Background: The role of family caregivers has been vital, especially in superaging societies like Japan’s. The caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care is a key aspect in their evaluation of the quality of integrated care. We sought to explore whether family caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care is associated with their own participation in health checkups as preventive health behaviors. Methods: We used cross-sectional data obtained during the development of the Japanese version of the Caregivers’ Experience Instrument (J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS). Participants who had provided care for at least one year were surveyed (n = 251). We assessed family caregivers’ experience of interprofessional care using J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS and their participation in health checkups. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS total score was significantly associated with the caregivers’ participation in health checkups [odds ratio per 1-point increase = 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.09]. Two domain scores (attention for the patient and attention for the caregiver) of J-IEXPAC CAREGIVERS were significantly associated with the outcome. Conclusions: Family caregivers with more positive experiences of interprofessional care were more likely to participate in health checkups. These results support the significance of family caregivers’ experience of care, which may promote preventive health behaviors.