appropriate fit for our sample. Findings from this study elucidated important novel insights into the factors that influences caregiving self-efficacy amongst informal caregivers in Singapore. Crucially, caregivers’ outlook on life and social support should be improved in order to enhance their caregiving self-efficacy.

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Factor analysis of the relationship between PANSS score and family burden of patients with schizophrenia

Objective: This study aims to investigate the burden of family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, and its influencing factors. Methods: A total of 105 patients with schizophrenia and their caregivers were investigated using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) and family burden scale of disease (FBS). Results: There was a strong correlation between the patient's recovery and family burden, especially between positive and negative symptoms and family financial burden, family daily activities, family recreational activities, and family relationship. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the patient's recovery and family burden, and this is especially correlated to family economic burden, family daily activities, family recreational activities, and family relationship. Medical staff should pay attention to the psychological characteristics of patients and fully understand and avoid the adverse effects of family burden on the rehabilitation of patients. There is a strong correlation between the patient's recovery and family burden, and this is especially correlated to family economic burden, family daily activities, family recreational activities and family relationship. Medical staff should pay attention to the psychological characteristics of patients, and fully understand and avoid the adverse effects of family burden on the rehabilitation of patients. 

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Exposure to violence and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in family caregivers of psychotic patients

Introduction: Family caregivers of psychotic patients are exposed to violence and stress. However, associated psychological outcomes are poorly characterized in this population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between violence directed towards caregivers of patients with psychosis and developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Participants were family caregivers of psychotic patients (n=95). They completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics. Sociodemographic and clinical data of patients were collected from medical records. We used the perceptions of prevalence of aggression scale (POPAS) to measure the frequency and severity of aggression directed at the respondent in the past and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to evaluate PTSD. Results: A rate of 75.8% of caregivers reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of aggression. Decreased contact with patient (p=0.00), male gender (p=0.00), older age (p=0.00) and parent relationship (p=0.01) of caregivers, diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p=0,00) and poor adherence to treatment (p=0,00) in affected relatives were associated with experiences of moderate–severe aggression. More than a half of caregivers (54.7%) reported potentially significant levels of PTSD which correlated with the level of aggression (p=0.00). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a large proportion of family caregivers of patient-initiated violence in psychosis reported experiencing a great distress and a high level of PTSD symptomatology. So, more attention should be paid to the support needs of caregivers who are faced with potentially life threatening aggressive behaviour by psychotic family members.

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Exploring the meaning of dignity at end of life for Chinese Canadians caregivers: A qualitative cross-cultural study

Background: Preserving patient dignity is a fundamental value in palliative care and is associated with an increased sense of meaning at end of life. The empiric Dignity Model, developed by Chochinov et al. (2002), identifies physical and psychosocial issues impacting dignity and provides guidance for dignity conserving care. Aim: This study's objectives are to explore the generalizability of the empiric Dignity Model to Chinese Canadians an immigrant population influenced by both Western and Asian values. The study will explore how dignity is culturally mediated. Design: Template analysis using NVivo was used to assess for themes and to explore new themes in focus group interviews. Participants: Three focus groups of thirty-one first generation Chinese Canadians were conducted in the community setting, in the metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver. Results: The three thematic categories of the Dignity Model were broadly supported. Themes of Family connectedness and the Confucian virtue of filial piety (duty that children have towards their parents), were found to be strongly relevant for Chinese Canadians. Subjects' acculturation within Canada led to an evolution of perception of dignity as new ideas are accepted or rejected and blended with pre-existing values. Conclusion: To the author's knowledge this is the first study on the Dignity Model done in a Chinese Canadian population. The conceptualization of dignity for first generation Chinese Canadians is influenced by both Western and Asian culture. This study highlights the unique constructs of dignity for Chinese Canadians and areas to enhance dignity preserving care in a cross-cultural context.

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Exploring the experiences of family caregivers with people with drug-resistant tuberculosis

Background: The South African health system faces major challenges: crumbling infrastructure, shortage of beds and health professionals, and a high burden of diseases such as Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. The emergence of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis has made matters worse, as some of the burden of care for patients was transferred from nurses at hospitals to families in communities after patient discharge. Objective: This study explores and describes experiences of family caregivers caring for family members with Drug Resistant Tuberculosis living at home. Methods: The data from purposively selected family caregivers, caring for family members living with Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, were collected through in-depth interviews using a pretested interview guide. Saturation was reached at the 11th interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, analysed using Tech’s Eight Steps for Data Analysis, and emerging themes reported. Findings: Three themes that emerged were: issues in relation to provision of care, caregiver’s attitudes towards caregiving, and community attitudes and practices towards family caregivers. The study showed that respondents experienced challenges such as buying and preparing of nutritious food, attending to hygiene needs and management of treatment of side effects. Poverty, finance and time were barriers to caregiving roles. Participants experienced physical and psychological exhaustion, social exclusion, and stigmatisation. Conclusions: There is a need to increase coverage of the Ward-Based Outreach Teams and Community Healthcare Workers, and intensification of TB and HIV/AIDS health education in communities. Training and education on infection control, palliative treatment, and home-based medical care should be provided to families before a patient is discharged. Stakeholder relations need to be improved and collaboration fostered. 

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Exploring the barriers to pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a qualitative study

Background: The complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its different physical, mental, familial, occupational, and social complications highlight the necessity of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for afflicted patients. However, PR for patients with COPD usually faces some barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to PR for patients with COPD. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in January 2019 to October 2020. Participants were 19 patients with COPD, 11 family caregivers of patients with COPD, and 12 healthcare providers, who all were recruited purposively from two teaching hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results: The barriers to PR for patients with COPD fell into three main categories, namely barriers related to patients and their families, inefficiency of PR services, and inappropriate organizational context for PR. Each category had four subcategories, namely patients' and families' lack of knowledge, complexity and chronicity of COPD, heavy financial burden of COPD, patients' frustration and discontinuation of PR, lack of patient-centeredness, lack of coordination in PR team, inadequate professional competence of PR staff, lack of a holistic approach to PR, limited access to PR services, inadequate insurance for PR services, ineffective PR planning, and discontinuity of care. Conclusion: PR for patients with COPD is a complex process which faces different personal, familial, social, financial, organizational, and governmental barriers. Strategies for managing these barriers are needed in order to improve the effectiveness and the quality of PR services for patients with COPD. 

 

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Exploring Differential Perceptions and Barriers to Advance Care Planning in Dementia among Asian Patient–Caregiver Dyads—A Mixed-Methods Study

Methods: A parallel mixed-methods study on 20 patient–caregiver dyads in an Asian population was conducted to explore the differential perceptions and barriers to ACP in dementia. We recruited English-speaking patients with mild dementia and their caregivers. A trained ACP facilitator conducted ACP counseling. Patient–caregiver dyads completed pre–post surveys and participated in post-counseling qualitative interviews. We used mixed-methods analysis to corroborate the quantitative and qualitative data. Differential perceptions of ACP were reported among dyads, with caregivers less inclined for further ACP discussions. Post-ACP counseling, caregivers were significantly more likely to acknowledge barriers to ACP discussions than patients (57.9% versus 10.5%, p = 0.005). Results: Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed four themes around barriers to ACP: patient-related factors (transference of decision making, poor cognition and lack of understanding, and dis-inclination to plan for the future), caregiver-related factors (perceived negative impact on the patient, caregiver discomfort, and confidence in congruent decision making), socio-cultural factors (taboos, superstitions, and religious beliefs), and the inappropriate timing of discussions. Conclusions: In a collectivist Asian culture, socio-cultural factors pose important barriers, and a family-centric approach to initiation of ACP may be the first step towards engagement in the ACP process. For ACP in dementia to be effective for patients and caregivers, these discussions should be culturally tailored and address patient, caregiver, socio-cultural, and timing barriers.

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Exploring dementia family carers’ self-initiated strategies in managing behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia: a qualitative study

Objectives: Carer’s self-initiated management strategies of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can inform intervention development. These strategies are affected by cultural values. Little is known about non-Western dementia carers’ BPSD management strategies. This study aimed to explore self-initiated strategies in managing BPSD adopted by Chinese carers. Design: Qualitative study using thematic framework method. Setting: Community setting in Hong Kong. Participants: 16 dementia carers with purposive sampling to include carers of different relationships to the people living with dementia (PLwD), education level and living arrangement. Results: Six overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) maintaining personhood in PLwD, (2) responding positively to BPSD, (3) explanation and bargaining, (4) responding negatively to BPSD, (5) controlling upsetting thoughts, and (6) getting respite care. Chinese carers treasured warm and supportive family relationships. They identified and minimised triggers to alleviate BPSD. Some carers struggled with care tasks and reacted with confrontation and avoidance. Changing attitudes and getting social and emotional support were described to manage carers’ distress. Few self-care strategies including getting respite care were reported.ConclusionsCarers’ self-initiated strategies largely aligned with existing theoretical frameworks in BPSD management, such as person-centred approach, and echoed Asian culture, which advocates filial piety and supportive family relationships. While these cultural values encourage the engagement of people living with dementia in the normal process of family life, they may also prevent carers from taking time away from care. Conclusions: Interventions could support carers by enhancing their knowledge and skills in managing BPSD, providing social and emotional support, and providing guidance in self-care. Future cross-cultural research could explore factors contributing to how carers manage BPSD and how interventions could be culturally adapted to facilitate carers to apply learnt skills in daily practice and hence benefit the people living with dementia and carer population.

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Explanatory models of stroke in Ghana: perspectives of stroke survivors and their caregivers

Objective: This study examines explanatory models (EMs) of stroke and its complications among people living with stroke, and their caregivers, in two urban poor communities in Accra (Ga Mashie) and Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra. Methods: Twenty-two stroke survivors and 29 caregivers were recruited from 2 urban poor communities in Accra and KBTH. Qualitative data were obtained using semi-structured interviews that lasted between 45 minutes and 2 hours. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed thematically, informed by the concept of EMs of illness. Results: Participants referred to stroke as a sudden event and they expressed different emotional responses after the stroke onset. Stroke survivors and their caregivers attributed stroke with poor lifestyle practices, high blood pressure, unhealthy diet and dietary practices, supernatural causes, stress, family history, other chronic diseases, and delay in treatment of symptoms. While the stroke survivors associated stroke complications with physical disability and stigmatisation, the caregivers associated these with physical disability, behavioural and psychological changes, cognitive disability and death. These associations were mostly influenced by the biomedical model of stroke. Conclusion: The biomedical model of stroke is important for developing interventions that will be accepted by the stroke survivors and the caregivers. Nevertheless, sociocultural explanations of stroke need to be taken into consideration during delivery of medical information to the participants. This study proposes an integrated biopsychosociocultural approach for stroke intervention among the study participants.

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Experiences of family caregivers with day-care centers for elders in Southern China: a qualitative study

Background: With its massive older population, China faces challenges related to elderly support and care. One of the proposed solutions is to diversify elderly support systems. Towards this goal, the establishment of day-care centres is a new Chinese endeavour. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted among the family caregivers of elderly residents enrolled in day-care centres in Shenzhen, a Southern Chinese city, to explore and understand the experiences and factors that might affect family caregivers of frail elders enrolled in day-care centres. Twenty participants were recruited from these centres. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were analysed via thematic analysis. Findings: The three major themes were: 'I am a traditional person': the impacts of ren and xiao, 'caring made me tired': mobility and environment barriers, and 'I am not young': relaxation feelings of family caregivers. Conclusions: The findings indicated that the day-care centres presented both challenges and opportunities to family caregivers, and the psychological and cultural services at these centres must be further enhanced.

 

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The experiences of family caregivers of people with severe mental illness in the Middle East: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative data

Background: There is a wealth of literature exploring the experiences of family caregivers of people with severe mental illness (SMI) in western countries, however, this topic has been neglected in the Middle East, despite families being the main source of caregiving in this context. The purpose of this review was to conduct a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis to explore the experiences of family caregivers living in countries in the Middle East caring for a relative with severe mental illness. Methods: A systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted, to comprehensively gain a thorough and detailed overview of what is known about family caregivers’ experiences from published qualitative research in the Middle East geographical area from inception to May 2021. The review protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (Ref: CRD42020165519). Results: The review identified twelve qualitative studies that explored caregivers’ experiences of caring for relatives with SMI in Middle East countries. Family caregivers’ experiences were captured under seven overarching themes. The participants across all studies reported negative consequences of providing care, increased burden and emotional distress. Many experienced issues with family/marital relationships and stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours from their communities. Caregivers expressed the need for increased support which was perceived to have a critical role in improving family caregivers’ experiences. Conclusions: The meta-synthesis revealed many challenges and issues that affect caregivers of people with SMI in the Middle East. Family caregivers experienced distress and burden, and reported significant impact on their psychological well-being. Their experiences highlight the urgent need to provide more support for family caregivers in Middle East countries.

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Experiences of family caregivers of patients with borderline personality disorder of social stigma

Background: Social stigma is the most common and challenging burden of care on the family of people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) In Iran, despite the cultural and social influences, this issue has been less studied. Therefore, present study was conducted to determine the lived experiences of caregivers of patients with BPD of social stigma. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed at Ibn Sina hospital in Mashhad, Iran from 2017 to 2019. Participants were selected by purposive and snowball sampling method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data saturation was achieved after 16 interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed by the method proposed by Diekelmann (1989). Results: In data analysis, one main theme and two sub-themes emerged. The main themes include Black shadow. Two sub-themes consisted of society dagger and secrecy. The sub-theme of society dagger included the two common meanings (inner turmoil in response to the stigma of others and weakening of family status among relatives and acquaintances). The sub-theme of secrecy comprised of the three common meanings (concealment of disease, hide hospitalization, and seclusion). Conclusions: An understanding of the experience of family stigma can lead to the development of supportive strategies to manage this problem among caregivers of patients with BPD. Nurses can support caregivers by offering them opportunities to discuss how stigma is disrupting their caregiving roles. They can also support the caregivers in negotiating the experienced social and emotional distress and when necessary, refer them to the other members of healthcare teams. 

 

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The Experience of Working With a Faith Community Nurse Liaison of Care in a Primary Care Practice Among Older Adult Clients and Their Informal Caregiver

Background: Informal caregivers of older adults aging in place are at risk for adverse health and financial consequences. This descriptive qualitative study explored the experience of working with a faith community nurse (FCN) liaison of care in a Catholic health care system affiliated primary care practice among older adult clients and their informal caregiver. Methods: Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with nine older adult client–informal caregiver dyads, three clients, and one caregiver (n = 22). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using Braun and Clarke's reflexive thematic analysis method. Findings: The analysis generated one overarching theme, I'm Sorry the Study and FCN Visits Are Coming to an End, and two key themes, The FCN Was Always There to Help Us (older adult clients) and The FCN Took the Pressure Off of Caregiving for Awhile (informal caregivers). Participants viewed the FCN as an instrumental member of their health care team and considered prayer and spiritual support offered by the FCN an essential element of care.

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'The experience of spirituality in family caregivers of adult and elderly cancer patients receiving palliative care: A meta‐synthesis'

Introduction: Spirituality is a multidimensional aspect of human experience. In the context of palliative care, it is an individual resource that can be used to cope with illness and to assign new meanings to suffering. Qualitative studies that aim to investigate the experience of spirituality and the needs of family caregivers in this context are rare. Objective: This meta‐synthesis aimed to synthesise qualitative studies on the experience of spirituality in family caregivers of adult and elderly cancer patients receiving palliative care. Methods: A systematic review was performed in six databases, and 14 studies were included in this meta‐synthesis. Results: The results are presented as a thematic synthesis divided into two analytical themes: (1) The interweaving of spirituality with end‐of‐life care and (2) The dimensions of suffering and spirituality in the dying process of the loved one. Each analytical theme is explained by two descriptive themes. The results showed that family caregivers express their spirituality in a multidimensional way, giving meaning to the care provided and reassessing the meanings of their lives and their suffering. Conclusion: Investigating the suffering and spiritual needs of family members in this context may be of value to inform comprehensive and multi‐professional psychosocial care.

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Estimating Service Demand for Intermediary Care at a Community Integrated Intermediary Care Center among Family Caregivers of Older Adults Residing in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

Background: Thailand’s population is currently the third most rapidly aging in the world, with an estimated 20 million ageing population by 2050. Sustainability of the family based long-term care model is challenged by the chronic burden on family caregivers and by smaller family sizes. We aimed to introduce a new service model, Community Integrated Intermediary Care (CIIC), TCTR20190412004, including free of charge intermediary care services at CIIC centers in the local community, to help older adults whose caregivers are temporarily unable to sustain care at home. Since Thai society upholds values of gratefulness, it is better to estimate willingness to use such an intermediary care service first, before introducing the service. Methods: A total of 867 pairs of senior citizens and their family caregivers were interviewed with structured-questionnaires in 2019. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were applied to determine the predictors of family caregivers’ willingness to use the CIIC service, guided by Anderson’s model of health services use. Results: About 26.8% of elderly participants and 24.0% of family caregivers were willing to use an intermediary care service. The family caregiver determinants of predisposing factors (kinship: spouse caregivers, other relatives, maid or friends; job types: own business and private company staff), enabling factors (original community residents and monthly income ≤9000 baht), and need factors (caregiver burden total scores ≥24, taking leave for caregiving, and having diabetes), were found to be significantly associated with willingness to use the CIIC service. Conclusions: The baseline survey data noted that caregivers’ sociodemographic factors and burden determined their willingness to use the intermediary care service, although the dependency of care recipients was low in this study. This, nonetheless, indicated that there is need for a backup respite care to strengthen current family based long-term aging care in Thailand.

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Empowering Families to Take on a Primary Caregiver Role for Patients with Cancer in India: Promising Strategies, Persistent Challenges, and Tradeoffs (SCI928)

Objectives: 1. Identify the challenges and trade-offs for family members assuming a primary caregiving role to patients with cancer nearing the end of life in India. 2. Consider strategies for supporting family members assuming a primary palliative caregiving role in India. Background As the population on the Indian subcontinent is aging, so too is the incidence of cancer and the need for access to palliative care. Research Objectives Identify provider perspectives on empowering patient family members to assume a palliative caregiving role. Methods: This is a secondary analysis from the PC-PAICE (Palliative Care- Promoting Access & International Cancer Experience) study where we captured the perspectives of 44 interdisciplinary providers from 7 geographically diverse palliative care sites throughout India using a semi-structured interview guide. We identified emergent themes using qualitative content analysis methods with team consensus. Results: Theme 1: Challenge: Cultural beliefs exist that handing off or sharing any primary caregiving is a "sin" and "if they don't take care of the patient then they have done some mistake." Theme 2: Trade-off: Caregivers are overwhelmed with navigating the expectation to take on the caregiver role, when they feasibly cannot, given financial and time constraints. Theme 3: Strategies: Facilitate caregiver buy-in to the idea of palliative care includes linking caregivers to financial resources (e.g. NGO sponsored income-earning opportunities "conduct rehabilitation camps where they teach the patient or the family to make some products"), connecting caregivers to mental health support, and working with caregivers in accommodating other constraints. Conclusion: In India, family members are already primed with the expectation to assume the role of palliative caregiver; this expectation in the face of financial constraints creates a challenging situation for caregivers. Implications for Research, Policy, or Practice: Striking the right balance of what family caregivers in India take on requires acknowledging the trade-offs they might make in other parts of their lives, empowering them through training and linkage to resources, and facilitating a cultural shift to accept palliative care or help from others. Future work should explore these provider themes in interviews with caregivers and patients themselves.

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Embarking to Caregiving Role: A Thematic Analysis of Malay Caregivers of Older Adults with Mental Health Problems Perspectives

Background: Religion and culture affect the meaning and practicalities of caring for families with mental illness in Malaysia. Such care also differs according to social background, family values and support, commitment, availability, practicality and the needs of the care recipient. Methods: This qualitative study explores 14 Malay caregivers of the older adults with mental health problems in Kelantan, Malaysia. A semi-structured interview was translated and transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis using NVivo software. Findings: The findings show that cultural values and religion shaped the meaning of care as provided by the caregivers. The nature of the relationship is also important in determining the best person in the family to take over the caregiving role.

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Eldercare in Transnational Families and the Swiss Immigration Regime

International migration research increasingly addresses the complex mobility that occurs in transnational contexts. Authors who study ties between migrants and their parents often focus on money transfers and financial investments. However, exchanges within transnational families are broader and multifaceted, and include an important care dimension that is shaped by gendered and cultural social codes. Studies show that women are often engaged in caring for their older parents even from a great distance. They develop strategies to attend to the well-being of their parents, including relocating them in order to bring them in closer proximity. While the economic aspects of care work within transnational family networks are well-researched, we lack knowledge about the impacts of national migration regimes on the abilities of migrants to take care of the parents that they have left behind. This chapter points to some areas in need of conceptual development in addressing this gap. We draw on existing literature and legal documentation to explore how some legal contexts (e.g., selective immigration policies, limited family reunification) restrict care circulation within transnational families and tend to reinforce inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged migrants, particularly women. We emphasise the need for research concerning transnational family care circulation that focuses more on South-North migrants whose economic and legal situations are particularly precarious.

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The Effects of Patients’ and Caregivers’ Characteristics on the Burden of Families Caring for Stroke Survivors

Background: Vascular strokes are the leading cause of long-term disability for adults. They impose high levels of burden on the patient, the family, and national healthcare systems worldwide. This study aimed to assess the effects of patients’ and caregivers’ characteristics on the perceptions of burden in families caring for a loved one living with stroke in Greece. Methods: Using purposive sampling, 109 dyads of patients and their respective caregivers were recruited from the Attica region. Patients completed a questionnaire that included personal characteristics and the Barthel Index, while caregivers completed a set of questionnaires—personal characteristics, revised Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale (BCOS), Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ 2000), and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D). Results: Caregiving burden was linked to both patients’ and caregivers’ characteristics. A patient’s educational level, the number of family members living in the same house, the existence of equipment and facilities in the house, and the duration of provided care were associated with perception of greater burden. Regarding caregivers’ characteristics, those in good health had a significantly lower perception of burden. Higher PRQ 2000 scores were significantly associated with higher BCOS scores (less burden), and higher CES-D scores were significantly associated with lower BCOS scores (more burden). Conclusion: Caring for a loved one affected by stroke places a considerable burden on the caregiver. Systematic assessment and intervention strategies can help to identify caregivers at risk so that suitably targeted assistance may be provided.

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Effects of Caregiver Status, Coping Styles, and Social Support on the Physical Health of Korean American Caregivers

Purpose: This study investigated direct and indirect effects of caregiver status on the physical health of Korean American caregivers in terms of caregiver coping styles and the quantity and the quality of informal social support. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 87 caregivers and 87 matched noncaregivers, we analyzed a path model, employing both subjective (self-reported general health) and objective (blood pressure and cortisol levels) health indicators. For the intervening variables the path model employed coping styles and two aspects of social support (the quantity of informal social support and the quality of informal social support). Results: Our findings supported the association of caregiver status with poor health outcomes among Korean American caregivers. Of interest, the adverse effects of caregiver status on the physical health of caregivers were reported only with objective health markers (blood pressure and cortisol levels), not with subjective health indicators. The proposed indirect effects of caregiver status were supported only for cortisol levels, through the quality of informal social support. Implications: The demonstration of the physical health effects of caregiving in one of the nation's fastest growing ethnic groups, and the finding that these physiological effects occur without self-reported poor health, call attention to a potentially serious health problem in an understudied group providing family care to frail older family members. 

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Effects of an educational peer-group intervention on knowledge about dementia among family caregivers with a Turkish or Moroccan immigrant background: A cluster randomised controlled trial

Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of an educational peer-group intervention on knowledge about dementia, perceived ability to talk about it, received support and self-perceived pressure from informal care among family caregivers with a Turkish or Moroccan immigrant background who cared for a person with dementia. Methods: This paper is based on a cluster randomised controlled trial with three measures, including participants who knew or cared for a person with dementia. For the purpose of this study, a selection was made of participants who cared for a person with dementia. Knowledge about dementia, perceived ability to talk about dementia, support received and self-perceived pressure from informal care were assessed inthe intervention and the control condition. Multi-level analyses were conducted to examine the effects. Results: Data for 386 participants was analysed. Improvement in knowledge about dementia over time was significantly greater in the intervention condition than in the control condition. In the intervention condition, there was also a significant increase over time in the support received from home-care staff, which was not found in the control condition. No effects were found on other types of support received, the ability to talk about dementia or the self-perceived pressure from informal care. Conclusion: Offering a culturally sensitive educational peer-group education intervention enhances knowledge about dementia and has a small but positive effect on the support received from home-care staff in these groups. Practice Implications: Offering peer-group-based education about dementia to family caregivers with Turkish or Moroccan immigrant backgrounds is important for multicultural dementia care. 

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The effect of socioeconomic status on informal caregiving for parents among adult married females: evidence from China

Background: Married female caregivers face a higher risk of an informal care burden than other caregivers. No study has explored the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the intensity of informal care provided by married female caregivers in China. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine how the SES of married female caregivers affects the intensity of the informal care they provide for their parents/parents-in-law in China. Methods: The data for this study were drawn from 8 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The respondents were married women whose parents/parents-in-law needed care and lived in the same city as them. SES was defined based on four indicators: education, economic status, employment status, and hukou (China’s household registration system). Informal caregivers were divided into three categories: non-caregivers (0 h/week), low-intensity caregivers (less than 10 h/week), and high-intensity caregivers (10 h/week and above). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between SES and the likelihood of a low- and high-intensity caregiving among married female caregivers, adjusting for age, family characteristics and survey wave. Results: Of the 2661 respondents, high-intensity and low-intensity caregivers accounted for 16.35 and 21.27%, respectively. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that the likelihood of being a high-intensity caregiver versus (vs. a non-caregiver) increased as the caregiver’s educational attainment increased (p < 0.05), and that high economic status was related to the likelihood of being a high-intensity caregiver, but this relationship was only significant at the 10% level. Urban females were 1.34 times more likely than their rural counterparts to provide low-intensity care vs. no care (p < 0.05) and were 1.33 times more likely to provide high-intensity care vs. no care (p < 0.05). Employed females were 1.25 times more likely than those unemployed females to provide low-intensity care vs. no care (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Differences in SES were found between high-intensity caregivers and low-intensity caregivers. Women with high educational attainment and urban hukou were more likely to provide high-intensity informal care, and women who were employed and had urban hukou were more likely to provide low-intensity care.

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The Effect of Language Barriers at Discharge on Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy Outcomes and Healthcare Contact

Objective: Effective delivery of discharge instructions and access to postoperative care play a critical role in outcomes after pediatric surgery. Previous studies in the pediatric emergency department suggest that caregivers with language barriers have less comprehension of discharge instructions despite use of interpretation services. However, the impact of language barriers during discharge on surgical outcomes in a pediatric surgical setting has not been studied. This study examined the effect of parental language during discharge on number and mode of healthcare contact following pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on children who underwent adenotonsillectomy at a tertiary care pediatric academic medical center from July 1, 2016 to June 1, 2018. Data were collected on consecutive patients with non-English-speaking caregivers and a systematic sampling of patients with English-speaking caregiver. Surgery-related complications and healthcare contacts within 90 days after discharge were collected. Two-tailed t tests, χ2 tests, and logistic regression were performed to assess the association between parental primary language and incidence of healthcare contact after surgery. Results: A total of 136 patients were included: 85 English-speaking and 51 non-English-speaking. The groups were comparable in age, sex, and comorbidities. The non-English group had more patients with public insurance (86% vs. 56%; P <.001). Number of encounters and types of complications following discharge were similar, but the non-English group was more likely to utilize the emergency department compared to phone calls (OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.3-38.2), even after adjustment for insurance type (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.6-39.4). Conclusion: Language barriers at discharge following pediatric otolaryngology surgery is associated with a meaningful difference in how patients utilized medical care. Interventions to improve comprehension and access may help reduce preventable emergency department visits and healthcare costs.

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Effect of handholding on heart rate variability in both patients with cancer and their family caregivers: a randomized crossover study

Background: Many family caregivers of patients with cancer feel guilty about self-care. A meaningful relationship with patients reduces such negative feelings and functions as self-care for family caregivers. Moreover, handholding improves autonomic functions in non-cancer patients. However, the effects of handholding on both patients with cancer and family caregivers remain unknown. Methods: We evaluated the effects of handholding on heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cancer and their family caregivers. This randomized crossover study divided patients with cancer and their family caregivers into two trial groups: Handholding trial (the family caregiver holds the patient’s hand for five minutes) and Beside trial (the family caregiver stays beside the patient without holding their hand). The study included 37 pairs of patients with cancer who received treatment in the cancer department of a university hospital in Japan and their family caregivers (n = 74). The primary end-point was the change in HRV before and during the intervention. Results: The median performance status of the patients was 3. An interaction was observed between trials in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN) of HRV for family caregivers (F = 7.669; p = 0.006), and a significant difference in time course was observed between the trials (before p = 0.351; during p = 0.003). No interaction was observed between trials in the SDNN for patients (F = 0.331; p = 0.566). Only a main effect in time course (F = 6.254; p = 0.014) was observed. SDNN increased significantly during the intervention in both trials (Handholding trial: p = 0.002, Beside trial: p = 0.049). Conclusions: Handholding improves autonomic functions of family caregivers and may function as self-care for family caregivers. Trial registration: UMIN000020557. Registered on January 15, 2016. 

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Economic Distress in Families with a Member Suffering from Severe Mental Illness: Illness Burden or Financial Crisis? Evidence from Greece

Objectives: The present study aims to explore the economic distress and pertinent coping strategies in families with a member suffering from a severe mental illness. Furthermore it endeavors to gauge the impact of illness burden and that of the Greek recession on economic distress, while disentangling their contribution. Methods: In total, 190 key relatives of people with severe mental illness were recruited from community mental health services in the region of Attica. Relatives completed a self-reported questionnaire consisting of the Index of Personal Economic Distress, the Family Burden scale and the Family Rituals scale. Information on financial strategies for tackling recession and income loss due to the recession was also gleaned. Results: Regarding economic distress, only 15% had frequent difficulty meeting routine financial demands in their household. The preponderant strategy was spending savings (56.8%). Income category and spending less on basic needs were the main predictors of economic distress. Conclusions: Objective poverty indices rather than burden predicted economic distress to a greater extent.

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Dying within dyads: Stress, sense of security and support during palliative home care

Objectives: To examine similarities and dissimilarities in patient and family caregiver dyads in their experience of stress, support, and sense of security. Methods: 144 patients and their family caregivers participated. Patients were admitted to six Swedish specialist palliative home care units and diagnosed with a non-curable disease with an expected short survival. We analysed similarity patterns of answers within dyads (correlations) as well as dissimilarities, expressed as the difference between within-dyad responses. The latter were subjected to a model-building procedure using GLM, with 13 sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as independent variables. Results: Within dyads, patients and family caregivers scored similar in their perception of support and sense of security with care. There was also dissimilarity within dyad responses in their perception of stress and support that could be attributed to sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. When patients scored higher levels of stress than family caregivers, the family caregiver was more likely to be male. Also family caregiver attachment style (attachment anxiety), patient age and the relationship of the family caregiver to the patient explained dissimilarities within the dyads. Conclusions: Patients and family caregivers within the dyads often, but not always, had similar scores. We suggest that it is important that the healthcare staff identify situations in which perceptions within the dyads regarding stress and perception of support differ, such that they can recognise patients' and family caregivers' unique needs in different situations, to be able to provide adequate support and facilitate dyadic coping. 

 

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Dyadic effects of family resilience on post-traumatic stress symptoms among breast cancer patients and their primary family caregivers: A cross-sectional study

Objectives: The aims of this study were to verify actor and partner effects, by examining the effects of family resilience on post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Chinese breast cancer patients and their primary family caregivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 104 breast cancer patients (age range 20–75, Mean = 47, Standard Deviation = 10), and their principal caregivers (n = 104), were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in China. The patients and their caregivers self-reported sociodemographic, family resilience, and PTSS factors. The actor-partner interdependence model were adopted to examine whether the patients and caregivers' perceived family resilience could contribute to their own ("actor effect") and each other's ("partner effect") PTSS. Results: There were significant correlations between patients' and caregivers' shortened Chinese version of Family Resilience Assessment Scale scores (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version scores (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). Caregivers' perceived family resilience was negatively related to their PTSS (actor effect), and the patients' PTSS (partner effect). However, the patients' perceived family resilience was not significantly related to their or the caregivers' PTSS. The primary caregivers' perceived family resilience had both actor and partner effects on patient/caregiver PTSS within the first year of breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Family-based interventions should be designed to enhance family resilience to decrease PTSS within families dealing with cancer patients. Supportive care should focus on the primary family caregivers within the first year of breast cancer diagnosis. 

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Dravet Syndrome—The Polish Family’s Perspective Study

Aim: The aim of the paper is to study the prevalence of Dravet Syndrome (DS) in the Polish population and indicate different factors other than seizures reducing the quality of life in such patients. Method: A survey was conducted among caregivers of patients with DS by the members of the Polish support group of the Association for People with Severe Refractory Epilepsy DRAVET.PL. It included their experience of the diagnosis, seizures, and treatment-related adverse effects. The caregivers also completed the PedsQL survey, which showed the most important problems. The survey received 55 responses from caregivers of patients with DS (aged 2–25 years). Results: Prior to the diagnosis of DS, 85% of patients presented with status epilepticus lasting more than 30 min, and the frequency of seizures (mostly tonic-clonic or hemiconvulsions) ranged from 2 per week to hundreds per day. After the diagnosis of DS, patients remained on polytherapy (drugs recommended in DS). Before diagnosis, some of them had been on sodium channel blockers. Most patients experienced many adverse effects, including aggression and loss of appetite. The frequency of adverse effects was related to the number of drugs used in this therapy, which had an impact on the results of the PedsQL form, particularly in terms of the physical and social spheres. Intensive care unit stays due to severe status epilepticus also had an influence on the results of the PedsQL form. Conclusions: Families must be counseled on non-pharmacologic strategies to reduce seizure risk, including avoidance of triggers that commonly induce seizures (including hyperthermia, flashing lights and patterns, sleep abnormalities). In addition to addressing seizures, holistic care for a patient with Dravet syndrome must involve a multidisciplinary team that includes specialists in physical, occupational and speech therapy, neuropsychology, social work.

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Do-not-resuscitate decision making for terminally ill older patients in the emergency department: An explorative, descriptive inquiry of Chinese family members

Background: This study increases our knowledge and understanding of factors influencing DNR decision-making by family members of terminally ill older adults in the emergency department. Emergency medical staff should keep abreast of the attitudes and wishes of family members and terminally ill older adults regarding DNR, and initiate DNR decision-making discussions as early as possible. Emergency nurses should pay more attention to the desire of family members to improve the quality of life of terminally ill older adults with DNR. Many terminally ill older adults depend on family members to make medical decisions in China. Many family members find it difficult to make do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decisions in emergency departments (ED). Currently, factors that affect DNR decision making by family members for older adults needing emergency care have not been well studied. Methods: This qualitative inquiry explores factors influencing DNR decision-making among family members of terminally ill older adults in ED. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted for a 12-family member of terminally ill older adults at ED in China. Results: Results of the conventional content analysis showed that family members made DNR decisions based on a wide of reasons: (a) subjective perception of family members, (b) conditions of the terminally ill older adults, (c) external environmental factors, and (d) internal family factors. The findings of this study expand our knowledge and understanding of factors influencing DNR decision-making by family members of terminally ill older adults in ED.

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Do Informal Caregivers Expect to Die Earlier? A Longitudinal Study with a Population-Based Sample on Subjective Life Expectancy of Informal Caregivers

Introduction: Subjective life expectancy is a good predictor of health and could therefore be a relevant factor in the informal caregiving context. However, no research has been conducted on the perception of life expectancy by informal caregivers. This is the first study that examines the association between transitioning into, and out of, informal caregiving, and subjective life expectancy, and the relevance of employment status and gender for these associations. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted with data from the German Ageing Survey (waves 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2017). Up to 20,774 observations pooled over all waves were included in the main models. In total, 1,219 transitions into and 1,198 transitions out of informal caregiving were observed. Fixed effects (FE) regression analysis was used. Moderator and stratified analyses were conducted with gender and employment status used as moderator variables and to stratify the sample. Sociodemographic information, health, and lifestyle factors were controlled for. Results: Results of adjusted FE regression analyses indicated a significant reduction of subjective life expectancy when transitioning into informal caregiving. No significant change was found when transitioning out of informal caregiving. Subjective life expectancy was significantly decreased when employed individuals transitioned into informal caregiving and significantly increased when they transitioned out of caregiving. Findings for women transitioning into informal caregiving indicated a significant decrease in subjective life expectancy, while no significant change was found among men. Conclusion: The study's findings indicate that informal caregivers, female and employed caregivers in particular, perceive informal care provision as dangerous for their longevity and expect to die earlier when transitioning into informal caregiving. Thus, supportive interventions for informal caregivers, particularly employed and female informal caregivers, are recommended. 

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Diseases Costs and Impact of the Caring Role on Informal Carers of Children with Neuromuscular Disease

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the costs of informal care for children with neuromuscular disease and evaluate how physical and psychological health is associated with socio-demographic variables. Methods: A cross sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 110 carers that participated in this study. Participants were recruited from Spanish hospitals and rare diseases organizations. Economic costs and sociodemographic aspects were assessed using the economic costs questionnaire and the sociodemographic questionnaire. Physical and psychological health was evaluated using the CarerQol-7D, PHQ-15, Barthel Index, Zarit Overload Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Carers of children with neuromuscular disease spent a large percentage of their annual income in physical therapy, psychological care and speech therapy. Informal costs differed according to the degree of dependency of the child. These were higher in those caregivers whose child under their care presented low functional independence. The loss of work productivity was related to marital status, use of professional services and the child’s dependency. Finally, carers who were female, single or separated and without a job showed worse physical and psychological health. Conclusions: The results highlighted that carers have to face a number of high costs because of the non-existence of social protection and due to the child’s diagnosis. 

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Dignity of informal caregivers of migrant patients in the last phase of life: a qualitative study

Background: A key aim of palliative care is to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. To help ensure quality of life for the families of patients with migrant backgrounds, this study sought insights into the dignity of informal caregivers in migrant communities. This could improve understanding of family-centered care for migrant patients. Methods: Twenty semi-structured interviews with informal caregivers of Turkish, Moroccan, or Surinamese background living in the Netherlands were analyzed thematically. Results: The dignity of the patient and that of their informal caregivers were found to be strongly interrelated. Most important for the dignity of caregivers was ensuring good care for their patients and preserving the patients' dignity. Ensuring good care involved advocating for good and dignified care and for satisfaction of a patient's wishes. For many informal caregivers, it also included delivering care to the patient by themselves or together with other family members, despite having to give up part of their own lives. Providing care themselves was part of maintaining a good relationship with the patient; the care was to cater to the patient's preferences and help preserve the patient's dignity, and it could be accompanied by valuable aspects such as times for good conversations. Positive interaction between an informal caregiver and a patient positively influenced the informal caregiver's dignity. Informal caregiver and patient dignity were often compromised simultaneously; when informal caregivers felt healthcare professionals were undermining a patient's dignity, their own dignity suffered. According to informal caregivers, healthcare professionals can help them preserve dignity by taking seriously their advice about the patient, keeping them informed about the prognosis of the disease and of the patient, and dealing respectfully with differences in values at the end of life. Conclusion: The dignity of migrant patients' informal caregivers in the last phase of a patient's life is closely entwined with ensuring good care and dignity for the patient. Healthcare professionals can strengthen the dignity of informal caregivers by supporting their caregiving role.

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Diabetes‐by‐Proxy: Virtual Embodiment of Disease by Oklahoma Choctaw Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes

Background: Childhood type 1 diabetes is increasing globally and requires meticulous at‐home care due to risks for fatal outcomes if glucose levels are not continuously and correctly monitored. Type 1 diabetes research has focused on metabolism and stress measurements confirming high parental worry levels. However, research on caregivers’ management strategies has lagged. Methods: We show parents’ intense, all‐encompassing work to preempt a disastrous drop in their child's glucose as a stress‐path to the virtual embodiment of their child's condition. That is, parents acquire diabetes‐by‐proxy. Our findings derive from four and half years of ethnographic research with the same 19 families in the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. Findings: These parents were exceptionally engaged as caregivers and distressed by the potentially fatal outcome of type 1 diabetes mismanagement. Conclusions: Diabetes‐by‐proxy names the parents’ experience and validates clinical attention to them as they cope with their crucial caregiving commitment.

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Development of the Readiness for Home-Based Palliative Care Scale (RHBPCS) for Primary Family Caregivers

Background: In Chinese or Eastern society, most end-of-life (EOL) patients still choose to die at home. However, primary family caregivers usually do not prepare themselves to face the death of patients. Therefore, a measurement of the readiness for home-based palliative care for primary family caregivers is needed. Methods: In this study, the readiness for home-based palliative care scale (RHBPCS) for primary family caregivers was developed to assess the readiness of primary family caregivers. This study recruited 103 participants from five branches of one municipal hospital system. The reliability and validity of the RHBPCS was evaluated using expert validity examination, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item analysis. Results: The results showed that the RHBPCS had strong goodness-of-fit and good reliability and validity. Conclusions: In summary, the RHBPCS is suggested for assessing the readiness for home-based palliative care of primary family caregivers.

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Development and validation of a caregiving needs inventory for family members before their older relative's knee joint-replacement surgery

Objectives: This study had two purposes: to develop an instrument for assessing family members' caregiving needs before their older relative's knee joint-replacement surgery and to determine instrument psychometrics. Methods: In phase 1 of this validation study, we generated 34 items based on previous interviews with 138 family caregivers of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), an intensive literature review, and the authors' clinical experiences. In phase 2, we examined the content and face validities of the 34-item Family Members' Caring Needs Inventory (inventory) to develop a 32-item inventory. In phase 3, 150 family members of outpatients with knee OA were recruited from three hospitals in northern Taiwan and surveyed with the inventory to determine its internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability. Results: The final 30-item inventory had excellent content and face validities. Its factor analysis yielded a five-factor solution, accounting for 82.9% of the variance. The inventory had Cronbach's α = 0.97 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93, indicating very high internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability. The inventory was perceived as easy to complete and yielded highly acceptable validity and reliability levels. After cross-cultural adaptation, this tool may be used to assess family members' caregiving needs before their relative's knee-replacement surgery. The role of family members and spouses in supporting patients with osteoarthritis (OA) is crucial. After cross-cultural adaptation, the Family Members' Caring Needs Inventory may be used by health care providers to assess and provide relevant information to meet the needs of family members caring for an older relative with knee OA. Conclusions: This assessment and specific caregiving information for family members of older knee OA patients may promote patients' quality of life and decrease their OA-related burden.

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Development and psychometric testing of the Spanish version of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale

Aim: To psychometrically test the Spanish version of the Caregiver Preparedness Scale (CPS) and document the preparedness level of caregivers. Design: A descriptive and validation study.MethodPurposive sampling method was used to select 171 family caregivers Spain. The scale was cross‐culturally adapted through a process that included translation, comparison with versions in other languages and back‐translation, review, pre‐testing and validity, and reliability tests. Results: The Spanish family caregivers are mainly female (79%) and married (75%). The Spanish version of the CPS presents changes with respect to the original. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the single‐factor model. Analysis of internal consistency yielded a Cronbach's α of 0.89. Significant correlations (p < .01) with other scales supported convergent validity. A descriptive analysis of the validated scale showed average levels of preparation (2.16 out of 4). Caregivers felt better prepared to attend to the patient's physical needs than emotional or spiritual needs.

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Determinants of caregiving burden among informal caregivers of adult care recipients with chronic illness

Aims and Objectives: This study examined the predictors of caregiver burden based on patient and caregiver characteristics in a sample of Spanish caregivers looking after adult patients with chronic disease. The effect of task type and patient–caregiver interaction is also analysed. Background: Specific predictors of caregiver burden have been widely examined in the literature. Few studies, however, jointly analyse a wide range of factors, including the effect of task type and patient–caregiver interaction. Design: Correlational study.MethodsOne hundred and thirty five informal caregivers for 148 care recipients were recruited from primary health care centres. The caregivers responded to the short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the DEPendency index‐6 Dimensions (DEP‐6D), and reported how long they spent on caregiving on a daily basis. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were also recorded. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with ZBI scores and the likelihood of being severely burdened, respectively. This research complies with STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Results: Severe burden was present in 62% of the caregivers. Regression analysis shows that burden severity increases significantly with the level of dependence when the latter is measured either by DEP‐6D or by time spent on basic activities. Care related to incontinence and mobility has the greatest effect on burden, which is aggravated when the patient has behavioural problems. Poor caregiver health or not being retired also contributes to burden levels. Conclusions: These results establish that caregiver burden is related to characteristics of both the caregiver and the care recipient as well as to their interaction.Relevance to clinical practiceThe findings indicate that the socio‐sanitary attention focused on reducing caregiver burden must address the caregiver and patient as a dyad. Identifying the dependence level and the patient's aggressive behaviour can be a good predictor of caregiver burden.

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Design and Evaluation of a Novel Mobile Phone Application to Improve Palliative Home-Care in Resource-Limited Settings

Context: Mobile health (mHealth) provides an opportunity to use internet coverage in low- and middle-income countries to improve palliative care access and quality. Objectives: This study aimed to design a mobile phone application (app) to enable or improve communication between family caregivers, community caregivers, and palliative care teams; to evaluate its acceptability, processes, and mechanisms of action; and to propose refinements. Methods: A codesign process entailed collaboration between a Project Advisory Group and collaborators in India, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. We then trained community and family caregivers to use an app to communicate patient-reported outcomes to their palliative care providers each week on a data dashboard. App activity was monitored, and qualitative in-depth interviews explored experience with the app and its mechanisms and impact. Results N = 149 caregivers participated and uploaded n = 837 assessments of patient-reported outcomes. These data were displayed to the palliative care team on an outcomes dashboard on n = 355 occasions. Results: Qualitative data identified: 1) high acceptability and data usage; 2) improved understanding by team members of patient symptoms and concerns; 3) a need for better feedback to caregivers, for better prioritisation of patients according to need, for enhanced training and support to use the app, and for user-led recommendations for ongoing improvement. Conclusion: An outcomes-focused app and data dashboard are acceptable to caregivers and health-care professionals. They are beneficial in identifying, monitoring, and communicating patient outcomes and in allocating staff resource to those most in need.

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Depressive Symptom Trajectories in Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors During First Year of Caregiving

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of depressive symptom trajectory and examine the associations of the symptom trajectory with caregiving burden, family function, social support, and perceived health status of caregivers of stroke survivors during the first year of caregiving after discharge from rehabilitation center. Methods: Caregivers of stroke survivors completed a survey of depressive symptoms, caregiving burden, family function, perceived availability of social support, and perceived health status at postdischarge and 1 year. Patterns of depressive symptom trajectory (ie, symptom-free, symptom relieved, symptom developed, and persistent symptom groups) were identified by grouping depressive symptoms based on 2 assessments using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the associations. Results: Of the 102 caregivers, 57.8% were symptom-free, 20.6% experienced persistent depressive symptoms, 11.8% relieved depressive symptoms, and 9.8% developed depressive symptoms. There were significant changes in family function (Wilks A = 0.914, P = .038) and perceived health status (Wilks A = 0.914, P = .033) among the groups during the first year of caregiving. The persistent symptom group reported the highest level of burden and the lowest level of family function and perceived availability of social support at both assessment times. Compared with symptom-free caregivers, caregivers with persistent depressive symptoms were 7 times more likely to have fair/poor health rather than excellent/very good health at 1 year (odds ratio, 7.149; P = .012). Conclusion: Caregivers with persistent depressive symptoms are the most vulnerable to negative psychosocial outcomes and poor perceived health status during the first year of caregiving from discharge for stroke survivors.

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Dementia awareness, beliefs and barriers among family caregivers in Pakistan

Objectives: Dementia research and services in Pakistan are limited. The following was explored in experiences of family caregivers of people with dementia in Pakistan: (a) to determine whether culture and religion play a role in caregiving; (b) to draw insights on how family caregivers cope, what barriers they face and what help they would be willing to accept and (c) to determine how these findings could be used to raise awareness and influence public policies in improving the lives of families living with dementia. Methods: The experiences of family caregivers of people with dementia in Pakistan were explored via semi-structured interviews (10 in Lahore; 10 in Karachi). This was part of a larger qualitative study conducted about dementia in Pakistan. Caregivers interviewed were aged 35–80 (14 female). Most caregivers in the study were educated and affluent. Interviews were conducted in Urdu, translated into English and thematically analysed. Results: Five themes emerged: knowledge and awareness; stigma; importance of religion and duty to care; use of day care centres and home-help; and barriers. A lack of dementia awareness exists in Pakistan. The religious duty to care for family influenced caregiving decisions. Day care centres and home-help were accessed and viewed positively. The caregivers also wanted extracurricular activities for people with dementia, support groups for caregivers and better training for healthcare staff. Novel findings included that caregivers felt that dementia should not be stigmatised, and awareness should be raised in Pakistan via TV, radio and social media, but not inside mosques. Discussion: Additional research is necessary to determine if positive views of day care centres and home-help exist more widely. Attitudes and experiences regarding stigma may be different for caregivers of people with more advanced dementia. We recommend raising dementia awareness, allocating more funds to dementia services and an emphasis on home-based care.

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Dementia and revivalist Islam: New perspectives to understanding dementia and tackling stigma

Background: The notion of stigma and its influence on the understanding of dementia has commonly been recognized as a great challenge to seeking healthcare services for South Asians in England. Aim: The aim of this commentary is to examine how Muslims view, understand and tackle dementia stigma in the context of revivalist Islam, especially among Bangladeshi Muslims within their British communities. This article reflects on the interrelationship between dementia and revivalist Islam among Bangladeshi family caregivers and addresses the question of how revivalist Islam is a significant source of understanding dementia and tackling stigma. Bangladeshi caregivers show a practical attitude toward dementia which is generally acknowledged as a medical symptom, and for which family caregivers voluntarily seek healthcare support. This piece highlights underlying principles of caregivers religious beliefs in the acceptance of dementia as a disease, and in help‐seeking which is influenced by Qur'anic verses and Prophetic traditions. Bangladeshi caregivers' religious beliefs intertwine with their knowledge, perception, and attitudes toward caregiving for their relatives with dementia. Conclusions: Revivalist Islam offers family caregivers an opportunity to explore their inner wisdom through the challenging journey of caregiving for their family members with dementia.

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Death and Grieving for Family Caregivers of Loved Ones With Life-Limiting Illnesses in the Era of COVID-19: Considerations for Case Managers

Purpose: Family caregivers of a loved one with a life-limiting or terminal illness are often overwhelmed by, and underprepared for, their responsibilities. They often need help from family members and friends to provide comprehensive care. When death occurs, funerals and other death-related rituals bring family and communities together to honor the life and mourn the death of a loved one and provide needed support to family and caregivers. These collective rituals are often deeply rooted in culturally-bound values and can facilitate grief and help make sense about loss. Rituals act as bridge-building activities that allow people to organize and appraise emotions, information, and actions after a loss. With the emergence of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the recommended restrictions to reduce infection and transmission, family members and caregivers are often faced with weighing options for honored rituals to help them grieve. Grieving during the pandemic has become disorganized. The purpose of this article is to provide case managers and other clinical staff with recommendations on guiding caregivers/families through safety precautions when a loved one dies either because of a life-limiting illness or from COVID-19 during the pandemic using guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The authors also present information about complicated grief and ways to support coping with death and suggest safe alternatives to traditional death-related rituals and funerals in a COVID-19 era. Primary Practice Setting(s): Primary practice settings include home health care, hospice, hospital discharge planning, case management, and primary care. Findings/Conclusions: Precautions necessary in a COVID-19 era may add anxiety and stress to an already difficult situation of caring for loved ones at end-of-life and grieving with their loss. Utilization of CDC guidelines lessens the risk of infection while honoring loved ones' wishes and cultural traditions surrounding death and burial. Recognition of social and spiritual connections that comfort mourners must also be considered. Implications for Case Management Practice: Safety precautions are necessary for families and informal caregivers when death occurs during the COVID-19 era. We need to understand the various constraints of existing resources associated with the death of a loved one (capacity limitations at funeral home, delayed memorial services) and devise creative alternatives. We must acknowledge the increased potential for delayed/prolonged/complicated grief. Identification of resources to support caregivers/families in coping with grief and loss during the pandemic restrictions is needed—mobilizing support in novel ways.

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The Cultural Diversity of Dementia Patients and Caregivers in Primary Care Case Management: a Pilot Mixed Methods Study

Background: The Canadian reality of dementia care may be complicated by the cultural diversity of patients and their informal caregivers. Objectives: To what extent do needs differ between Canadian- and foreign-born patients and caregivers? What are their experiences with the illness in primary care case management? Methods: Mixed methods, sequential explanatory design (a cross-sectional study, followed by a qualitative descriptive study), involving 15 pairs of patients and caregivers. Results: Foreign-born patients had more needs compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Foreign-born caregivers reported more stress, more problems, and increased need for services. However, the reported experiences of Canadian- vs. foreign-born individuals were similar. Conclusion: The results remain hypothesis-generating. The present pilot illustrated the suitability of mixed methods to this area of study, which deserves further investigation to better serve all members of a population already vulnerable by age and disease.

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Could Caregivers’ Stressful Care Experiences Be Related to Their Attitudes towards Advance Care Planning? A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

Background: Previous research has shown that care experiences influence the willingness for advance care planning (ACP). Family caregivers have increased contact with medical providers and procedures in the process of caring, and they have also witnessed the disability and suffering of patients. However, few studies have focused on family caregivers to understand their attitudes towards ACP. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to acknowledge family caregivers’ attitudes towards ACP and the related factors, especially care stress and experiences during the care process. Methods: We interviewed 291 family caregivers, and the demographics of the caregivers and care recipients, the clinical condition of care recipients, and the caregivers’ stress and care experiences were collected via anonymous questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with the attitudes towards ACP. Results: We found that the caregiver having private health insurance (p < 0.001) and a completed DNR (p < 0.001) and the experience of recipients admitted to the ICU (p = 0.019) are associated with caregiver’s positive attitudes towards ACP. The greater the stress of conflict within a family over care decisions, the more participants think that ACP is important (p = 0.011). Conclusion: It is suggested that (1) in a family-centered culture, a public strategy for promoting ACP could be to emphasize the benefits of ACP in reducing family conflicts, and (2) when people make financial plans, they should also be provided with information about ACP to enable them to form a more integral plan for their future.

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Components of Empowerment Among Family Caregivers of Community-Dwelling People With Dementia in Japan: A Qualitative Research Study

Background: Family caregivers of people with dementia (PWDs) experience significant physical, psychological, and social burdens. Empowerment, which refers to the process of gaining power in society through behavioral change, is important to coping successfully with care-related burdens. The high burden of care faced by family caregivers in Japan often makes accepting social support difficult for caregivers of PWDs, resulting in feelings of isolation. Clarifying what components constitute empowering experiences for family caregivers of PWDs is necessary to gain a better understanding of their empowerment experiences and to develop relevant support schemes. Purpose: This study was developed to describe the components of empowerment experienced by family caregivers of community-dwelling PWDs in Japan. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study used semistructured in-depth interviews to explore components of empowerment experienced by family caregivers of adults/older adults with dementia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 family caregivers (age range: 50–87 years) from four self-help groups. A qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze the data. The components derived from the interviews were reviewed by three nursing researchers not directly involved in this study who are specialists in qualitative research and geriatric nursing. Results: Four categories and 12 subcategories were derived to illuminate the components of empowerment among family caregivers of PWDs. Specifically, these categories were as follows: (a) proactive aspects of dementia care that were acquired through the caregiving experience, (b) creating a relationship that respects PWDs, (c) Building relationships based on mutual understanding of one's surroundings, and (d) understanding the social aspects of dementia care. Conclusions/Implications for Practice: The findings of this study provide additional understanding of the components of the empowerment experiences of family caregivers of PWDs in Japan and in other East Asian countries experiencing increasing dementia diagnoses and population aging. In addition, the structural components of empowerment offer a useful perspective for health professionals on assessment and intervention that is framed on the cultural characteristics of East Asia. Ultimately, the results suggest that healthcare professionals should develop intervention programs that are tailored to the needs of caregivers at different levels of empowerment.

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Community and informal care providers at the heart of universal health coverage in sub-saharan africa: A position paper

Globally, increased demand on often scarce healthcare resources and those challenges incumbent in responding to the coexistence of infectious and non-communicable diseases warrant the need to address persistent health inequities. Understanding the complex intersectionality of vulnerability and reaching those in most critical need of healthcare lies at the heart of fostering and sustaining resilient healthcare systems. Harnessing the long-recognised value of Community and Informal Care Providers (CICPs) is instrumental to Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The present COVID-19 context serves as a poignant example of where access to formal healthcare services by many has become increasingly difficult. Here, the value of informal or volunteer-led health services has been a lifeline for many. For several decades, formal reportage has evidenced the established role of CICPs, particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa with quantifiable efficacy across a number of domains, such as, maternal and child health, neglected tropical disease prevention, tuberculosis care and malaria control. CICPs have been sustainable and effective as a conduit between the formal and informal health sectors, and between health facilities and the remotest of communities. Maximising the function of CICPs relies on socio-culturally, geographically sensitive, and bespoke support; psychosocial, practical, and logistical capacitation coupled with situationally and culturally appropriate monitoring and evaluation. The Astana Declaration highlights the centrality of building on existing knowledge, insight and resource. We therefore argue that CICPs are indispensable in Africa’s move towards UHC, and hold promise for acceptable, accessible, affordable, and quality healthcare to everyone who needs to get, be and stay healthy. 

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Common ethical dilemmas of family caregivers of palliative patients in Indonesia

Background: Family caregivers, especially in Asian countries, have a profound role in caring for a sick family member. However, there are wide variations between the Asian and western world in terms of culture and facilities. Therefore, the problems and needs of family caregivers between those two regions may also be distinct, and it is important to explore and elaborate based on our empirical evidence. In Indonesia, motives and values in caregiving and religion become the wheel-power of the family caregivers in providing care. This affects action and consequences for caregivers. Aims: This paper attempts to elaborate on common ethical dilemmas that usually face by family caregivers in Indonesia. Conclusions: Unfortunately, family caregivers typically are not prepared to make those challenging decisions. Therefore, we recommend not only that family caregivers need to be involved in the caring process, but also their issues and ethical dilemmas should be assessed and addressed by health care professionals, especially nurses, who have the most frequent contact with patient and family caregiver. 

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Clinging to My Child: Mothers' Experiences Taking Care of a Child Hospitalized with Leukemia

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate, within the sociocultural context of Korea, mothers' experiences caring for their child being treated in a hospital for leukemia. Method: Study participants included 11 mothers who visited a hospital for their child's follow-up care after treatment for leukemia. The researchers investigated the mothers' experiences in caring for their children using a qualitative study design. Through interviews, the researchers identified five categories of experiences among participants, including, "Death anxiety," "Feeling guilty," "Fulfilling responsibilities as a mom," "Feeling overwhelmed by life," and "Feeling grateful." Findings: In the course of treatment, mothers tended to feel pressured to be a good mother, and sometimes felt overwhelmed by life. Conclusions: Healthcare providers need to grasp the difficulties faced by mothers taking care of their children hospitalized for treatment of leukemia, and must develop programs to reduce the burden on mothers and increase their families' functioning.

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Chinese Parents' Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Background: This study investigated family perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in China. Design: A survey with open-ended questions assessing knowledge of ASD and its causes was distributed via nine ASD organisations across five different cities in Southern China. Results: Results were analysed from a total of 104 Chinese caregivers who reported on their children or grandchildren with an ASD diagnosis. The results suggested that a large proportion of these families had limited understanding of ASD. A number of misconceptions were also evident within the sample. A tendency to blame themselves for their child's condition may have been further exacerbated by cultural expectations of the parental role. Discussion: The implications of these findings in addressing misconceptions about ASD in China are discussed.

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Children With Special Health Care Needs and Forgone Family Employment

BACKGROUND: Family income is known to affect child health, but this relationship can be bidirectional. We sought to characterize this relationship by quantifying forgone family employment (FFE) due to a child's health condition in families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) with updated figures. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis from the 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health. CSHCN with previously employed caregivers were included (N = 14 050). FFE was defined as any family member having stopped work and/or reduced hours because of their child's health or health condition. Child, caregiver, and household characteristics were compared by FFE status. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between hours of medical care provide by a family member and FFE. US Bureau of Labor Statistics reports were used to estimate lost earnings from FFE. RESULTS: FFE occurred in 14.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9%-16.1%) of previously employed families with CSHCN and was 40.9% (95% CI 27.1%-54.7%) for children with an intellectual disability. We observed disproportionately high FFE among CSHCN who were 0 to 5 years old and of Hispanic ethnicity. We found a strong association between FFE and increasing hours of family-provided medical care, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.72 (95% CI 1.25-2.36) for <1 hour per week (compared with 0 hours), an aOR of 5.96 (95% CI 4.30-8.27) for 1 to 4 hours per week, an aOR of 11.89 (95% CI 6.19-22.81) for 5 to 10 hours per week, and an aOR of 8.89 (95% CI 5.26-15.01) for >10 hours per week. Lost earnings for each household with FFE were estimated at _$18 000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: With our findings, we highlight the need to implement programs and policies that address forgone income experienced by families of CSHCN.

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Changes in the balance between formal and informal care supply in England between 2001 and 2011: Evidence from census data

Background: Informal care plays a crucial role in the social care system in England and is increasingly recognised as a cornerstone of future sustainability of the long-term care (LTC) system. This paper explores the variation in informal care provision over time, and in particular, whether the considerable reduction in publicly-funded formal LTC after 2008 had an impact on the provision of informal care. Methods: We used small area data from the 2001 and 2011 English censuses to measure the prevalence and intensity (i.e. The number of hours of informal care provided) of informal care in the population. We controlled for changes in age structure, health, deprivation, income, employment and education. The effects of the change in formal social care provision on informal care were analysed through instrumental variable models to account for the well-known endogeneity. Results: We found that informal care provision had increased over the period, particularly among high-intensity carers (20+ hours per week). We also found that the reduction in publicly-funded formal care provision was associated with significant increases in high-intensity (20+ hours per week) informal care provision, suggesting a substitutive relationship between formal and informal care of that intensity in the English system. 

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Challenges Facing Family Caregivers of Children With Disabilities During COVID-19 Pandemic in Palestine

Background: COVID-19 has caused great changes in all aspects of life which affected all people especially vulnerable groups such as children with disabilities (CWD) and their families. Objective: This study aimed to examine the challenges facing caregivers of CWD during the pandemic, and to explore these challenges from various physical, social, psychological, and financial aspects. Methods: A cross-sectional design was conducted in Palestine, a total of 130 caregivers of CWD completed a survey consisting of demographic and clinical characteristics questionnaire and the short version of the burden scale for family caregivers (BSFC-s) between March and May 2021. Results: Most of the caregivers were mothers (76.9%), the mean age of the children was (6.09 ± 3.43 years). The majority (88.5%) of the caregivers felt physically exhausted, about (75.4%) had decreased living standards, and (86.2%) indicated that caregiving is taking their strength. A high burden score was recorded, the mean BSFC-s score was 20.17 ± 5.57. Significant differences in BSFC-s scores were recorded based on the type of disability, and child’s ability to take care of oneself, P <.05. The total scores of the BSFC-s were positively correlated with the physical, social, psychological, and financial challenges facing the caregivers (P <.001). Conclusions: COVID-19 has caused increased burdens on the caregivers of CWD and a negative impact on the child’s mobility accompanying a lack of access to health and rehabilitation services. Vital factors are to be considered in developing strategic health and rehabilitative plans for promoting better care for caregivers and their CWD during lockdown restrictions time. 

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Challenges Experienced by Family Caregivers of the Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients in Korea: An Integrative Review

Background: Consistent with global trends, population aging in South Korea is necessitating increasing admissions to intensive care units (ICU). Design: This integrative review describes the challenges experienced by family caregivers of ICU patients in South Korea and evaluates relevant intervention studies. Using Whittemore and Knafl's methods, we identify and synthesize findings from 20 (14 descriptive and 6 experimental design) articles and evaluate study quality. Findings: South Korean ICU family caregivers reported challenges such as feelings of powerlessness and vulnerability, difficulty in maintaining their own health and well-being, and mixed feelings regarding patients' transition to the general ward. Intervention studies, which were based on quasi-experimental design, examined modified visiting hours, information provision strategies, nurse-led transitional care programs, and educational support. Conclusions: Findings highlight the current state of the science in this topic area in South Korea. Future studies should use more robust methods, such as longitudinal cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

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Caring for those who care for dependent older adults: for a necessary and urgent policy

The situation of caregivers and family caregivers of dependent older adults is presented and discussed, highlighting their dedication, problems, and possible recommendations to value them. The task of caring is known to be eminently feminine, invisible, unpaid, but affects society as a whole. Policies of some European countries, Canada, and the United States in favor of male and female caregivers are described. However, most existing support models have gaps. The laws and regulations enacted have been poorly comprehensive, inorganic, and the family remains responsible for long-lived relatives who have lost their autonomy. In many countries, besides other measures, the tendency is to integrate the family care as the first PHC level, universalizing support to caregivers. One must not be forgotten that the tendency to keep dependent older adults at home is acquiescence to their desire, but it also hides the delegation of responsibility from the State to families through dehospitalization and deinstitutionalization policies. In Brazil, the issue has not yet entered the public policy radar, although it is urgent because of the accelerated increase of the elderly population, particularly those aged 80 and over. 

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“Caring for the Elderly is Very Difficult”: Challenges and Coping Strategies of Caregivers in Urban Poor Accra, Ghana

Background: This study is part of a broader phenomenological study on the experiences of family caregivers and their care recipients. There is a general paucity of research on the experiences of primary and secondary caregivers, and the negative impact of elderly care on caregivers in the urban poor settings in Ghana. This study explored primary and secondary caregivers’ challenges and coping strategies in the urban poor context in Accra, Ghana. Methods: This study was conducted in Ga Mashie. Thirty-one caregivers were interviewed. A phenomenological analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. Findings: Primary and secondary caregivers experienced economic, physical, social, and psychological burdens. Also, caregivers used spirituality and perseverance to cope with their challenges. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that caregivers’ challenges varied by type of caregiver. Researchers and policymakers should consider the type of caregiver when designing interventions to mitigate the negative impacts of family caregiving on caregivers.

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“Caregiving is like on the job training but nobody has the manual”: Canadian caregivers’ perceptions of their roles within the healthcare system

Background: Stepping into the role of an unpaid caregiver to offer help is often considered a natural expectation of family members or friends. In Canada, such contributions are substantial in terms of healthcare provision but this comes at a considerable cost to the caregivers in both health and economic terms. Methods: In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of a collection of qualitative interviews with 39 caregivers of people with chronic physical illness to assess how they described their particular roles in caring for a loved one. We used a model of caregiving roles, originally proposed by Twigg in 1989, as a guide for our analysis, which specified three predominant roles for caregivers – as a resource, as a co-worker, and as a co-client. Results: The caregivers in this collection spoke about their roles in ways that aligned well with these roles, but they also described tasks and activities that fit best with a fourth role of ‘care-coordinator’, which required that they assume an oversight role in coordinating care across institutions, care providers and often advocate for care in line with their expectations. For each of these types of roles, we have highlighted the limitations and challenges they described in their interviews. Conclusions: We argue that a deeper understanding of the different roles that caregivers assume, as well as their challenges, can contribute to the design and implementation of policies and services that would support their contributions and choices as integral members of the care team. We provide some examples of system-level policies and programs from different jurisdictions developed in recognition of the need to sustain caregivers in their role and respond to such limitations.

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Caregiving burnout of community-dwelling people with dementia in Hong Kong and New Zealand: a cross-sectional study

Background: Informal caregiving for people with dementia can negatively impact caregivers’ health. In Asia-Pacific regions, growing dementia incidence has made caregiver burnout a pressing public health issue. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample helps to understand how caregivers experience burnout throughout this region. We explored the prevalence and contributing factors of burnout of caregivers of community-dwelling older people with dementia in Hong Kong (HK), China, and New Zealand (NZ) in this study. Methods: Analysis of interRAI Home Care Assessment data for care-recipients (aged ≥65 with Alzheimer’s disease/other dementia) who had applied for government-funded community services and their caregivers was conducted. The sample comprised 9976 predominately Chinese in HK and 16,725 predominantly European in NZ from 2013 to 2016. Caregiver burnout rates for HK and NZ were calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of the significant factors associated with caregiver burnout in both regions. Results: Caregiver burnout was present in 15.5 and 13.9% of the sample in HK and NZ respectively. Cross-regional differences in contributing factors to burnout were found. Care-recipients’ ADL dependency, fall history, and cohabitation with primary caregiver were significant contributing factors in NZ, while primary caregiver being child was found to be significant in HK. Some common contributing factors were observed in both regions, including care-recipients having behavioural problem, primary caregiver being spouse, providing activities-of-daily-living (ADL) care, and delivering more than 21 h of care every week. In HK, allied-health services (physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy) protected caregiver from burnout. Interaction analysis showed that allied-health service attenuates the risk of burnout contributed by care-recipient’s older age (85+), cohabitation with child, ADL dependency, mood problem, and ADL care provision by caregivers. Conclusions: This study highlights differences in service delivery models, family structures and cultural values that may explain the cross-regional differences in dementia caregiving experience in NZ and HK. Characteristics of caregiving dyads and their allied-health service utilization are important contributing factors to caregiver burnout. A standardized needs assessment for caregivers could help policymakers and healthcare practitioners to identify caregiving dyads who are at risk of burnout and provide early intervention.

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Caregiving burden and depressive symptoms among ultra‐orthodox Jews: The moderating role of sense of community

Background: Individuals who care for aging parents or relatives often experience caregiving burden, which is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. During the current COVID‐19 pandemic, the conflict between caring for older relatives and taking the necessary personal precautions against infection may be exacerbated among individuals who belong to social groups, which perceive caring for others as an indispensable cultural construct. Accordingly, the current study examined whether feeling a part of one's community moderates the association between caregiving burden and depressive symptoms among the ultra‐orthodox society in Israel. Methods: A convenience sample of 358 ultra‐orthodox participants was collected (age range 30–70; M = 49.50, SD = 10.24), all of whom completed scales assessing caregiving burden, sense of community, and depressive symptoms. Results: Results demonstrated that high caregiving burden and low sense of community were associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, sense of community moderated the caregiving burden‐depressive symptoms link, as the latter positive association was significant only among individuals reporting low levels of sense of community. Conclusions: The discussion highlights the importance of sense of community as a beneficial personal and social factor, which mitigates the negative psychological consequences of caregiving burden among such societies.

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Caregivers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Type 1 Diabetic Children Aged 3–14 Years in Uganda

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the association between caregiver’s level of type 1 diabetes (T1D) nutrition knowledge with children’s dietary diversity score (DDS), mean intake of macronutrients, nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Research Design and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. The study was conducted at 6 diabetes clinics in Uganda among 59 caregivers and 61 children. T1D nutrition knowledge survey (NKS) was used to assess the caregiver’s nutrition knowledge, and the 24-hour dietary recall and dietary diversity score (DDS) questionnaires were used to collect data on the child’s dietary intake. Results: Majority (93.2%) of the caregivers had low T1D nutrition knowledge. Carbohydrate counting was the least performed nutrition knowledge domain. The children’s mean DDS, calorie intake and MAR were 5.7 ± 1.6, 666.7 ± 639.8 kcal and 0.7 ± 0.3, respectively. The mean NARs of carbohydrate, protein, and fat were 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.5, respectively. There was a significant association between DDS with NARs of carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins A, B2, B3, B5, B12, folic acid, zinc and MAR. No formal education was significantly associated with a lower mean NKS score among caregivers (p = 0.039). Caregivers’ T1D nutrition knowledge, age and family size explained 14% of variation in the child’s dietary diversity (p = 0.041). Conclusion: Despite poor nutrition knowledge among caregivers especially on carbohydrate counting, dietary diversity among children with T1D remained favorable. Excess carbohydrate intake was observed with inadequate intake of proteins, fats and micronutrients (vitamin A, B vitamins and calcium). Caregivers with low education were more likely to register poor nutrition knowledge; therefore, there is need to develop and tailor nutrition education programmes to enhance comprehensive learning among caregivers for improved outcomes.

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Caregivers of Older Persons in Jamaica: Characteristics, Burden, and Associated Factors

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine and characterize caregiver burden among caregivers of community-dwelling older persons in Jamaica. Method: A nationally representative cross-sectional study was done among persons providing noninstitutional care for a single person (≥60 years). The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and a structured questionnaire were administered to 180 caregivers from four geographic health regions. Results: The ZBI scores ranged from 0 to 56 (median = 15). Independently associated factors were relationship to care recipient and age. Children/grandchildren had higher caregiver burden scores than formally employed caregivers (odds ratio = 2.9: 95% confidence interval: [1.02, 8.34]). Compared with caregivers 35 to 44 years, those aged 45 to 65 were almost 5 times more likely to report higher caregiver burden scores. Conclusion: Caregiver burden as identified by the ZBI was low. Age (45–65 years) and being the child/grandchild of the care recipient were independently associated with greater caregiver burden. Interventions to address caregiver burden must embrace strategies that recognize that these factors.

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Caregiver's difficulty paying child's healthcare bills and bullying victimization of adolescents with physical disabilities

Objective: Guided by the ecological systems perspective, the objective of the study was to examine whether caregivers' difficulty paying their child's health‐care bills is associated with bullying victimization directly and indirectly through the mediating mechanisms of caregivers' frustration, adolescents' internalizing problems, and social difficulty focusing on adolescents with physical disabilities. Design: The 2019 National Survey of Children's Health dataset, which collected data on adolescents' and caregivers' demographic characteristics and health and well‐being, was used. The study sample consisted of 368 caregivers of adolescents, 12–17 years of age with physical disabilities. Results: No direct association between caregivers' difficulty paying their child's health‐care bills and bullying victimization was found. However, caregivers' frustration and adolescents' internalizing problems were shown to have an indirect association with bullying victimization, which was mediated by difficulty making friends. In addition, adolescents' difficulty making friends was positively associated with bullying victimization. Conclusions: Practitioners working with adolescents with physical disabilities are encouraged to foster collaborative processes across various ecological systems of the adolescent and family to address caregivers' frustration and promote positive social and emotional development of the adolescent with physical disabilities, which can decrease their risk of bullying victimization.

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Caregiver Social Status and Health-Related Quality of Life in Neurologically Impaired Children on Home Enteral Nutrition

Background: We aimed to investigate the association between caregiver social status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with neurological impairment (NI) on home enteral nutrition (HEN). Methods: This was an ancillary study of a multicenter, cross-sectional study which explored HRQoL in 75 NI children on HEN. All the caregivers from the original cohort were contacted, and data on education level, occupation and marital status were collected. The association between social status and HRQoL was investigated using a multiple Poisson Generalized Linear Model. In total, 93 caregivers were included, responsible for the care of 71 children. The caregivers of four children of the original cohort did not answer the questionnaire. Results: Mothers with high-level education presented lower HRQoL in comparison to mothers with low-level (β: −5.97; 95% CI −11.51, −0.10; p = 0.027) or medium-level education (β: 4.85; 95% CI −9.87, 0.53; p = 0.044). The analysis of the subgroup of cases in which the main caregiver was represented by both parents gave similar findings, with education level of the father being negatively correlated with HRQoL. Conclusions: Our data showed that higher education level may negatively affect quality of life of caregivers of NI children. This could be helpful in identifying at-risk families and addressing supportive efforts.

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Caregiver Characteristics and Outcomes Associated With Level of Care Complexity for Older Adults

Background: Care in the home is increasingly complex, with family caregivers now expected to take on aspects of care previously managed by nurses and other health professionals. Method: In a national sample of caregivers of older adults, we examined predictors and outcomes of level of care (low, medium, high) based on caregiving hours and counts of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs supported. Results: Characteristics associated with high level of care include Hispanic or “other” race/ethnicity, being unemployed, and specific care recipient conditions (e.g., Alzheimer's disease/dementia, cancer, mobility limitations). High compared to low level of care is also associated with caregiving difficulty and unmet needs. Conclusions: These findings underscore the need for targeted interventions and nursing research to further understand the features and dynamics of care complexity. Such research can inform family-centered interventions, health care system redesign, and health policies to support family caregivers of older adults engaged in complex care. 

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Caregiver burden versus intensity of anxiety and depression symptoms in parents of children with cerebral palsy as well as factors potentially differentiating the level of burden: a cross-sectional study (Poland)

Objectives: To assess the relationship between caregiver burden and severity of symptoms of anxiety/depression in parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to identify factors differentiating the level of caregiver burden. Setting: Regional rehabilitation centres in South-Eastern Poland.ParticipantsThe study involved 190 parents of children with CP, that is, 138 women and 52 men. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Caregiver burden was assessed using Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS), while the intensity of anxiety and depression symptoms was measured using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Potential predictors were examined using Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS), Barthel Index (BI) as well as a questionnaire focusing on the characteristics of the child, the parent and the family. The analyses applied Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient as well as multiple regression analysis. Results: All the CBS measures are significantly correlated to HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Intensity of anxiety is most visibly linked to CBS measures of disappointment and environment (p<0.0001), while severity of depression is related to emotional involvement and general strain (p<0.0001). The factors differentiating caregiver burden measure in the subscales of general strain (p<0.0001) and social isolation (p<0.0001) include the child’s age and BI, and the parent’s health status; in the subscale of disappointment (p<0.0001)—the child’s age, BI, GMFCS, as well as the parent’s age and health status; in the subscale of emotional involvement (p=0.0007)—BI, and the parent’s health status; in the subscale of environment (p=0.0002)—the child’s age and BI. Conclusions: There is a positive linear relationship between the caregiver burden measures and severity of anxiety and depression. Effort should be made to relieve caregiver burden in parents of children with CP.

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Caregiver burden in Buruli ulcer disease: Evidence from Ghana

Background: Buruli ulcer disease (BUD) results in disabilities and deformities in the absence of early medical intervention. The extensive role of caregiving in BUD is widely acknowledged, however, associated caregiver burden is poorly understood. In this paper we assessed the burden which caregivers experience when supporting patients with BUD in Ghana. Method: principal findings This qualitative study was conducted in 3 districts in Ghana between August and October 2019. 13 semi-structured interviews were conducted on caregivers of BUD patients in the local language of Twi. Data was translated into English, coded into broad themes, and direct content analysis approach was used to analyse results. Results: The results show the caregivers face financial, psychological and health issues as a consequence of their caregiving role. Conclusion/significance: This study found significant caregiver burden on family members. It also highlighted the psychological burden caregivers experience and the limited knowledge of the disease within endemic communities. Further research is needed to quantify the caregiver burden of BUD at different economic levels in order to better understand the impact of possible caregiver interventions on patient outcomes.

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