This is a two-part review. Here we present the nature and scale of the challenge our new Government faces if it is to tackle poverty and social exclusion in later life. In publishing this report I would like to thank Sara McKee and the Working Group, as well as Christian Guy, Paul Langlois and James Mumford at the CSJ, for their efforts. The second report, to be published next year, will set out a reform agenda based on this analysis. We are fully aware of the extreme public expenditure pressures that the next years entail, and the review will take these adverse circumstances into account.