Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to explore potential associations between changes to caregiver burden (CB) due to the COVID-19 pandemic and rural-urban status using a nationally representative sample of 761 informal caregivers. Methods: Tertiles of two measures of rural-urban status were used: Rural-Urban Commuting Areas (RUCAs) and population density. Bivariate and multivariable binary and ordinal logistic regression were used to asses study objectives. Results: Using RUCAs, rural informal caregivers were more than twice as likely as urban informal caregivers to report a substantial increase in CB due to COVID-19 (OR 2.27, 95% CI [1.28–4.02]). Similar results were observed for population density tertiles (OR 2.20, 95% CI [1.22–3.96]). Having a COVID-19 diagnosis was also significantly associated with increased CB. Conclusions: Understanding and addressing the root causes of rural-urban disparities in CB among informal caregivers is critical to improving caregiver health and maintaining this critical component of the healthcare system.